New! View global litigation for patent families

US2630306A - Subterranean retorting of shales - Google Patents

Subterranean retorting of shales Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2630306A
US2630306A US26476152A US2630306A US 2630306 A US2630306 A US 2630306A US 26476152 A US26476152 A US 26476152A US 2630306 A US2630306 A US 2630306A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
shale
oil
zones
holes
horizontal
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Louis P Evans
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ExxonMobil Oil Corp
Original Assignee
ExxonMobil Oil Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/24Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection
    • E21B43/243Combustion in situ
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • C10G1/02Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal by distillation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/30Specific pattern of wells, e.g. optimizing the spacing of wells
    • E21B43/305Specific pattern of wells, e.g. optimizing the spacing of wells comprising at least one inclined or horizontal well

Description

March 3, 1953 L p EVANS 2,630,306

SUBTERRANEAN RETORTING OF SHALES Filed Jan. 3, 1952 LOU/5 /2 EVA/v5 BY LSHLE ED Patented Mar. 3, 1953 SUBTERRANEAN RETGRTING OF SHALES Louis P. Evans, Woodbury, N. J., assignor to Socony-Vacuum IOil Company, Incorporated, a corporation of New York Application January 3, 1952, Serial No. 264,'761

6 Claims.

This invention relates to a process for recovering valuable hydrocarbons from hydrocarbonaceous and/or carb'onaceous materials such as shales, coals, and the like by treating deposits thereof underground. More particularly, the present vinvention is concerned with an improved method for subterranean retorting of oil shale to yield shale oil.

It is common practice in the art torecover oils from 'solid roil-bearing or oil-producing materials and particularly "to recover shale oil from oil shales. As is well recognized, lordinary oil "shale 'does not contain oil as such but a solid, bitumen type material known as kerogen which, when heated, breaks down into gases, petroleum-like liquids, and carbon.

The recovery of oil from oil shale has hereto- 'fore been accomplished by heating the 4shale .at elevated temperatures suiicient vto educt the oil and separate it from residual :mineral matter. However, commercial shale retorting operations previously employed have generally been cumbersome and expensive, involving large equipment and voperating costs per unit of shale throughput. Important factors contributing Yto these economic burdens have been poor heat recovery in the retorting system and the expense, equipment, and time consumed in mining land crushing the shale, and in subsequently recovering 'the products of retortation. A major object of 'this invention, accordingly, is the .provision of a process in which oil shale and the like may be eiciently retorted without incurring the large expenditure .for equipment and maintenance required bythe prior art methods. A further `object 'is to provide a method for retorting oil shale 'wherein the loperation is conducted in an eiiicient manner underground and the shale is retorted in place. A still further Aobject is the provision of an inexpensive process for retorting oil shale aiording convenient means for subsequent recovery of the liquid shale oil.

The above and other objects which will be apparent to thoseskilled in the art are accomplished in accordance with the present invention.

The large deposits of oil shales in the western .part of the United States, particularly in Colorado, Utah, vand Wyoming, contain contiguous strata of oil shales ranging from a few feet up to 100 feet in thickness. The instant process takes advantage of thes natural features of .the shale deposits, namely, the strata formation, structure, and thickness of the shale deposit, to afford a .resultant economy vin commercial retorting of the shales and handling of the products 'of retorta'tion.

vOperation of the lprocess described herein comprises driving horizontal tunnels immediately above and below the oil-bearing shale 'strata and ydrilling a plurality lof holes vertically through the separating layer of shale to connect Athe horizontal tunnels. A plurality of blocks or baf- -fles are positioned -at predetermined intervalsin 'each 'of the horizontal tunnels to provide alternate zones of up .and vdown iiow through a series 'of fthe vertically drilled holes interconnecting the horizontal tunnels. Retorting takes place in the shale bed Iby ignition of the shale in the vfirst Iseries of vertical holes piercing the .shale bed. Upon initiation of .combustion in this first series, a combustion supporting gas such as air, or a mixture of air and vrecycle gas, is blown into 'and through the rst series of lvertical holes. The heat thereby `generated is suiiicient to initiate retorting in the subsequent .zones and the retorting proceeds successively through each zone with the released oil vapors diffusing out into the gas stream. The resulting vgaseous stream of retortation .products iiows alternately up and down `through each series of vertical holes piercing the `shale bed. Shale oil is "condensed in the colder zones downstream vand drains into the lower of lthe horizontal tunnels -from 'which it rmay be removed by suitable conduits. While the `downstream shale is preheated with the hot vapor- Ious products of retortation :being emitted from previously ignited zones, the upstream or spent shale is cooled as a .result of .heat exchange with incoming air or other combustion supporting gas, thereby imparting -a high thermal eiciency to the over-all process.

The invention may be more readily understood by reference to the attached drawing wherein:

Figure 1 represents a vertical section through a high mesa containing strata -of oil shale,

Figure 2 is a plan view in part of the system shown in Figure 1, taken along the elevation of the ceiling of tunnel Il hereinafter described,

Figure 3 is similar to Figure 1 but depicts an alternate arrangement for withdrawal of the released shale oil.

