US2640235A - Metal manufacturing apparatus - Google Patents

Metal manufacturing apparatus Download PDF

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US2640235A
US2640235A US97675A US9767549A US2640235A US 2640235 A US2640235 A US 2640235A US 97675 A US97675 A US 97675A US 9767549 A US9767549 A US 9767549A US 2640235 A US2640235 A US 2640235A
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metal
bands
band
means
bath
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US97675A
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Clarence W Hazelett
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Clarence W Hazelett
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Priority claimed from BE505595D external-priority patent/BE505595A/fr
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Priority to GB2777250A priority patent/GB688575A/en
Priority claimed from DEH6872A external-priority patent/DE865940C/en
Priority to DEH6872A priority patent/DE865940C/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D11/00Continuous casting of metals, i.e. casting in indefinite lengths
    • B22D11/06Continuous casting of metals, i.e. casting in indefinite lengths into moulds with travelling walls, e.g. with rolls, plates, belts, caterpillars
    • B22D11/0605Continuous casting of metals, i.e. casting in indefinite lengths into moulds with travelling walls, e.g. with rolls, plates, belts, caterpillars formed by two belts, e.g. Hazelett-process
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S425/00Plastic article or earthenware shaping or treating: apparatus
    • Y10S425/033Magnet

Description

J1me 1953 c. w. HAZELETT METAL MANUFACTURING APPARATUS s Sheets-Sheet 1 ATTORNEY wn V 5 .il.. 5.12.11. iivlli.......:..

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June 1953 c. w. HAZELETT METAL MANUFACTURING APPARATUS 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 2 1949 INVENTOR ffaze/zfi BY I ATTOR NEY June 2, 1953 c. w. HAZELETT A 2,640,235 A METAL MANUFACTURING APPARATUS Filed June 2, 1949 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR C. w. H421 ATTORNEY Patented June 2, 1953 UNITED STAT ES 2,640,235

META-L MANUFACTURING APPARATUS Clarence W. Hazelett, Greenwich, Conn.

Application June 2, 1949,, Serial No. 97,675

13 Claims.

This invention relates to theproduction, direct- 1y from molten metal, of variousmeta-1' shapes, and more particularly metal strip. The art has for many years sought ways and means for the manufacture of metal shapes, and particularly metal strip, directly from the molten metal, and I have personally contributed anumber of processes that I have covered bypatent, However, my present invention represents a considerable departure from earlier methods and apparatus.

In my present invention, I depart from my earlier contributions to the art through the utilization of chillingsurfaces that are shaped relatively to one another in one particular zone seas to contain a bath of molten metal, the chilling surfaces moving'into particular relationship beyond said bath of metal whereby to carry metal from the first zone and from the bath of metal intowhat I term a second zone. As a particular feature of my invention, the bath of metal is formed through the shapingof a chilling surface that is preferably in the form of a band, and while this band is preferably continuous, it

"may be merely a long strip.

As a preferred formof the invention, 1'; utilize spaced chilling surfaces in the form of upper and lower flexible bands, the bands containing in one zone of their travel the bath of metal, and moving preferably into substantially closer and parallel relationship in a second zone of travel. While moving to this second zone of their travel, the bands carry with them metal. that is chilled and solidified through contact with "the bands, together with'a quantity of molten metal moving between the chilled or solidified parts of the metal, depending on the spacing of the bands. In the second zone, means are provided. for finally solidifying all ofthe metal and thereby producing "the particular desired metallic shape, which in the preferred form of'my invention is metal; strip.

In the carrying out of my invention, I utilize a number of important structural features. that are part of the invention I have already described generally, and which are in themselves, quite important. Thus, as a particular featureof 'my invention, the travelling bands are maintained in a particular shape by the tensioning of the bands relatively to shaping means such as rollers. It is in this manner that the bath of. metal is'formed, as will presently appear quite clearly.

For a full understanding of this invention it is important to appreciate that a spout which can continuously carry substantial amounts of molten metal such. as steel, must be lined with refractory material and must be several inches in height. Because the great tonnages of strip commercially used are' thick or less, it is impossible-therefore to-use a-spouttoconvey molten metal between cooling surfaces having a spacing even nearly approaching the thickness of the desired product. This is a'lso true to a less-but nevertheless real extent in the fabrication of brass, copper and aluminum.

It isalso essential tohavethe incoming stream of metal'f-rom thespout enter a bath of metal help produce uniform and smoothly surfaced products while avoiding damage to the cooling surfaces. As a feature of my invention, the cooling surfaces formed by the bands I prefer to use arespaced and shaped to provide a bath of metal and room for the necessary spout. At

the same time, and as will be emphasized below,

the thickness of themetal bath at its side edges is never greater-than the thickness ofthe edges of thefinal strip turned out by my apparatus.

In apparatus previously developed by me, large quantities of metal strip have been fabricated, but a most serious limitation existed in the production of alloy strip. This difficulty resulted because the considerable pressures required by prior art processes and machinery to make solid strip caused excessive segregation of the alloys constituents. Thus, it is well known that the constituents of alloys solidify at different temperatures. If no pressure is exerted on an alloy at the solidifyingtemperature of the high melting point constituents, the lower melting point constituents will maintain the alloy in a hotand in which zone the upper and lower surfaces of the final metal strip are solidified. There is also provided a second zone in which the cooling surfaces or bands are brought into that spaced relationship required by the final product and before the metal of the central section of the product has solidified. I extend this second zone for a predetermined distance to permit the final solidification of all the metal, including both the high and low melting point constituents present in the central portions of the strip, and before the strip emerges from the mill. This is all accomplished without pressure, thereby eliminating all segregation and producingsimultaneously a solid strip.

