US261895A - anderson - Google Patents

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US261895A US261895DA US261895A US 261895 A US261895 A US 261895A US 261895D A US261895D A US 261895DA US 261895 A US261895 A US 261895A
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    • H04L12/00Data switching networks


(No Model.) 3 sheets-sheet 1. J. ANDERSON 8v B.. SMITH.
.l ELECTRIC TELEGRAPE. No. 261,895. Patented Aug. 1', 1882.
N PETERS` Phalblhognyher. Washlngnn, D. C.
(No Model.) 4 3 Sheets-Sheet 2.
No. 261,895. Patented Aug. 1, 1882.
N. FEYERS. rhnlvmmgraphgr, wuhi nnnnnnn C.
(No Model.) 3 sheets-sheer. 3.
f BLBGTRIG TELBGRAPH. 110,261,895. Patented Aug. 1, 1882.
SDMM @W- Witnesses Ine/@Livra N. FEYERS. Fhom-Lnhngmphcr. wnshinglun. ELC,
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 261,895, dated August 1, 1882.
Application filed February 1, 1882. (No model.) Patented in England December 20, 1881, No, 5,577.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that we, Sir JAMES ANDERSON and BENJAMIN SMITH, subjects of the Queen ot' Great Britain, residing respectively at 66 Old Broad Street, in the city ot London, and Princes Street,l1anover Square, in the county of Middlesex, England, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Electric Telegraphs, (for which we have made application 1o for Letters Patent in Great Britain, No. 5,577,
dated December 20, 1881,) of which the following is a specilicationw This invention has for its object improvements in electric telegraphs, and relates more especially to the means of and apparatus for retransmitting or translating telegramsfrom one telegraph-cable or .telegraph-line to another.
' operators necessary to be employed and `expedite the transmission of telegrams.
At intermediate cable-stations-such, for example, as Aden, which is connected on the the one hand with Suez and ou the other with Bombay-it has heretofore been usual that each cable should have a separate and complete set of instruments, and the two cables have been independently worked. Thus a telegram received at the intermediate station is usually written out by an operator at one ca- 3o ble and given to the operator at the other cable for retransmission.
Our invention is not confined to the working of cable-lines, but is equally applicable to land -lines, whether aerial or subterranean but for convenience of description we shall speak ot' the invention as applied to a cableline. Neither is it essential to our invention that the recording-instruments should be employed, for other receiviIig-instruments may 4o be made use of; but for convenience of description we shall style the receivinginstrument the recorderr In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a diagram of our arrangement for using one recorder, one transmitting-key, and one switch for the two cables. Fig. 2 is a diagram similar to Fig, 1, but showing also the way of applying another recorder to record the outgo- Our improvements render fewer theV ing signals. Fig. 3 is a plan view, and Figli a vertical section, ot' the switch-box. Fig. 5 shows an arrangement in which each cable has a full set of instruments so arranged that at any time the transmitting-key of one cable can be made use of for translating or retransmitting into the other.
According to the preferred form of our invention, (illustrated in Figs.1, 2, 3. and 4,) we are able to employ one set of instruments, one key, and one recorder 'for the two cables, and for this purpose we employ a novel switch having a lever-handle which has three positions. In the central position of the handle both cables (or the condensers into which the cables work, if such be employed, as is usual,) are connected through the recorder to earth, and
in this position a call-signal sentthrough either cable is received upon the paper ot' the recorder. 'i
When the handle is moved to either side one cable remains connected with the recorder, while the other becomes connected with the key, and through the key with the battery.
The operator then, on receiving a call, moves the handle over from the central position to that side which leaves the calling-station connected with the recorder, and as the telegram comes in he reads it from the paper of the recorder and retransmits it by means ot' the key into the other cable. When the handle ofthe switch is moved over to the other side the couuections are reversed and become suitable for working in the opposite direction through the cables. The same movement oit' the handle alters the battery from what is suitable for one cable to that which the other cable requires.
Referring to the drawings, a b represent the two cables, working into the condensers a.' b' in the way in which it is very usual to employ condensers with cables. Y
c is the recorder. d is the key, and e is the switch. The details ot the construction of the switch are shown lnore especially in Figs. 3 and 4.
j' is the switch-handle, and g g are the two levers, connected with the cables a b at posts L' L", respectively. The drawings represent the levers g g resting against their stops h h,
whichare both connected `with the recorder by wires h h2 to post R', and through the recorder to earth by wire r.