Referring more lparticularly to the drawing and specically to Figure l1 thereof, I is the -rock over- .burden .lying lon top-of the strata .of `oil shale to be worked, 2 is a series of stratavof oil shale representing the shale bed to be Worked, and 3 is the country rock lying below the main body .of `shale oil strata. .In .accordance with the invention, a rhorizontal tunnel 4 is driven immediately above theshale strata .to be worked. Likewise, a horizontal tunnel 5 is driven VAimmediately below the `shale strata. .A plurality -of `ver-.tical holes 6 are drilled or otherwise formed between the two horizontal tunnels. A plurality of baffles 1 are inserted at predetermined positions in each of the horizontal tunnels 4 and 5 in such a manner as to provide alternate zones of upward and downward ow through the vertical holes in the shale bed.

The shale in the first of such created zones is ignited by the introduction of hot combustion gases into the formation through conduit 8. After ignition of the shale is started, air or other combustion supporting gas is forced through conduit S. The gases and vaporous products of retortation thereafter alternately flow upward and downward through the vertical holes in each zone of the shale bed, successively retorting the shale in each of the zones. The shale oil so released undergoes condensation in the cooler downstream zones and ultimately is collected as a pool IU in the last of the retorting zones. The condensed oil is suitably collected in a depression 01 hole I I formed in the underlying country rock from which it may be withdrawn through conduit I2. The remaining retort gas containing combustion gas and the non-condensable portion of the retortation products is withdrawn from the lower horizontal tunnel 5 through conduit I3. If desired, a stream of this cool retort gas may be recycled through conduit I4, passing through the upper horizontal tunnel 4 and entering the last of the retortation zones wherein it serves to cool the products of retortation formed in such zone and in previous zones, thereby aiding in condensation of the vaporous shale oil. Likewise, a. cool stream of inert gas may be introduced into the last of the retortation zones to facilitate condensation. The retort gas not recycled is withdrawn by pump I5 and led through conduit I6. If desired, the retort gas passing through conduit I6 may be recycled through conduit 8, the combustible portion thereof serving as a source of heat for further retortation of the shale.

While a series of three vertical holes in each zone have been shown, it will be realized that any convenient number of such holes may be drilled vertically through the shale bed. As a practical matter, the number of such drilled holes will depend upon the extent and richness of the shale deposit being worked. In the case of the richer deposits, generally it is preferable to drill a greater number of holes, whereas in the case of the relatively poorer deposits, a lesser number of holes will usually be suilicient to exhaust the volatile content of the shale bed being worked. The holes are usually so spaced that substantially all of the combustible components present in the shale bed will be removed during the retorting process. As a general matter, it will usually be expedient to drill the holes in staggered relationship such as shown in Figure 2 of the drawing. It will be noted from such figure illustrating zones having three holes drilled therethrough that the holes are suitably so staggered that the centers thereof if joined would form an equilateral triangle. As will further be noted from Figure 2, the holes in alternate zones are alternately spaced so that if the centers of the holes in each zone were joined, the resulting triangles would alternately point downward and upward throughout the series of retorting zones.

An alternate arrangement for collecting the released shale oil is shown in Figure 3. In this embodiment of the process, condensed shale oil is collected in the bottom of each of the retortng zones in a series of holes Il drilled in the country rock underlying the shale strata. 'Ihese holes are connected by a common conduitl I8 bored through the country rock. Condensed shale oil formed in each of the retorting zones collects in each of the holes I1 and passes through conduit I8 and then outwardly through conduit I9 to suitable storage facilities.

The horizontal tunnels immediately overlying and underlying the shale strata to be worked may be of any desired width, ordinarily depending upon the size and richness of the shale deposit. As a general matter, the tunnels will usually be or more feet long. The time required to complete retorting from the ilrst to the last of the retortation zones will depend on the length of the particular shale strata being Worked. As a general rule, for a stratum of approximately 100 feet in length, approximately one week would be required.

The temperature of retorting generated within the shale bed is generally between about 800 and about 1500 F. For this reason, the baille 1 used in the formation of the alternate zones of retortation must be composed of a material which is able to withstand such high temperatures. As a practical matter, the baffles are ordinarily composed of rock obtained during the initial drilling and excavation. It will thus be evident that there is very little needed in the way of expensive equipment for carrying out the present process for retortation of shale. The underground or in-place retorting of shale carried out in accordance with the instant process reduces the large mining, crushing, and retorting costs involved in present above ground methods. The instant process also aiTords a high thermal eiliciency since the initial hot vaporous products of retortation passing through subsequent zones serve to preheat such zones and also the spent upstream shale serves to preheat the incoming combustion supporting gas being fed to the down-stream zones. The present process is further advantageous in affording separation of liquid shale oil from the gaseous products of retortation by collecting the shale oil underground in a pool or series of pools from which it may subsequently be withdrawn.

While the process described herein has been directed particularly to the recovery of shale oil from oil shale, the present invention may be adapted for the recovery of oil from any subterranean oil-containing or oil-producing solid substance. Accordingly, it is to be understood that the above description is merely illustrative of preferred embodiments of the invention, of which many variations may be made within the scope of the following claims without departing from the spirit thereof.