A bath of molten metal must besealed at the edges thereof to contain the metal therein. Many efforts have been made to contain by side dams the edges of a metal bath while not cooling a greater thickness of metal at the said edges than the thickness of the final product desired. However, so far as I am aware, none of these efforts have been successful. A greater thickness of metal than desired is thus solidified in prior art mills because the sides of the bath of metal are of considerable area and are in contact with dams of the same area that provide considerably larger chilling surfaces than the edges of the strip being formed. Naturally, the excess of metal thus solidified at the edges creates great difiiculties. In this invention I have overcome these difficulties by the use of flexible cooling surfaces that are shaped to contain the bath of metal, provide room for a spout, and yet limit the thickness of the metal at the side edges of the 3' bath to a thickness not greater than the thickness of the final product to be produced.

As a further specific feature of this part of my invention, the flexibility of the cooling surfaces permits them to be pressed together or against side dams that are no thicker than the final product, the dams preventing the escape of molten metal or the entry of cooling fluids. Moreover, as will appear presently, the side dams taper in the proper direction so as to allow free movement of the metal strip relatively to the machine.

As a still further feature of the invention, unique and novel means are utilized for cooling the bands, and for holding the bands in shape in the cooling zone. A large volume of water must be introduced against the bands at all points opposite the portions thereof in contact with hot metal. I have provided magnetic means tending to hold the bands against a particular backing surface or surfaces, thereby setting up spaces through which water may flow while holding the bands in particular relation to one another and to the backing surfaces.

As a further feature of the invention, I provide drying means that are moved automatically out of drying relation to the bands when the movement of the bands is stopp d, and which means move into drying relation to the bands when the bands move to form the metal strip.

As a still further feature of the invention, I provide means for tilting the guide rollers of the bands, when necessary, in order to adjust the lateral positions of the bands, this being accomplished automatically as will appear presently.

As a further feature of the invention I use metal bands that are wider than the rollers over which they move and which therefore permits greater bowing of the bands without exceeding the elastic limits thereof, especially at the edges.

As further features of the invention, I provide a number of modified forms of side dams that I shall described in particular detail in the specification.

Also, I provide, as a modification of my invention a substitute for the rollers for shaping the bands, using instead of rollers a stationary casting, and which I shall refer to later in the specification.

I shall also show and described diagrammatically a modification of my invention whereby there may be formed a solid ingot block through the continuous flow of molten metal.

I have thus outlined rather broadly the more important features of my invention in order that the detailed description thereof that follows may be better understood, and in order that my contribution to the art may be better appreciated. There are, of course, additional features of my invention that will be described hereinafter and which will form the subject of the claims appended hereto. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the conception on which my disclosure is based may readily be utilized as a basis for the designing of other structures for carrying out the several purposes of my invention. It is important, therefore, that the claims to be granted me shall be of sufficient breadth to prevent the appropriation of my invention by those skilled in the art.

Referring now to the drawings, Fig. l is a vertical section through a machine in which my invention is embodied. Fig. 2 is a section taken along lines 2-2 of Fig. 1. Fig. 2a shows a section of a modified form of one of the backing surfaces toward which the bands are pressed. Fig. 3 is a section taken substantially along lines 3-3 of Fig. 1. Figs. 4. and 5 are sections taken respectively along lines 4-4 and 5-5 of Fig. 1. Fig. 6 is a perspective view showing the operation of a roller tilting means whereby the lateral position of one of the bands is determined. Figs. 7 and 8 are modifications of the water jacketing means shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 9 is a modification showing ribbons of metal used as side dams. Fig. 10 is a modification showing the ultilization of a form such as a casting instead of rollers for shaping the metal bands. Fig. 11 shows a modified form of side dam. Fig. 12 shows diagrammatically mechanism used for the forming of ingots.

Referring now more particularly to the drawings, reference numeral Hi indicates an upper structural frame constituting part of my invention, while reference numeral l l indicates a lower frame supported by legs i 2 and i3. The upper and lower frames it, I I are connected at one end by a suitable standard it and at intermediate points by standards I5 and i6. It will be well to indicate here that the manner in which the means of my invention are fabricated is not particularly important, and per se is not the invention here to be claimed.

The upper chilling band of my invention is designated by reference numeral i7, while the lower chillingband is indicated by reference numeral 18. At the extreme left end of the machine of Fig. l, the band I? passes over a roller l9 rotating on a shaft We carried by opposed bearing arms 26 suitably secured for integral movement with a piston rod 2! movable in a hydraulic ram cylinder 22., Ram cylinder 22 is fixed to a strut 23 extending between the upper and lower structural members of-the frame it! so as to form an integral part thereof. Suitable means are provided for applying hydraulic pressure to the piston 24 at the end of piston rod 2.! so as to move the piston rod 2| and the shaft Na. and roller l9 to the left in Fig. 1' for applying tension to the band l1, all for apurpose' that will appear presently. At its right end in Fig. 1,. the band i! passes over a power roller 25 rotating on a shaft 26 carried by fixed opposed brackets 21. Band I! passes also over a shaping roller 28 mounted on a shaft 29 supported by'bearings on the frame ill.

The shape of roller 28' can best be seen in Fig. l, in which. figure the relationship of the band H to roller 28 is also well illustrated. By applying considerable tension to the band. ll through operation of hydraulic ram cylinder 22, the band I? will be shaped to conform to. the roller 28 as has already been well indicated. Actually, the desired form of band i! is yielded through contact of the band with. the edges of the roller 28 rather. than the body thereof, so that apair of spaced surfaces could easily be substituted for the roller 28.

Between the shaping roller 28 and the power roller 25, the upper band I! will pass over determining rolls 30 and 3|. These rolls are each adapted for movement of adjustment in the axis of shafts 32, the shafts 32 being movable by the operation of suitable gear means 33 actuated by a shaft 34 when rotated by a hand wheel 35. Preferably, the two rolls 3%, 3i will move together as is quite apparent from the drawings. As will further presently appear, the band I? will also move relatively to other means for the cooling and guiding thereof.