'i and le are blocks, on which the handlepiece f rests in its several positions. The center block, 7c, is connected to earth by wire 7a', and blocks t i are connected with the transmitting-key by wire t". When the handle-piece fis put to one side it lifts one of the levers g and takes one of the cables off the recorder and connects it with the key through the metal of which the handle-piece is formed.
Z and Z are pairs of springs, which, when separated, break the battery-circuit, and the movement of the switch-handle to either sidev presses together one pair of springs' by means of a vulcanite stud provided upon thevhandle, thereby putting on as much of the battery as is required.
Ignoring the condensers, which may or may not be used, and which do not affect the other connections, the circuit may be traced as follows: With the handle-piece f in the central position, as shown in the drawings, an incoming current from cable b passes to bindingpost L", lever g, stop 7L', wire h', opposite stop h, wire h2, post It', and by wire r through the recorder. This circuit is represented. by solid arrows. The circuit from cable a can also be traced by the solid arrows, and follows a substantially similar course to that above traced. The recorder will therefore now respond to signals received over either cable. With the handle to the right the currentfrom cable a passes through the recorder by itscircuit just described, while the cable b will be connected with the key of the battery, the latter circuit being as follows: from key d, by wire to post It, block i, handlef, right-hand lever g, post L, to cable b. With the handle in this position the pair of springs Z will be closed. This will throw only the portion ofthe battery required on the line, as it will be perceived by tracing the line bythe letters Z3 that one of the springs is in connection with one pole of the battery and the other is connected to the middle of the battery. The battery-power may of course be regulated and changed as may be necessary. Two keys, d d, are shown, by means of which either pole of the battery may be thrown on either of the cables. With the cable to the righ t, as above described, with the right-hand key depressed, the circuit will be as follows: from battery to lower bar of key, right-hand key, wire 1", post It, block fi, handlej', right-hand leverg, post L, and cable b, to earth; from earth to left-hand key, d, top
bar of key, wire Z3, post K, springs Z, post It, to opposite pole of battery. By depressing the left-hand key the pole of the battery thrown to the cable, as above described, is grounded and the opposite pole put on the cable. The circuitis as follows: from battery, lower key-bar, earth, from earth, by cable b, post L", righthand lever g, handlef, block i, post It, wire t', right-hand key-lever, top bar of key, wire Z3,
post K, springs l, post- B, to battery again. When key is placed to the left the conditions will be reversed. The cable b will be in connection with the recorder, while the cable a will bein circuit with the battery. The arrangement ofthe parts is symmetrical, and it is therefore unnecessary to trace the circuits again. The springs l', however, are connected with the opposite poles of the battery, as may be traced by following the letters Z4, and the entire battery will therefore be thrown upon the cable a.
In Fig. 2 an exactly similar arrangement is shown, except that the recorderm is placed between the right-handv key d and the bindingpost It. This recorder is partly shunted by the shunt n, s0 that only the required amount of current will pass through the recorder. By this arrangement the message transmitted by the keys over either line will be recorded on the instrument m. The circuits and connections are exactly the same as in Fig. l, and'it is unnecessary therefore to describethem again.
In Fig. 5 we have shown an which each cable is provided with its own recorder, switch, and key forindependent working. The connections can at pleasure` be changed so that the key of one cable is made available for retransmittin g into the other cable. Each switch, like the switch already described, consists of a handle having three positions-a middle position and two side positions-the latter being respectively the sending and the receiving positions. In the middle position the cable, or the condenser into which it works, (where such a condenser is ernployed,) is connected to earth both through the shunt and the recorder. When the handle is inthe receiving position the cable or condenser' is put to earth through the receiver only. When the handle is in the sending position the key is brought in,.and the currents originated by it pass to the cable or condenser both by the shunt and the recorder, which then keeps a record of the outgoing signals. By means of peg-commutators the connections of the keys can bechanged so th at the key properly belonging to one set of instruments becomes temporarily the key of the other set. Thus an operator, as he reads an incoming telegram on his own recorder, can retransmit it at once by the other cable. A record of the outgoin g signals is kept upon the second recorder. For working in the contrary direction all that is required is to move the switch handles over and to alter the positions of the pegs in the commutators. Also, the two-cables can be rendered wholly independent by changing the positions of the pegs of the commutators.