I claim:

l. A process for obtaining shale oil from oil shale stratum in its natural position, comprising driving horizontal tunnels immediately above and immediately below said stratum, drilling a plurality of holes vertically through the separating layer of shale to connect said horizontal tunnels, positioning a plurality of baiiles at predetermined intervals in each of the horizontal tunnels to provide interconnecting alternate zones of up and down flow through a series of the vertically drilled holes between said horizontal tunnels, initiating combustion of shale in the first of said zones adjacent the exterior of said shale stratum, blowing a combustion supporting gas through said rst zone to bring the same to shale retorting temperature, flowing the resulting hot gaseous products of' retortation alternately up and down through each series of vertical holes in subsequent zones whereby the shale in each of said zones is initially preheated and ultimately the temperature thereof is raised to such point that retorting of shale proceeds successively through each zone with release of shale oil vapors, condensing the shale oil vapors so released and eiiecting collection of the resulting liquid shale oil.

2. A process for obtaining shale oil from oil shale stratum in its natural position, comprising driving horizontal tunnels immediately above and immediately below said stratum, drilling a plurality of holes vertically through said separating layer of shale to connect said horizontal tunnels, the number of said vertical holes being such that substantially all of the combustible components present in the shale bed will be removed during retorting thereof, inserting a plurality of bailles at predetermined substantially uniformly spaced intervals in each of the horizontal tunnels in such fashion as to provide interconnecting alternate zones of up and down flow through each series of the vertically drilled holes between said horizontal tunnels, initiating combustion of shale in the rst of said zones adjacent the exterior of said shale stratum, forem ing a combustion supporting gas under pressure through said first zone to bring the same to shale retorting temperature, ilowing the resul-ting h-ot gaseous products of retortation alternately up and down through each series of vertical holes in subsequent zones whereby the shale in each of said zones is initially preheated and ultimately the temperature thereof is raised to such point that retorting of shale proceeds successively through each zone with release of shale oil vapors, condensing the shale o-il vapors so rel-eased in the cooler downstream zones and collecting the resulting liquid shale oil in the form of a pool in the last ofthe retorting zones.

3. A process for subterranean retorting of oil shale in its natural position, which comprises driving horizontal tunnels immediately above and immediately below strata of oil shale, drilling a plurality of holes vertically through the separating layer of shale to connect said horizontal tunnels, positioning `a plurality of baiiles at predetermined intervals in each of the horizont-al tunnels to provide interconnecting alternate zones of up and down flow through a series of the vertically drilled holes between 'said horizontal tunnels, initiating combustion of shale in the rst of said zones Iadjacent the exterior of said shale strata, blowing la combustion supporting gaseous mixture of air and recycle gas prepared as hereinafter deined through said iirst zone to bring the same to shale retorting ternperature, flowing the resulting hot gaseous products of retortation Ialternately up land down through each series of vertical holes in subse quent zones, whereby the shale in each of said zones is initially preheated and ultimately the temperature thereof is raised to such .point that retorting oi shale proceeds successively through each zon-e with release of shale oil vapor and retort glas, condensing the shale oil vapor so released, effecting collection of the resulting liquid shale oil, withdrawing a stream of the retort gas and recycling lthe 'same for admixture with air to form the aforesaid combustion supporting gas mixture.

4. A process for obtaining shale oil from oil shale stratum in its natural position, comprising drivingk horizontal v tunnels immediately above and immediately below said stratum, drilling a plurality of holes vertically through the separat'-4 ing layer of shale to connect said horizontal tunnels, positioning a plurality of baiiies at predetermined intervals in each of the horizontal tunnels in such fashion as to provide interconnecting alternate zones of up and down flow through a series of the vertically drilled holes between said horizontal tunnels, initiating combustion of shale in the rst of said zones adjacent the exterior of said shale stratum, blowing a combustion supporting gas through said first zone to bring the same to shale retorting temperature, flowing the resulting hot gaseous products of retortation alternately up and down through each series of vertical holes in subsequent zones, whereby the shale in each of said zones is initially preheated and ultimately the temperature thereof is raised to such point that retorting of shale proceeds successively through each zone with release of shale oil vapors, condensing the shale oil vapors so released, effecting collection of the resulting liquid shale oil in the bottom of the lower horizontal tunnel, withdrawing a stream of non-condensable retort gas from the lower horizontal tunnel and recycling said stream to the upper horizontal tunnel, whereby gaseous retortation products entering the last of said zones are cooled, thereby facilitating condensation of the condensable portion of said retortation products.

5. A process for subterranean retorting of oil shale, which comprises driving horizontal tunnels immediately above and immediately below a natural deposit of oil shale stratum, drilling a plurality of holes in staggered relationship vertically through the separating layer of shale to connect said horizontal tunnels, the number of said vertical holes being such that substantially all of the combustible components present in the shale bed being worked will be removed upon retortation, inserting a plurality of baffles in substantially uniformly spaced predetermined intervals in each -of the horizontal tunnels to provide interconnecting alternate zones of up and down flow thro-ugh a series of the vertically drilled holes between said horizontal walls, initiating combustion of shale in the iirst of said zones adjacent the exterior of said shale stratum, blowing a combustion supporting gas into said iirst zone to bring the same to shale retorting temperature, owing the resulting hot gaseous products of retortation alternately up and down through each series of vertical holes in subsequent zones, whereby the shale in each of said zo-nes is initially preheated and ultimately the temperature thereof is raised to such point that retorting of shale proceeds successively through each zone with release of shale oil vapors, condensing the shale oil vapors so released, effecting collection of the resulting liquid shale oil in a series of pools in the bottom of each of said retorting zones and withdrawing a stream of liquid shale oil from, each of said pools.