The lower band it is controlled at its left end by a roller 36 functioning exactly as does the roller is and similarly controlled by a hydraulic ram 3?. The band it? also passes over a shaping roller 33 functioning exactly as does the roller 28. In addition, the lower band it passes over determining rolls 39 that need not be adjustable as are determiningrolls 30, but which may be if desired. Band l8 also passes over a driving or power roll 4!! rotating in a fixed axis- 41 in substantially the same manner as power roll 25 rotates on the axis of shaft 26.

Referring now to Fig. 4, the lower band [8 is shown downwardly bowed because of its engagement with shaping roller 38, this roller 38 functioning as does the shaping roller ZS-relatively to band [1. It will be noted that because of the bowed shape of the roller 38 and theband l8, it will be possible to create a bath for the molten metal designated by reference letter Bin Fig. 1. Naturally, a considerable portion of the bath of metal will be in contact only with lower band It, whereas at the right end of the bath of metal the upper portion thereof will be in contact with the upper band ll. overlying the bath is the end d2 of a large spout S lined with a refractory material 43 for the flow of a rather considerable amount of metal into the bath of metal B. It will be noted especially from Fig. 1, that the metal flowing from the spout S will flow into the bath of metal B rather than onto the surface of the lower band it. This is an eX- ceedingly important feature of the invention because it is greatly preferred that the molten metal flow into the bath of metal rather than contact first one of the chilling bands, as I have earlier emphasized. Through the particular spacing of the bands to form the bath of metal in what I term the first zone of travel of the bands, it is possible to move into position the spout S, and to use a spout of that size that is required for the. efiicient functioning: of them-- vention.

The'bands i1 and l8.,. moving as they: do in the direction of the arrows D in Fig. 1, will carry with them metal from the bath. B- in the first zone and toward a second zone. beyond the determining rolls 3.0. N aturally', that metal which is directly in contact with the bands will be chilled and solidified, and. will move with the bands toward: the determining. rolls 38,. 39 and. between the. said rolls into. the second. zone of travel of the bands... That metal which is somewhat spaced from' the bands and interior of the metal solidified atthe bandswill remain molten during; this. movement past the determining. rolls whereby the determining rolls will determine the thickness of the metal strip to be formed in the mill by holdingv back an excess of molten metal Naturally, the molten metal moving with the metal. already solidified by the bands [1, 18 will be. completely solidified within the second zone as will appear presently, to yield strip of. that particular thickness desired.

Referring now to: Fig. 5, it will be noted. that the upper band H. is maintained spaced fromthe upper surface member M of a cooling chamber 45. The particular cooling chamber is: that one used for the upper band in the first zone of its travel, and overlies the band in the bath containing portion of themachine. Water is introduced into the chamber 45 and cools the band ll. Secured at each side edge of the surface member it is a yielding. and stressedsealing member 46, pressing at- 41 onthe band. IT and preventing the flow of water from the chamber 45 outwardly of the machine. Should any water leak past the seals at 41, the band l 'l is made wider than is the lower band 98: so that-any surplus water will flow downwardly beyond theband It and will not tend. to flow into the machine.

The lower band i8 is similarly cooled through water flowing in a-chamber 38 whose lower surface member is designated by reference numeral l9. Sealing members 50 function asdothememe bore 45 just described.

As shown in Fig. 1, one end of the surface member M has secured thereto one end of a. shroud or hood 54, the other end of this shroud being secured to a plate 56 forming the upper surface 'ofa cooling chamber for the second zone. It is the purpose of shroud 54 to" cover the roller 30 and to allow forthe admission of cooling water about the roller 3t. A similar shroud '55 is similarly' positioned. for determining roller 39.

The side dams for the metal are best illustratedin Figs. 2, 3 and-5, and preferably take the form of tubing 5!. The edges of the upper band I'lmay be pressed toward the upper surface of the square tubing 5| at each side of a part ofthe bath of metal by the sealing members lfi, if necessary to contain the metal. Similarly, the edges of the lower band lil may be applied to the lower surfaces of thetubing 51 where necessary to contain the metal. As shownat 52 in Fig. 3, water may be led into the tubes 51 so as to cool those tubes, the water leavingat' 53. It will be noted also that the tubes approach one another more closely in the bath containing zone ofthe machine thanat the extreme right hand end of the machine. This contributes draft to themetal and facilitates its movement. Thus, by continuously increasing the spacing of the. side dams as themetal moyes, less and. less resistance to the movement of the metal strip: is contributed: by thesidedams while those side: dams'nevertheless perform their necessary function. It will be well to note in Fig. 3 that the lower band 18 seems to be narrower in the zone of the bath of metal than at its right hand end where it passes over power roll 40. Actually, the band is not narrower, but appears narrower because it is bowed to form the bath of metal which has already been described.

It is important here to note that the edges of the bands against tubing 5| are spaced substantially the same distance at all points where the bands function to solidify and form the metal strip. Thus, no thicker edge is formed opposite the bath of metal B, than is formed in the final finished strip. Therefore, there is no excess of solidified metal at the edges of the mill, and no problem created by the necessity for handling such excess, all as has been discussed generally earlier in this specification.