Referring to the drawings, a and b are the cables, a b' their condensers. c c are the record ers, and cZ d are the keys. The recorders are in each case connected with the receivingcondenser on the one side and the handle p of the switch on the other. lVhen the switchhandle is in the middle position, as shown, the
recorder is connected through the handle to earth, the handle-piece resting on the eartheonnected block q. The shunt r is also earthronnected through the side lever, s', the handle p, and the block q. When the handle is moved to the right-which is the receiving` side-it rests upon another earth -connected block, t; but the handle-piecep has passed out of contact with the lever s and the shunt-circuit is broken. By passing the handle over to the left it is brought into contact with the block u, which is connected with the transmitting-key, asis shown, and also into contact with the stud c, connected with the shunt, so that the key-currents are divided, part going along the handle to the recorder and part going by the lever s to thelshunt. The connections for the most part are double, whereby the risk of bad contacts is greatly lessened.
`w w are peg-commutators. By shifting the pegs the transmitting-keys are, as will be seen, in effect changed over from the one cable to the other.
It will beohserved that the handlep is always connected with the line, either through the recortler or otherwise. Both the levers s s rest against the handle when it is in the middle position; but the handle leaves the earth-lever when it is put over to the sending side, and it leaves the shunt-lever when it is put over to the receiving side. The circuits are as follows: With the switch-lever put over to the right hand for receiving, an incoming current from the cable a will pass to the recorder c, post L, lever p, block t, binding-post I, to earth. An outgoing current on the same cable, with the leverp put over to left and with the peg in the hole s of the coinmutator, would be as follows: from battery to S, binding-post K, and block u. The current now divides, part passing from u, by handle p, post L, recorder c, to cable a, the other part of the current passing, by block c, post S, shunt r, to cable a. The current passes from cable to earth to key and battery again.
The arrangement ot apparatus for the cable b is similar and need not be described.
For receiving by cable a and transmitting through cable b with the left-hand key, or the key belonging to line l, the switch-lever p of the right-hand'switch is placed to the left for sending and the lever of the left-hand switch is placed to right for receiving. lhe peg is put into the hole T ofthe lett-hand commutator. The circuits may now be traced as before; but it will be observed that the key-currents from the keyof line lwill pass into the cable b. The circuits are the same as those above described and need not be repeated.
Having thus described the nature of our said invention and the manner of performing the same, Awe would have it understood that We claim- 1. The combination, substantial] yas setforth, with two telegraph-lines, of a receiving-instrument, a transinitting-instrument, and a switch, which latter, when in one position, permits the receiver to respond to signals coming over either line, and in the second position causes the receiver to respond to signals received over one line and throws the transmitter into the other line, and in the third position reverses the relations of the transmitter and receiver to the respective circuits, so that messages can be received from either circuit and transmitted over the other.
2. Thecombination,substantially as set forth, of two telegraph-lines which are both grounded through a receiving-instrument or recorder common to both lines, the switch-lever, and its central, right, and left contacts and connections, the battery, and the transmittingkey, the organization being such that when the switch-lever is in its normal central position both lines will pass through the recorder, when the switch is set over to one side one line will pass to earth through the recorder and the other line will be put in circuit wit-h the key and battery, and when the switch is set over to the opposite side the relations of the lines to the recorder and to the key and battery will be reversed, for the purpose set forth.
3. Thecombination,substantiallyas seti'orth,
of two telegraph-lines, the receiving or record inginstrumentcommontobothlines,theswitch lever, and its central, right, and left contacts and connections, the battery, the transmittingkey, and the second recorder placed in the battery-circuit between'the key 'and switch, for the purpose set forth.
4. Thecombination,substantiallyassetforlh, of two telegraph-lines, the receiving or recording instrument, the three-point switch-lever and its contact-blocks and connections, the contact-arms g g, the battery contact-springs l l', the battery, the circuits l" l4 of the battery contact-springs, and the transmitting-key.
5. Thecombination,substantiallyassettbrth, of the two telegraph-lines, the switch lever or handle, the battery contact-springs l l', the battery, the circuits Z314 of the battery contact-springs, which circuits include different strengths of battery, andthe transmitting-key.
J oHN DEAN,4 Gmo. J. B. FRANKLIN, Both of 17 Gracechurch St., London, E. 0.V
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