6. A process for obtaining shale oil from oil shale stratum in its natural position, comprising driving horizontal tunnels immediately above and immediately below said stratum, drilling a plurality of holes vertically through the separating layer of shale to connect said horizontal tunnels, positioning a plurality of bales at predetermined intervals in each of the horizontal tunnels to provide interconnecting alternate zones of up and down flow through a series of the vertically 7 drilled holes between said horizontal tunnels. initiating combustion of shale in the rst of saidzones adjacent the exterior of said shale stratum. blowing a combustion supporting gas through said first zone to bring the same to shale retorting temperature, blowing the resulting hot gaseous products of retortation alternately up and down through each series of vertical holes in subsequent zones, whereby the shale in each of said zones is initially preheated and ultimately the temperature thereof is raised to such point that retorting of shale proceeds successively through each zone with release of shale oil vapors, introducing a cold inert gaseous stream into the last of said zones to facilitate condensation of shale 15 oil vapors within said zone and effecting collection of liquid shale oil as a. pool in the bottom of said zone.

LOUIS P. EVANS.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the ille of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,269,747 Rogers June 18, 1918 1,422,204 Hoover et al July 11, 1922 1,919,636 Karrick July 25, 1933 2,481,051 Uren Sept. 6, 1949

Claims (1)

1. A PROCESS FOR OBTAINING SHALE OIL FROM OIL SHALE STRATUM IN ITS NATURAL POSITION, COMPRISING DRIVING HORIZONTAL TUNNELS IMMEDIATELY ABOVE AND IMMEDIATELY BELOW SAID STRATUM, DRILLING A PLURALITY OF HOLES VERTICALLY THROUGH THE SEPARATING LAYER OF SHALE TO CONNECT SAID HORIZONTAL TUNNELS, POSITIONING A PLURALITY OF BAFFLES AT PREDETERMINED INTERVALS IN EACH OF THE HORIZONTAL TUNNELS TO PROVIDE INTERCONNECTING ALTERNATE ZONES OF UP AND DOWN FLOW THROUGH A SERIES OF THE VERTICALLY DRILLED HOLES BETWEEN SAID HORIZONTAL TUNNELS, INITIATING COMBUSTION OF SHALE IN THE FIRST OF SAID ZONES ADJACENT THE EXTERIOR OF SAID SHALE STRATUM, BLOWING A COMBUSION SUP-
US2630306A 1952-01-03 1952-01-03 Subterranean retorting of shales Expired - Lifetime US2630306A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2630306A US2630306A (en) 1952-01-03 1952-01-03 Subterranean retorting of shales

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2630306A US2630306A (en) 1952-01-03 1952-01-03 Subterranean retorting of shales

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2630306A true US2630306A (en) 1953-03-03

Family

ID=23007488

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US2630306A Expired - Lifetime US2630306A (en) 1952-01-03 1952-01-03 Subterranean retorting of shales

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2630306A (en)

Cited By (56)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2788956A (en) * 1955-08-03 1957-04-16 Texas Co Generation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by underground gasification of coal
US2801089A (en) * 1955-03-14 1957-07-30 California Research Corp Underground shale retorting process
US2970826A (en) * 1958-11-21 1961-02-07 Texaco Inc Recovery of oil from oil shale
US3139928A (en) * 1960-05-24 1964-07-07 Shell Oil Co Thermal process for in situ decomposition of oil shale
US3437378A (en) * 1967-02-21 1969-04-08 Continental Oil Co Recovery of oil from shale
US3917344A (en) * 1974-08-22 1975-11-04 Atlantic Richfield Co In situ retorting system
US3950029A (en) * 1975-06-12 1976-04-13 Mobil Oil Corporation In situ retorting of oil shale
US3994343A (en) * 1974-03-04 1976-11-30 Occidental Petroleum Corporation Process for in situ oil shale retorting with off gas recycling
US4007963A (en) * 1975-05-16 1977-02-15 Occidental Petroleum Corporation Oil collection and recovery system for in situ oil shale retort
US4076312A (en) * 1974-07-29 1978-02-28 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Method and apparatus for retorting oil shale at subatmospheric pressure
US4133380A (en) * 1977-07-11 1979-01-09 Occidental Oil Shale Establishing a combustion zone below a sill pillar in an in situ oil shale retort
US4140343A (en) * 1977-02-14 1979-02-20 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Gas withdrawal from an in situ oil shale retort
US4143917A (en) * 1977-10-11 1979-03-13 Continental Oil Company In-situ retorting of oil shale with in-situ formed arches
US4153533A (en) * 1977-09-07 1979-05-08 Kirkbride Chalmer G Shale conversion process
US4239283A (en) * 1979-03-05 1980-12-16 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. In situ oil shale retort with intermediate gas control
US5024487A (en) * 1990-01-29 1991-06-18 Woestemeyer Henry J Method of creating an underground batch retort complex
US20020027001A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-03-07 Wellington Scott L. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a selected gas mixture
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US20030098605A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US20030155111A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-21 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US20030173082A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US20030173072A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US6684948B1 (en) 2002-01-15 2004-02-03 Marshall T. Savage Apparatus and method for heating subterranean formations using fuel cells
US20040020642A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-02-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US20040145969A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-07-29 Taixu Bai Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20050016729A1 (en) * 2002-01-15 2005-01-27 Savage Marshall T. Linearly scalable geothermic fuel cells
US20050269094A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Harris Christopher K Triaxial temperature limited heater
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US20070045268A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US20070095536A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070108201A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Vinegar Harold J Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase wye configuration
US20080035346A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vijay Nair Methods of producing transportation fuel
US20080128134A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-05 Ramesh Raju Mudunuri Producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US20090071652A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-19 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US20090120845A1 (en) * 2005-04-11 2009-05-14 Yates James P Beneficiation of Hydrocarbons From Mineral Matrices
US20090189617A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-07-30 David Burns Continuous subsurface heater temperature measurement
US20090260823A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Robert George Prince-Wright Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100089584A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 David Booth Burns Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US20100258309A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Oluropo Rufus Ayodele Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1269747A (en) * 1918-04-06 1918-06-18 Lebbeus H Rogers Method of and apparatus for treating oil-shale.
US1422204A (en) * 1919-12-19 1922-07-11 Wilson W Hoover Method for working oil shales
US1919636A (en) * 1930-03-05 1933-07-25 Samuel N Karrick System of mining oil shales
US2481051A (en) * 1945-12-15 1949-09-06 Texaco Development Corp Process and apparatus for the recovery of volatilizable constituents from underground carbonaceous formations