As the bands leave the first determining rolls 30, 39, they move into cooling relation to upper and lower cooling assemblies that are identical in operation. Referring now to Fig. 2, the upper cooling assembly comprises a plate 58 that may be of some suitable readily magnetized material and to one end of which is secured shroud 54. Preferably, plate 56 forms the soft core of an electromagnet similar to that used in magnetic chucks of the type found in grinding machines. Naturally, it is the function of the plate 56, when rendered magnetic by the proper fiow of current, to pull the upper band I? toward itself. To prevent this movement of the band ll toward the plate 56, copper or brass spacers 58 are utilized, these spacers allowing the formation therefor of chambers between the band I! and the plate 55. In these open chambers cooling water is introduced to chill the band ll. Even though this cooling water is introduced at considerable pressure, and sufficient normally to distort the band II, it will not do so because of the influence of the magnetic plate 55 holding the band i! firmly against the rigid spacers 58. In this way, it is possible to cool the band H while guiding it and holding it against distortion, and thereby maintaining accurate gauge of the product. In Fig. 20; I show a preferred form of spacer in the shape of a button 58a, making possible application of water against a greater area of cooling band II.

The plate 53 carries at its sides sealing members 59 functioning as do the sealing members 46 already described, and particularly operating to maintain the band I? against the tubing 5! earlier described and which functions as the side dams of the metal moving in the second zone of my machine. This metal is designated by reference letter M and is shown in Fig. l as leaving the second set of determining rolls 3 l 39. As has already been indicated, the cooling and controlling of the lower band I8 in Fig. 2 is the same as the cooling and controlling of the band 1']. It will be noted, however, that the upper band I! is wider than the lower band [8 so that any water escaping from the upper cooling chambers will be deflected from movement against the metal that is being cooled and formed between the two bands. Both bands are wider than the rolls on which they are guided in order to allow for the shaping of the bands without stretching the edges thereof beyond the elastic limit.

For drying the upper band 11, I utilize a gas carrying pipe 60 containing a series of nozzles GI and normally maintained by a spring 62 in the position of Fig. 1. Upon the starting of the operation of the power rolls 25, 40 incidental to the operation of the machine, an electromagnet 63 is energized and serves through a lever 64 to rotate the pipe 60 against the force of the spring 62. At that time flames issuing from the series of nozzles 6| will be directed against the upper band I! and will maintain that band dry and warm. However, when the rotation of power rolls 25, 40 is stopped, the electromagnet 63 will be deenergized and a spring 62 will rotate the pipe 60 so as to direct the fiame issuing through nozzles BI away from the band II. An exactly similar structure is utilized for lower band [8 and is well illustrated in Fig. 1.

It will be remembered that the roller [9, best seen in Figs. 3 and 6, rotates on the axis of a shaft i911. carried by spaced arms 20 that in turn are carried by the piston rod 2! of a hydraulic ram cylinder 22. I have found that by rotating the roller [9 bodily with its shaft I 9a, and arms 20 in the axis of piston 2|, the band I! is directed in one direction or another transversely to its direction of travel. Thus, if in Fig. 6, as an example, the arms 20 are rotated in one direction in the axis of shaft 2|, the band i! will be moved in one lateral direction. On the other hand, bodily rotation of the roller I9 and its shaft I90, in the opposite direction will tend to move the band laterally in the opposed direction.

For determining accurately the lateral position of the band IT, I utilize that mechanism shown diagrammatically in Fig. 6. Thus, in Fig. 6 there extends from one of the arms 20 a bracket '65 having a ball and socket connection 66 with a piston having rod portion 67 extending into a cylinder 68, there being a piston head 69 fixed to the said rod El. A spring l8 tends to maintain the piston head downwardly in the cylinder 68 and therefore maintains the roller 19 in particular relation to the remainder of the machine. Hydraulic fiuid may be introduced into the cylinder 68 through means of a pipe H so as to move the piston head 69 and piston rod 61 against the pressure of spring 70, thereby rotating the roller I9 bodily in the axis of the piston rod 2|. Fluid under pressure is thus introduced into the cylinder 68 under the control of a valve 12 actuated by an electromagnet coil 13 under the control of a switch at 74. Thus, whenever the band I! closes the switch at point 14, electricity will flow through the coil T3 lifting the valve rod 12. Fluid under pressure then flows from a fiuid source through pipe 15 into the chamber 16, chamber TI, and pipe ll into cylinder '68. Upon the breaking of the circuit at M, the valve rod l2 will be dropped and fluid under pressure will no longer fiow into the cylinder 68. In this way, the roller I9 may be tilted in response to the lateral position of the band i I as will now appear clearly to those skilled in the art. By this arrangement, I can maintain the bands in their proper positions regardless of certain inevitable variations in temperature that may cause the bands to move toward one end or the other of the rolls.

In Fig. 7, I show a modification of my invention in which no side dams, as such, are utilized. Thus, the edges of bands ll, I8 are brought together by the sealing members 46, 50, thereby containing the metal moving between the bands. This is an entirely satisfactory arrangement where thin strip is to be formed.

In Fig. 8 I show a further modification in which to prevent friction between the cooling band I1 and the upper sealing member 46, there are provided moving ribbons 79, positioned as illustrated. These ribbons move in such relation to the cooling band I! as to accept'any, wear through the pressure of the sealing members 46. Similar traveling ribbons '86 are used for protecting the lower cooling band it.

In Fig. 9, I show another modification of my invention "whereby I do away with the necessity of providing stationary cooling dams, thereby also eliminating the necessary wear that occurs between the sid dams and the cooling bands ll and I8. Thus, to form the side dams, I use a series of narrow ribbons 31 running over suitable rollers 82, 83, and a l. These ribbons travel between'the bands ll and is at the edges thereof and act to contain the metal so that it does not escap from between the bands ll, l8. Actually, molten metal will not run into such small crevices as may occur between these ribbons, and the ribbons are of such width that contact with the molten metal is not sufficiently great to require separate coolin means. Actually, where very thin metal is to be formed by the machine, a single endless ribbon may be provided, but where the metal is of greater thickness, it may be necessary to use a number of these metal ribbons 8 i In Fig. 11, I show diagrammatically a further modified form of side dam utilizing a sprocket chain 85 running over a pair of sprockets 86, the said sprockets 86 being driven in particular speed relation to the metal strip formed by the machine, and preferably so that there will be no relative motion between the chain and the metal in that zone where the chain moves parallel to the metal. Secured to chain links are copper blocks Bl that lie end to end as particularly shown .at 8B in Fig. 11. In this way, through movement of the said copper blocks 8? between the upper and lower bands I! and i8, side dams will be formed bythe blocks in a very effective fashion.