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1269747A (en) * 1918-04-06 1918-06-18 Lebbeus H Rogers Method of and apparatus for treating oil-shale.
US1422204A (en) * 1919-12-19 1922-07-11 Wilson W Hoover Method for working oil shales
US1919636A (en) * 1930-03-05 1933-07-25 Samuel N Karrick System of mining oil shales
US2481051A (en) * 1945-12-15 1949-09-06 Texaco Development Corp Process and apparatus for the recovery of volatilizable constituents from underground carbonaceous formations

Cited By (462)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2801089A (en) * 1955-03-14 1957-07-30 California Research Corp Underground shale retorting process
US2788956A (en) * 1955-08-03 1957-04-16 Texas Co Generation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by underground gasification of coal
US2970826A (en) * 1958-11-21 1961-02-07 Texaco Inc Recovery of oil from oil shale
US3139928A (en) * 1960-05-24 1964-07-07 Shell Oil Co Thermal process for in situ decomposition of oil shale
US3437378A (en) * 1967-02-21 1969-04-08 Continental Oil Co Recovery of oil from shale
US3994343A (en) * 1974-03-04 1976-11-30 Occidental Petroleum Corporation Process for in situ oil shale retorting with off gas recycling
US4076312A (en) * 1974-07-29 1978-02-28 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Method and apparatus for retorting oil shale at subatmospheric pressure
US3917344A (en) * 1974-08-22 1975-11-04 Atlantic Richfield Co In situ retorting system
US4007963A (en) * 1975-05-16 1977-02-15 Occidental Petroleum Corporation Oil collection and recovery system for in situ oil shale retort
US3950029A (en) * 1975-06-12 1976-04-13 Mobil Oil Corporation In situ retorting of oil shale
US4140343A (en) * 1977-02-14 1979-02-20 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Gas withdrawal from an in situ oil shale retort
US4133380A (en) * 1977-07-11 1979-01-09 Occidental Oil Shale Establishing a combustion zone below a sill pillar in an in situ oil shale retort
US4153533A (en) * 1977-09-07 1979-05-08 Kirkbride Chalmer G Shale conversion process
US4143917A (en) * 1977-10-11 1979-03-13 Continental Oil Company In-situ retorting of oil shale with in-situ formed arches
US4239283A (en) * 1979-03-05 1980-12-16 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. In situ oil shale retort with intermediate gas control
US5024487A (en) * 1990-01-29 1991-06-18 Woestemeyer Henry J Method of creating an underground batch retort complex
US6752210B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US20020040778A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-04-11 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US20020046883A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-04-25 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US20020049360A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-04-25 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture including ammonia
US20020076212A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-06-20 Etuan Zhang In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation producing a mixture with oxygenated hydrocarbons
US20020132862A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-09-19 Vinegar Harold J. Production of synthesis gas from a coal formation
US6994168B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Scott Lee Wellington In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio
US6991031B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to convert a selected total organic carbon content into hydrocarbon products
US6973967B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-12-13 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a coal formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6997255B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment
US6789625B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-09-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using exposed metal heat sources
US20090101346A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2009-04-23 Shell Oil Company, Inc. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7798221B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20110088904A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2011-04-21 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6994161B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Kevin Albert Maher In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected moisture content
US6966372B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids
US6581684B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-06-24 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US6959761B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6591906B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected oxygen content
US6591907B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6953087B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-10-11 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a permeability of the formation
US6948563B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US6923258B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processsing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6913078B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-07-05 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively impermeable formation
US6910536B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US6902004B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a movable heating element
US6902003B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation having a selected total organic carbon content
US6896053B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-24 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6889769B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected moisture content
US6880635B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6877554B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6607033B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-19 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a condensate
US6871707B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6609570B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-26 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and ammonia production
US6866097B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to increase a permeability/porosity of the formation
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US7096941B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with heat sources located at an edge of a coal layer
US7086468B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US8225866B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2012-07-24 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20020027001A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-03-07 Wellington Scott L. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a selected gas mixture
US6820688B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-11-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio
US6805195B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-10-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US7017661B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-28 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a coal formation
US6769485B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation through a heat source wellbore
US6769483B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor in conduit heat sources
US6722430B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected oxygen content and/or selected O/C ratio
US8485252B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2013-07-16 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6763886B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6761216B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US8789586B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6758268B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6688387B1 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-02-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a hydrocarbon condensate
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US7036583B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-05-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a porosity of the formation
US6702016B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources located at an edge of a formation layer
US6708758B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6712135B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation in reducing environment
US6712136B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a selected production well spacing
US6712137B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6715547B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to form a substantially uniform, high permeability formation
US6715549B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected atomic oxygen to carbon ratio
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6719047B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a hydrogen-rich environment
US6722431B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively permeable formation
US6722429B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6749021B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a controlled heating rate
US6725928B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a distributed combustor
US6725921B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6725920B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to convert a selected amount of total organic carbon into hydrocarbon products
US6729401B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and ammonia production
US6729396B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6729395B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6729397B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6732795B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6732796B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6732794B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6736215B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration
US6739393B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and tuning production
US6739394B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6742593B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat transfer from a heat transfer fluid to heat the formation
US6742587B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to form a substantially uniform, relatively high permeable formation
US6742588B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce formation fluids having a relatively low olefin content
US6742589B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6745832B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to control product composition
US6745831B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6745837B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a controlled heating rate
US6994160B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US7040399B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US7040400B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation using an open wellbore
US20030209348A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-11-13 Ward John Michael In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation
US7040397B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation
US7032660B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-04-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US7040398B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US7051811B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US7051807B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US7055600B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US7066254B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20040211557A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Cole Anthony Thomas Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20040211554A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Vinegar Harold J. Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030173078A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-18 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US20030173080A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-18 Berchenko Ilya Emil In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US20030164239A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US7096942B1 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation while controlling pressure
US20030148894A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US6877555B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US20030146002A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. Removable heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US6880633B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US7013972B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-03-21 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030141068A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Pierre De Rouffignac Eric In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US20030142964A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US20030141066A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Karanikas John Michael In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US20030141067A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation
US20030136559A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US20030136558A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US6915850B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US6918443B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6918442B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US6923257B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US20030137181A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6929067B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-16 Shell Oil Company Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030131996A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US20030131993A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Etuan Zhang In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US6948562B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company Production of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation
US6951247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-10-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US20030131995A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation to increase permeability of the formation
US20030116315A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-26 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US6964300B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore
US20030111223A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-19 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US20030102125A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US7004247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030102130A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US20100270015A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2010-10-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030102126A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Sumnu-Dindoruk Meliha Deniz In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US7735935B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2010-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US20030102124A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a blending agent from a relatively permeable formation
US20080314593A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2008-12-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US7004251B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation
US20030100451A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Messier Margaret Ann In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore
US7225866B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2007-06-05 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US20030098149A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US20030098605A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US6981548B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US6997518B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US6991033B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US6991036B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US6991032B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US6994169B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US6966374B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US20030155111A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-21 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20060213657A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2006-09-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US7156176B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-02 Shell Oil Company Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US7461691B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2008-12-09 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6969123B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-11-29 Shell Oil Company Upgrading and mining of coal
US6932155B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-08-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US20050092483A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2005-05-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US8627887B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2014-01-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20040040715A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-03-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20040020642A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-02-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US20030205378A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-11-06 Wellington Scott Lee In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030201098A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-30 Karanikas John Michael In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using one or more simulations
US20030196788A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials when treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030196789A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and upgrading of produced fluids prior to further treatment
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030196801A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US20030196810A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US7063145B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-20 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation in situ with an opening contacting the earth's surface at two locations
US7066257B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030192691A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-16 Vinegar Harold J. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US7128153B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-31 Shell Oil Company Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US7077199B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US7077198B2 (en) * 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US7086465B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030173072A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US20030173082A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US7114566B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US7100994B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-05 Shell Oil Company Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials when treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US6991045B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US20070209799A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2007-09-13 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7182132B2 (en) 2002-01-15 2007-02-27 Independant Energy Partners, Inc. Linearly scalable geothermic fuel cells
US6684948B1 (en) 2002-01-15 2004-02-03 Marshall T. Savage Apparatus and method for heating subterranean formations using fuel cells
US20050016729A1 (en) * 2002-01-15 2005-01-27 Savage Marshall T. Linearly scalable geothermic fuel cells
US7219734B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2007-05-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20040145969A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-07-29 Taixu Bai Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8238730B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-08-07 Shell Oil Company High voltage temperature limited heaters
US7121341B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit temperature limited heaters
US8224163B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US7073578B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-07-11 Shell Oil Company Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8224164B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US20040144541A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-07-29 Picha Mark Gregory Forming wellbores using acoustic methods
US7942203B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7640980B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2010-01-05 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US8579031B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2013-11-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7360588B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2008-04-22 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7424915B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-09-16 Shell Oil Company Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US7510000B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-03-31 Shell Oil Company Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7357180B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-15 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US7431076B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-10-07 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US20050269089A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US7490665B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-02-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US20050269313A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US7481274B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-01-27 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US20050269095A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Fairbanks Michael D Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US7383877B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-06-10 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US20060005968A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2006-01-12 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US20050269090A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US20050269092A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US7320364B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-01-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US20050269091A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Guillermo Pastor-Sanz Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20050269088A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US20060289536A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2006-12-28 Vinegar Harold J Subsurface electrical heaters using nitride insulation
US20050269077A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US20050269094A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Harris Christopher K Triaxial temperature limited heater
US7353872B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-08 Shell Oil Company Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US7370704B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-05-13 Shell Oil Company Triaxial temperature limited heater
US8355623B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US20050269093A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US20090120845A1 (en) * 2005-04-11 2009-05-14 Yates James P Beneficiation of Hydrocarbons From Mineral Matrices
US7831133B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration
US20070137856A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-21 Mckinzie Billy J Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US20070144732A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-28 Kim Dong S Low temperature barriers for use with in situ processes
US7942197B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US7527094B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US7860377B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-12-28 Shell Oil Company Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US8230927B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US20070133961A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Fairbanks Michael D Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US8233782B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US20080217321A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2008-09-11 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US7986869B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-07-26 Shell Oil Company Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US8027571B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US8070840B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-12-06 Shell Oil Company Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US20070133960A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Vinegar Harold J In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US7546873B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-06-16 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barriers for use with in situ processes