In Fig. 12 I illustrate a section of an apparatus for casting continuous billets that here are of square cross section. The apparatuscornprises four moving bands on cooled at their outer surfaces by the flow of water as shown at W. Cupshaped sealing members t2 are provided for sealing the moving edges of the bands 9i and for holding within the shape formed by the bands the metal that is poured continuously into the chamber 93 formed by the bands, all as will appear quite clearly.

Those skilled in the will now readily appreciate, especially with regard to the modification of my invention illustrated in Fig. 1, that I have provided a very inexpensive and eii'ective mill capable of reat production. Thus, I utilize very readily replaceable chilling surfaces that function to chill and metal strip without any pressure whatsoever, thereby preventing the segregation of alloys in a most effective manner. Further, the power required by my invention is quite low because in the main, the bands merely serve to form aconveyor for the metal, the metal moving readily from the bath into the cooling and forming zone. Moreover, the end product may be delivered in any desired width and in varying gauges for further operations, all with considerable variety. In addition, I am able to form a bath of metal utilizing my chilling surfaces, while simultaneously maintaining the thickness of the metal at the edges of the bath of substantially the same thickness as the final metal strip turned out by my mill.

I believe that with the particular description I of the invention already presented, and the general remarks found at the beginning of the speci- 1 fication, the -completeutilityzof my invention and my contribution .tothisart willbe appreciated.

I now claim:

1. In a process of continuously casting metal, the steps of introducing molten metal between longitudinally extending elementssome at least of which travel longitudinally, cooling the said elements so as to freeze a peripherally continuous layer of "the "metal thereagainst,and thereafter progressively decreasing the thickness of the cross-sectional area of the metal between said longitudinally traveling elements while simultaneously progressively-increasing the width of the cross-sectional area ofthe metal between said elements, and completing the shaping of the cast metal to the final desired cross-section prior to the complete "freezing of'the metal between said elements.

2. A process of casting metal which comprises bringing 'apair of longitudinally traveling elements into longitudinally opposed moving relation to one another with one at least of said elements laterally distorted so that the edges of said elements are more closely approached to each other'tha'n central portions thereof, introducing molten metal into thespace'betweensaid elements as so moving, cooling said elements whereby progressively to freeze said molten metal thereagainst, andduring'the continued longitudinal travel of both of said elements with the metal therebetween, progressively removing the distortion of the distorted element prior to the complete freezing of the metal so as to diminish the spacing of central portions of said elements while maintaining the relative spacing of the said edges.

3. A process of continuously casting wide, flat, thin shapes from molten metal which comprises casting the metal continuously between moving, laterally bowed, cooled bands in a shape which increases in thickness from its edges to its midsection, and, prior to the complete solidification of the cast metal, progressively flattening said bands while confining the metal therebetween whereby to diminish the mid-section thickness of the metal to be cast and produce a substantially fiat cast shape.

4. In a machine of the character described, a pair of endless belts mounted on sheaves so as to have adjacent flights, means for driving said belts in the same direction and at the same speed in said adjacent flights, means for imparting opposed transverse concave curvature to said belts in parts of said flights, means to bring said belts into edgewise juxtaposition while so curved, means to introduce molten metal between said belts when in said juxtaposition, means for cooling said belts, and means beyond the means to introduce moltenmetal in the direction of travel of said nights for flattenin said belts transversely while maintaining said edgewise juxtaposition.

5. In a machine of the class described, a pair of moving metal bands, means for guiding said bands for linear longitudinal travel in the same direction in onezone of their travel with their edges in juxtaposed metal retaining relation and including means forbowing atleast one of said bands outwardly transversely relatively to the other so that said bands form therebetween a chamber fora'bath of metal, means for feeding molten metal into said chamber, means for progressively flattening said bowed band while guidin both said bands for longitudinal movement beyond said chamber withrsaid metal there- 11' between to define between said bands the section of metal to be cast therebetween, and means for cooling said bands as they move longitudinally.

6. In a machine of the class described, a pair of moving metal bands, means for guiding said bands for linear longitudinal travel in the same direction including means 'for bowing at least one of said 'bands transversely outwardly away from the other band to form a chamber deeper at its transverse center than at its side edges and gradually decreasing in depth toward the edges thereof, means for feeding molten metal into said chamber to form a bath of metal, additional guide means longitudinally beyond said metal feeding means for progressively flattening said bowed band relatively to its edges while guiding both said bands for longitudinal movement beyond said chamber to define betwen them the flattened section of metal to be cast therebetween, and means for cooling said bands as they move longitudinally to progressively cool and freeze the metal therebetween.

7. In a machine of the class described, a pair of moving continuous metal bands, means for guiding said bands for linear longitudinal travel in the same direction in one flight of their travel including means for bowing at least one of said bands transversely outwardly relatively to the other so that said bands form therebetween a concave chamber for a bath of metal, means for feeding molten metal into said chamber, means for progressively flattening said bowed band relatively to the other band to flatten the crosssection of the metal between said bands while guiding both said bands for longitudinal movement beyond said chamber to define between the bands the flattened section of the metal shape to be cast therebetween, and means for cooling said bands.

8. In a machine of the class described, a pair of moving metal bands, longitudinally extending side dams between said bands for coaction with the edges thereof, means for guiding said bands for linear longitudinal travel in the same direction in one part of the path of their travel with each edge in contact with a side dam and including means for bowing at least one of said bands transversely outwardly relatively to the other so that said bands and side dams form therebetween a chamber for a bath of metal, means for feeding molten metal into said chamber, means for progressively flattening said bowed band while guiding both said bands for longitudinal movement with their edges in contact with said side dams beyond said chamber to define between said bands the section of metal to be cast therebetween, and means for cooling said .bands as they move longitudinally to progressively cool the metal between said bands.

9. In the combination of claim 8 the feature that said side dams are a plurality of thin, narrow continuous moving metal belts.

10. In a machine of the class described, a pair of moving metal bands, longitudinally extending side dams between said bands for coaction with the edges thereof, means for guiding said bands for linear longitudinal travel in the same direction in one zone of their travel with each edge in contact with a side dam and including means for bowing at least one of said bands outwardly relatively to the other so that said bands and side dams form therebetween a chamber for a bath of metal, means for feeding molten metal into said chamber, means for progressively fiattening said bowed band while guiding both said ,flattened section of metal to be cast therebebands for longitudinal movement with their edges guiding the edges in contact with said side dams beyond said chamber to define between said bands the flattened section of metal to be cast therebetween, said side dams diverging outwardly away from one another longitudinally in the direction of movement of said bands, and means for cooling said bands.

11. In the combination of claim 10 the feature that said side dams are a plurality of tin, narrow continuous moving metal belts.

12. In a machine of the class described, a pair of moving metal bands, means guiding said bands for linear longitudinal travel in the same direction in one zone of their travel and including means for holding the edges of said bands in contact with one another and for bowing at least one of said bands outwardly relatively to the other so that said bands form therebetween a chamber for a bath of metal, means for feeding molten metal into said chamber, additional guide means longitudinally beyond said first guide means for progressively flattening said bowed band while holding the edges of said bands in contact during continued longitudinal movement of said bands to define between said bands the tween, and means for cooling said bands as they move longitudinally to progressively cool the metal between said bands.

13. In a machine of the class described, a pair of moving metal bands, longitudinally extending side dams between said bands for coaction with the edges thereof, means for guiding said bands for linear longitudinal travel in the same direction with the distance separating at least parts oi said bands gradually decreasing to define therebetween first a cross-sectional area of relatively greater thickness and then progressively a crosssectional area of substantially less thickness, means formed as part of said guide means for of said bands for longitudinal movement in contact with said side dams, means for feeding molten metal into the chamber formed between said bands and said side dams, said metal feeding means feeding said metal to said chamber where the cross-sectional area of the metal is of said relatively greater thickness, and said side dams diverging outwardly away from one another longitudinally in the direction of movement of said bands whereby said bands define therebetween progressively a cross-sectional area of metal the width of which progressively increases as the thickness of the cross-sectional area decreases.

CLARENCE W. HAZELETT.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 359,348 Daniels Mar. 15, 1887 594,583 Wood Nov. 30, 1897 1,822,256 Watt Sept. 8, 1931 1,870,406 Douteur Aug. 9, 1932 2,285,740 Merle June 9, 1942 2,450,428 Hazelett Oct. 5, 1948 2,560,639 Giesler et a1 July 17, 1951 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 884,516 France Apr. 27, 1943 900,022 France Sept. 11, 1944 233,228 Switzerland Oct. 2, 1944

US97675A 1949-06-02 1949-06-02 Metal manufacturing apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2640235A (en)

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US97675A US2640235A (en) 1949-06-02 1949-06-02 Metal manufacturing apparatus
GB2777250A GB688575A (en) 1949-06-02 1950-11-14 Improvements in the continuous casting of metal strip or the like
DEH6872A DE865940C (en) 1949-06-02 1950-12-05 Machine & for casting Metallbaendern. like.

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

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BE505595D BE505595A (en) 1949-06-02
US97675A US2640235A (en) 1949-06-02 1949-06-02 Metal manufacturing apparatus
GB2777250A GB688575A (en) 1949-06-02 1950-11-14 Improvements in the continuous casting of metal strip or the like
FR1029014D FR1029014A (en) 1949-06-02 1950-11-28 An apparatus for manufacturing such metal strip profiles
DEH6872A DE865940C (en) 1949-06-02 1950-12-05 Machine & for casting Metallbaendern. like.
CH311308D CH311308A (en) 1949-06-02 1951-09-04 A method for continuous casting of metal strands and the machine for performing this method.

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Cited By (40)