US20070045266A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Sandberg Chester L In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7575052B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20070119098A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-31 Zaida Diaz Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US20070108200A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US20070108201A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Vinegar Harold J Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase wye configuration
US7435037B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2008-10-14 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US7575053B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US20070133959A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Vinegar Harold J Grouped exposed metal heaters
US20070045267A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US20070045265A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US20070045268A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US8224165B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US7500528B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-03-10 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US7831134B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US7556095B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-07 Shell Oil Company Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent
US8151880B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of making transportation fuel
US7581589B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-01 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US7584789B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products
US7591310B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-22 Shell Oil Company Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds
US8606091B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2013-12-10 Shell Oil Company Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US20110168394A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2011-07-14 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US20090301724A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2009-12-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US7562706B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-21 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations
US7635025B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20080107577A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2008-05-08 Vinegar Harold J Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070221377A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-09-27 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070131419A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Maria Roes Augustinus W Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US20070131420A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Weijian Mo Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products
US7556096B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-07 Shell Oil Company Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations
US7559367B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-14 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation
US20070131427A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Ruijian Li Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations
US7559368B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070127897A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-07 John Randy C Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US7549470B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-06-23 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070095536A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070125533A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-07 Minderhoud Johannes K Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds
US20080173442A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Vinegar Harold J Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US7533719B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-05-19 Shell Oil Company Wellhead with non-ferromagnetic materials
US20080035346A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vijay Nair Methods of producing transportation fuel
US20100272595A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2010-10-28 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US20080035348A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vitek John M Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US8857506B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2014-10-14 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes
US20080035705A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Menotti James L Welding shield for coupling heaters
US20080038144A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Maziasz Phillip J High strength alloys
US7610962B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-11-03 Shell Oil Company Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment
US20080035347A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Brady Michael P Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US8192682B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US7785427B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-08-31 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US7912358B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-03-22 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US7793722B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-09-14 Shell Oil Company Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US7683296B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US7673786B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Welding shield for coupling heaters
US20080173444A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Francis Marion Stone Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US7635023B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7597147B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-10-06 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US7604052B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-10-20 Shell Oil Company Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process
US8083813B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-12-27 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing transportation fuel
US7866385B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US7631689B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-12-15 Shell Oil Company Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20080174115A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Gene Richard Lambirth Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US20080173449A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Thomas David Fowler Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment
US20080173450A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Bernard Goldberg Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7635024B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures
US7681647B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US7631690B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-12-15 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence
US20080185147A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-08-07 Vinegar Harold J Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20080217004A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
US20080217016A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 George Leo Stegemeier Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US20080142216A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-19 Vinegar Harold J Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US20080142217A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-19 Roelof Pieterson Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US7644765B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-01-12 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US20080217003A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 Myron Ira Kuhlman Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US7673681B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US7677314B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations
US20080135244A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 David Scott Miller Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
US20080217015A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 Vinegar Harold J Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence
US20080277113A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-11-13 George Leo Stegemeier Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US20080135253A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 Vinegar Harold J Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US20080135254A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20080283246A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-11-20 John Michael Karanikas Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures
US7730945B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US7703513B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-04-27 Shell Oil Company Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20080128134A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-05 Ramesh Raju Mudunuri Producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US7845411B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-12-07 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7841401B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US8191630B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7717171B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-05-18 Shell Oil Company Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US20090014181A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2009-01-15 Vinegar Harold J Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US20090014180A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2009-01-15 George Leo Stegemeier Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US7730947B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7677310B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US8555971B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2013-10-15 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7730946B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7562707B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-07-21 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
US7540324B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-06-02 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
US20100276141A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2010-11-04 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US8381815B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-02-26 Shell Oil Company Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US9181780B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2015-11-10 Shell Oil Company Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations
US8042610B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-10-25 Shell Oil Company Parallel heater system for subsurface formations
US7798220B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US20090071652A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-19 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US8791396B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US20090078461A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-26 Arthur James Mansure Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US20090090509A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-09 Vinegar Harold J In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8662175B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-03-04 Shell Oil Company Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US8327681B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes