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US2781562A (en) * 1952-05-14 1957-02-19 Ici Ltd Apparatus for the continuous casting of metals
US2781565A (en) * 1952-03-20 1957-02-19 Gen Electric Method and apparatus for making bellows
US2857637A (en) * 1955-05-31 1958-10-28 Olin Mathieson Casting apparatus
US2904860A (en) * 1955-12-27 1959-09-22 Hazelett Strip Casting Corp Metal casting method and apparatus
US2956320A (en) * 1955-12-28 1960-10-18 Olin Mathieson Casting of metal
US2978761A (en) * 1957-05-03 1961-04-11 Kaiser Aluminium Chem Corp Continuous casting apparatus
US3036348A (en) * 1958-03-17 1962-05-29 Hazelett Strip Casting Corp Metal casting methods and apparatus
US3038219A (en) * 1958-07-02 1962-06-12 Armco Steel Corp Method and means for high capacity direct casting of molten metal
US3061486A (en) * 1957-12-30 1962-10-30 Armco Steel Corp Non-directional oriented silicon-iron
US3110941A (en) * 1960-10-03 1963-11-19 American Metal Climax Inc Continuous metal casting machine
US3163896A (en) * 1961-06-23 1965-01-05 Aluminium Lab Ltd Coated belt and method of making same for continuous metal casting process
US3167830A (en) * 1960-12-08 1965-02-02 Hazellett Strip Casting Corp Continuous metal casting apparatus
DE1235514B (en) * 1955-12-27 1967-03-02 Hazelett Strip Casting Corp Means for cooling the surfaces of casting belts on casting machines
US3318367A (en) * 1966-05-09 1967-05-09 Southwire Co Adjustable belt wheel-type continuous casting apparatus
US3339625A (en) * 1965-01-28 1967-09-05 Armco Steel Corp Continuous casting apparatus having bent-edge belts
US3369503A (en) * 1965-05-04 1968-02-20 L S Heath & Sons Inc Crunch making machine
US3422881A (en) * 1965-03-20 1969-01-21 Ilario Properzi Device for feeding molten metal into the peripheral groove of a continuous casting wheel for the production of metal bars or ingots
DE2311837A1 (en) * 1972-03-10 1973-09-13 Thomas William Garlick Continuous casting machine - for anodes with endless side strap conveyor forming shoulders or recesses
US3860057A (en) * 1972-03-10 1975-01-14 Thomas William Garlick Method and apparatus for continuous metal casting
US3933193A (en) * 1971-02-16 1976-01-20 Alcan Research And Development Limited Apparatus for continuous casting of metal strip between moving belts
JPS55122658A (en) * 1979-03-16 1980-09-20 Hitachi Ltd Continuous casting device
US4239081A (en) * 1979-05-30 1980-12-16 Asarco Incorporated Side dam apparatus for use in twin-belt continuous casting machines
US4260008A (en) * 1979-05-30 1981-04-07 Asarco Incorporated Side dam apparatus for use in twin-belt continuous casting machines
FR2492696A1 (en) * 1980-10-27 1982-04-30 Hazelett Strip Casting Corp Method and device for continuous casting of metal, of the two-strip type
EP0081848A2 (en) * 1981-12-14 1983-06-22 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Method and apparatus for shaping the casting region in a twin-belt continuous casting machine
JPS58179550A (en) * 1982-04-16 1983-10-20 Hitachi Ltd Continuous casting device of plate material
DE3320131A1 (en) * 1983-05-31 1984-12-06 Alusuisse Method for preheating a nozzle
US4537243A (en) * 1980-10-22 1985-08-27 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Method of and apparatus for steam preheating endless flexible casting belt
US4588021A (en) * 1983-11-07 1986-05-13 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Matrix coatings on endless flexible metallic belts for continuous casting machines method of forming such coatings and the coated belts
EP0252008A2 (en) * 1986-07-01 1988-01-07 Larex Ag Side dam for the side closure of the casting space in a twin-belt continuous-casting machine, and process for the maintenance of the continuous-casting machine
US4921037A (en) * 1988-07-19 1990-05-01 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Method and apparatus for introducing differential stresses in endless flexible metallic casting belts for enhancing belt performance in continuous metal casting machines
US5477912A (en) * 1993-09-28 1995-12-26 Aluminum Company Of America Roll for use in a belt caster and an associated method
US5967223A (en) * 1996-07-10 1999-10-19 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Permanent-magnetic hydrodynamic methods and apparatus for stabilizing a casting belt in a continuous metal-casting machine
US5979538A (en) * 1995-11-14 1999-11-09 Fata Hunter, Inc. Continuous chain caster and method
US5979307A (en) * 1997-04-18 1999-11-09 Santrade Ltd. Double-belt system for processing viscous melts
US6386267B1 (en) 1999-07-30 2002-05-14 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Non-rotating, levitating, cylindrical air-pillow apparatus and method for supporting and guiding an endless flexible casting belt into the entrance of a continuous metal-casting machine
US6581675B1 (en) 2000-04-11 2003-06-24 Alcoa Inc. Method and apparatus for continuous casting of metals
US20030205356A1 (en) * 1995-11-14 2003-11-06 Curt Braun Continuous chain caster and method
US20100307713A1 (en) * 2007-11-29 2010-12-09 Nippon Light Metal Company, Ltd. Twin-belt casting machine and method of continuous slab casting
WO2019035046A1 (en) * 2017-08-16 2019-02-21 Novelis Inc. Belt casting path control

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US594583A (en) * 1897-11-30 Casting apparatus
US1870406A (en) * 1928-10-31 1932-08-09 Douteur Mathieu Molding machine for the production of a continuous ingot
US1822256A (en) * 1929-05-04 1931-09-08 William H Watt Process and apparatus for molding tubes
US2285740A (en) * 1938-07-01 1942-06-09 Joseph M Merie Apparatus for producing solid and tubular products from undercooled molten material
FR884516A (en) * 1939-07-06 1943-08-19 Rener Metallwerke Ag Du Method and device for producing plated metal plates
CH233228A (en) * 1942-02-17 1944-07-15 Duerener Metallwerke Aktienges Casting apparatus for casting clad blocks, especially of light metal.
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Cited By (50)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2781565A (en) * 1952-03-20 1957-02-19 Gen Electric Method and apparatus for making bellows
US2781562A (en) * 1952-05-14 1957-02-19 Ici Ltd Apparatus for the continuous casting of metals
US2857637A (en) * 1955-05-31 1958-10-28 Olin Mathieson Casting apparatus
US2904860A (en) * 1955-12-27 1959-09-22 Hazelett Strip Casting Corp Metal casting method and apparatus
DE1235514B (en) * 1955-12-27 1967-03-02 Hazelett Strip Casting Corp Means for cooling the surfaces of casting belts on casting machines
US2956320A (en) * 1955-12-28 1960-10-18 Olin Mathieson Casting of metal
US2978761A (en) * 1957-05-03 1961-04-11 Kaiser Aluminium Chem Corp Continuous casting apparatus
US3061486A (en) * 1957-12-30 1962-10-30 Armco Steel Corp Non-directional oriented silicon-iron
US3123874A (en) * 1958-03-17 1964-03-10 Metal casting apparatus
US3036348A (en) * 1958-03-17 1962-05-29 Hazelett Strip Casting Corp Metal casting methods and apparatus
US3038219A (en) * 1958-07-02 1962-06-12 Armco Steel Corp Method and means for high capacity direct casting of molten metal
US3110941A (en) * 1960-10-03 1963-11-19 American Metal Climax Inc Continuous metal casting machine
US3167830A (en) * 1960-12-08 1965-02-02 Hazellett Strip Casting Corp Continuous metal casting apparatus
US3163896A (en) * 1961-06-23 1965-01-05 Aluminium Lab Ltd Coated belt and method of making same for continuous metal casting process
US3339625A (en) * 1965-01-28 1967-09-05 Armco Steel Corp Continuous casting apparatus having bent-edge belts
US3422881A (en) * 1965-03-20 1969-01-21 Ilario Properzi Device for feeding molten metal into the peripheral groove of a continuous casting wheel for the production of metal bars or ingots
US3369503A (en) * 1965-05-04 1968-02-20 L S Heath & Sons Inc Crunch making machine
US3318367A (en) * 1966-05-09 1967-05-09 Southwire Co Adjustable belt wheel-type continuous casting apparatus
US3933193A (en) * 1971-02-16 1976-01-20 Alcan Research And Development Limited Apparatus for continuous casting of metal strip between moving belts
DE2311837A1 (en) * 1972-03-10 1973-09-13 Thomas William Garlick Continuous casting machine - for anodes with endless side strap conveyor forming shoulders or recesses
US3860057A (en) * 1972-03-10 1975-01-14 Thomas William Garlick Method and apparatus for continuous metal casting
JPS6232017B2 (en) * 1979-03-16 1987-07-11 Hitachi Ltd
JPS55122658A (en) * 1979-03-16 1980-09-20 Hitachi Ltd Continuous casting device
US4260008A (en) * 1979-05-30 1981-04-07 Asarco Incorporated Side dam apparatus for use in twin-belt continuous casting machines
US4239081A (en) * 1979-05-30 1980-12-16 Asarco Incorporated Side dam apparatus for use in twin-belt continuous casting machines
US4537243A (en) * 1980-10-22 1985-08-27 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Method of and apparatus for steam preheating endless flexible casting belt
FR2492696A1 (en) * 1980-10-27 1982-04-30 Hazelett Strip Casting Corp Method and device for continuous casting of metal, of the two-strip type
US4367783A (en) * 1980-10-27 1983-01-11 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Method and apparatus for continuous casting of metal under controlled load conditions
EP0081848A3 (en) * 1981-12-14 1983-08-17 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Method and system for shaping the casting region in a twin-belt continuous casting machine
EP0081848A2 (en) * 1981-12-14 1983-06-22 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Method and apparatus for shaping the casting region in a twin-belt continuous casting machine
JPS58179550A (en) * 1982-04-16 1983-10-20 Hitachi Ltd Continuous casting device of plate material
DE3320131A1 (en) * 1983-05-31 1984-12-06 Alusuisse Method for preheating a nozzle
US4588021A (en) * 1983-11-07 1986-05-13 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Matrix coatings on endless flexible metallic belts for continuous casting machines method of forming such coatings and the coated belts
EP0252008A3 (en) * 1986-07-01 1988-10-05 Larex Ag Side dam for the side closure of the casting space in a twin-belt continuous-casting machine, and process for the maintenance of the continuous-casting machine
US4794978A (en) * 1986-07-01 1989-01-03 Larex Ag Side dam for a continuous casting machine
EP0252008A2 (en) * 1986-07-01 1988-01-07 Larex Ag Side dam for the side closure of the casting space in a twin-belt continuous-casting machine, and process for the maintenance of the continuous-casting machine
US4921037A (en) * 1988-07-19 1990-05-01 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Method and apparatus for introducing differential stresses in endless flexible metallic casting belts for enhancing belt performance in continuous metal casting machines
US5477912A (en) * 1993-09-28 1995-12-26 Aluminum Company Of America Roll for use in a belt caster and an associated method
USRE38555E1 (en) 1995-11-14 2004-07-13 Hunter Douglas Industries, B.V. Continuous chain caster and method
US20030205356A1 (en) * 1995-11-14 2003-11-06 Curt Braun Continuous chain caster and method
US5979538A (en) * 1995-11-14 1999-11-09 Fata Hunter, Inc. Continuous chain caster and method
US5967223A (en) * 1996-07-10 1999-10-19 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Permanent-magnetic hydrodynamic methods and apparatus for stabilizing a casting belt in a continuous metal-casting machine
US5979307A (en) * 1997-04-18 1999-11-09 Santrade Ltd. Double-belt system for processing viscous melts
US6386267B1 (en) 1999-07-30 2002-05-14 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Non-rotating, levitating, cylindrical air-pillow apparatus and method for supporting and guiding an endless flexible casting belt into the entrance of a continuous metal-casting machine
US6575226B2 (en) * 1999-07-30 2003-06-10 Hazelett Strip-Casting Corporation Non-rotating, levitating, cylindrical air-pillow method for supporting and guiding an endless flexible casting belt into the entrance of a continuous metal-casting machine
US6581675B1 (en) 2000-04-11 2003-06-24 Alcoa Inc. Method and apparatus for continuous casting of metals
US20100307713A1 (en) * 2007-11-29 2010-12-09 Nippon Light Metal Company, Ltd. Twin-belt casting machine and method of continuous slab casting
US8176970B2 (en) * 2007-11-29 2012-05-15 Nippon Light Metal Company, Ltd. Twin-belt casting machine and method of continuous slab casting
KR101195650B1 (en) * 2007-11-29 2012-10-30 니폰게이긴조쿠가부시키가이샤 Twin-belt casting machine and method for casting continuous slab
WO2019035046A1 (en) * 2017-08-16 2019-02-21 Novelis Inc. Belt casting path control

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