US20090095479A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 John Michael Karanikas Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US7931086B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-04-26 Shell Oil Company Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US20090084547A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-02 Walter Farman Farmayan Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US7832484B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-16 Shell Oil Company Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US20090120646A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-05-14 Dong Sub Kim Electrically isolating insulated conductor heater
US7841425B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US7841408B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US20090095478A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 John Michael Karanikas Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US7849922B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-12-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20090126929A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-05-21 Vinegar Harold J Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US20090095480A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US7950453B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-05-31 Shell Oil Company Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US20090321075A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-12-31 Christopher Kelvin Harris Parallel heater system for subsurface formations
US20090095476A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Scott Vinh Nguyen Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US20090095477A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Scott Vinh Nguyen Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US8459359B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-06-11 Shell Oil Company Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US8272455B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-09-25 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US20090189617A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-07-30 David Burns Continuous subsurface heater temperature measurement
US7866386B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US7866388B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US20090200025A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 Jose Luis Bravo High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US8240774B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-08-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US8011451B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-09-06 Shell Oil Company Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20090194269A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Vinegar Harold J Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US8536497B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2013-09-17 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US20090194524A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Dong Sub Kim Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US20090194333A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Macdonald Duncan Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20090194329A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Rosalvina Ramona Guimerans Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US8146661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Cryogenic treatment of gas
US8146669B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation
US20090194282A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Gary Lee Beer In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US20090200854A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US8196658B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-06-12 Shell Oil Company Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8162059B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations
US8113272B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-02-14 Shell Oil Company Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US20090200031A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 David Scott Miller Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8276661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-10-02 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier
US8172335B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-08 Shell Oil Company Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8162405B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272578A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 Macdonald Duncan Charles Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20090260823A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Robert George Prince-Wright Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090260824A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 David Booth Burns Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272535A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 David Booth Burns Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272533A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 David Booth Burns Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100071904A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2010-03-25 Shell Oil Company Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8562078B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2013-10-22 Shell Oil Company Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8752904B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-06-17 Shell Oil Company Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US9528322B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2016-12-27 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8636323B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-01-28 Shell Oil Company Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8177305B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-15 Shell Oil Company Heater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8151907B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US9129728B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US8267170B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US8261832B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-11 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations with fluids
US8281861B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-10-09 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8256512B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-04 Shell Oil Company Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8267185B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US8220539B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US8353347B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100224368A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-09-09 Stanley Leroy Mason Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US8881806B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2014-11-11 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US9022118B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US20100089584A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 David Booth Burns Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US20100089586A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 John Andrew Stanecki Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US9051829B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-06-09 Shell Oil Company Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100096137A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-22 Scott Vinh Nguyen Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US20100101783A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Vinegar Harold J Using self-regulating nuclear reactors in treating a subsurface formation
US20100101784A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Vinegar Harold J Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US20100108379A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-05-06 David Alston Edbury Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US20100108310A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-05-06 Thomas David Fowler Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US20100206570A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-08-19 Ernesto Rafael Fonseca Ocampos Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US20100147522A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-17 Xueying Xie Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US20100147521A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-17 Xueying Xie Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100155070A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-24 Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria Roes Organonitrogen compounds used in treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8327932B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US20110042084A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2011-02-24 Robert Bos Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US20100258265A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 John Michael Karanikas Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US20100258290A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Ronald Marshall Bass Non-conducting heater casings
US20100258291A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Everett De St Remey Edward Heated liners for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8448707B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-28 Shell Oil Company Non-conducting heater casings
US8434555B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-07 Shell Oil Company Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US8851170B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2014-10-07 Shell Oil Company Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US20100258309A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Oluropo Rufus Ayodele Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US8701768B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US8833453B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-16 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness
US9399905B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2016-07-26 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9022109B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8739874B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-06-03 Shell Oil Company Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US9127538B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methodologies for treatment of hydrocarbon formations using staged pyrolyzation
US9127523B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Barrier methods for use in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8875788B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-11-04 Shell Oil Company Low temperature inductive heating of subsurface formations
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3618663A (en) Shale oil production
US3468376A (en) Thermal conversion of oil shale into recoverable hydrocarbons
US3342258A (en) Underground oil recovery from solid oil-bearing deposits
US3521709A (en) Producing oil from oil shale by heating with hot gases
US3593790A (en) Method for producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US3465819A (en) Use of nuclear detonations in producing hydrocarbons from an underground formation
US3138203A (en) Method of underground burning
US3384569A (en) Oil shale retorting
US3273640A (en) Pressure pulsing perpendicular permeability process for winning stabilized primary volatiles from oil shale in situ
US3149670A (en) In-situ heating process
US3352355A (en) Method of recovery of hydrocarbons from solid hydrocarbonaceous formations
US3241611A (en) Recovery of petroleum products from oil shale
US4306621A (en) Method for in situ coal gasification operations
US6016867A (en) Upgrading and recovery of heavy crude oils and natural bitumens by in situ hydrovisbreaking
US7743826B2 (en) In situ method and system for extraction of oil from shale
US4375302A (en) Process for the in situ recovery of both petroleum and inorganic mineral content of an oil shale deposit
US4306961A (en) Process for recovery of hydrocarbons from inorganic host materials
US4495056A (en) Oil shale retorting and retort water purification process
US3024013A (en) Recovery of hydrocarbons by in situ combustion
US4817711A (en) System for recovery of petroleum from petroleum impregnated media
US3379248A (en) In situ combustion process utilizing waste heat
US4669542A (en) Simultaneous recovery of crude from multiple zones in a reservoir
US4501445A (en) Method of in-situ hydrogenation of carbonaceous material
US2795279A (en) Method of underground electrolinking and electrocarbonization of mineral fuels
US4425967A (en) Ignition procedure and process for in situ retorting of oil shale