US2618928A - Combustion apparatus with vaned fuel injector means - Google Patents

Combustion apparatus with vaned fuel injector means Download PDF

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Publication number
US2618928A
US2618928A US595297A US59529745A US2618928A US 2618928 A US2618928 A US 2618928A US 595297 A US595297 A US 595297A US 59529745 A US59529745 A US 59529745A US 2618928 A US2618928 A US 2618928A
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Prior art keywords
burner
means
vaned
fuel injector
combustion apparatus
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Expired - Lifetime
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US595297A
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Nathan Matthew Lewis
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Power Jets Research and Development Ltd
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Power Jets Research and Development Ltd
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R3/00Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel
    • F23R3/02Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the air-flow or gas-flow configuration
    • F23R3/04Air inlet arrangements
    • F23R3/10Air inlet arrangements for primary air
    • F23R3/12Air inlet arrangements for primary air inducing a vortex
    • F23R3/14Air inlet arrangements for primary air inducing a vortex by using swirl vanes
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • F23D11/24Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space by pressurisation of the fuel before a nozzle through which it is sprayed by a substantial pressure reduction into a space

Description

Nov. 25, 1952 M. NATHAN COMBUSTION APPARATUS WITH VANED FUEL INJECTOR MEANS 2 SHEETS-SHEET 1 Filed May 19, 1945 Wham 1952 M. NATHAN ,928

COMBUSTION APPARATUS WITH VANED FUEL INJECTOR MEANS Filed May 19, 1945 2 swam-smart 2 I nvcn for Patented Nov. 25, 1952 UNITED? STATES PATENT OFFICE COMBUSTION APPARATUS WITH VANED FUEL INJECTOR MEANS Matthew LewislNathan, Godalming, England, as} Signor to Power Jets (Research & Development) Limited, London, England Application May 19, 1945, Serial-No. 595,297 In Great Britain May 19, 1944 as carbon deposition or formationwhich are due to or related to the fact of the burner protruding into a region of reversed air flow or turbulence. Such a case exists, for example, in certain combustion arrangements. of gas turbine engines, where a flame tube in which the general direction of flow is axial, has a burner extending into one end of it axially, and where inorder (among other reasons) to hold the flame back into the burner'at very loW fuel flows, the air flow in the region of the burner is arranged" (usually by means ofswirlers) to have, a-core of reversed direction, 1. e. towards the burner. The invention seeks to obviate adverse effectswhich may arise in. such cases, and also tov perfect burner and combustion devices in which the burner itself has a plurality. of spraying jets arranged in rose fashionv or similarly, which arrangement may be peculiarly susceptible to carbon deposition or formation;

For this purpose, the invention providescombustion apparatus comprising-afuel burner associated with means for opposing'the production of gaseous vortex flow or large scale gaseous turbulence around said burner. Such means may comprise vanes or baffies which may be mounted on or form part of the burner body, in which case they may also have some effect as heat-exchanging fins, or they may be mounted as part of the surrounding combustion equipment, the former being preferred.

By way of example, two forms of embodiment of the invention will be hereinunder described with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

Fig. l is a view in sectional elevation of one form of embodiment of the invention;

Fig.2 is a right hand end view of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a section on the line AB of Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is a view in sectional elevation of a second form of embodiment of the invention.

Fig. 5 is a view in longitudinal section of the embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 1 as it appears in a typical installation in a flame tube.

Referring to the drawings and more particularly to Figs. 1 and 2, the burner body comprises a hollow cylindrical portion I having an axial bore 2 which can be supplied with fuel under pressure through a union 3 which is screw threaded to the cylinder I at its external or rear end. The union Gil -39172.)

. 2 H. 3 is provided with a fiat surface i6 against; which can bear a grub screw- I2 for the purposes of securing the union 3 rigidly-to the body. I. At its inner or forward end the burner body comprises afrusto-conical portion [0- which together with a central portion I3; provide seven channels II of w ich i are arranged symmetrically ar und the axis of the burner body andthe. seventh is; centrally located. 7

Each channel I I; is provided witha nozzle element 4 so that six; of such nozzlesdare arranged symmetrically aroundthe axisof; the cylinder I and protruding in divergent directions, while, a seventh centralnozzle; element 4-is also, provided which is directed axially:

The; nozzle elements 4 are screw threaded into the walls of thechannels, I I and: a plugrS is screw threaded into each nozzle element. Each nozzle 4 is provided with swirling means for producing a rapid swirling motion in the, fuel before it is ejected through the. orifice I! of each nozzle 4. The construction of; one, form of such swirl means is shown in Fig. 3 wherein the swirlingv device 3 comprises a circular chamber I4 towhich fuel is admitted from the space I8 by means of two, tangentially directed channels I5 which are staggered. so as not to be diametrically opposed so, that fuel entering chamber I4 through these channels I5 is given a rapid, swirling motion as indicated by the arrows. Each nozzle element l is provided with a flattened portion to form a communicating duct for the fuel between the channel II and the channels I5.

On the outside of the cylindrical portion I and lying substantially in axial-radial planes are provided a, plurality of vanes I which are integral with or intimately attached to the body I and are preferably located as close as possible to the burner face. These vanes I are shaped at their margins to correspond with the internal shape of the combustion chamber in which the burner is operating so that they form, in effect, baiiles intercepting the space between the burner body I and the end wall (and in some cases the side wall also) of the chamber (as shown in Fig. i) It has been found satisfactory to provide the same number of vanes I as there are lateral nozzles 4, e. g. six in the example illustrated.

In Fig. 4 a second form of embodiment of the invention is shown in which the vanes I are attached to the inner surface of the end wall 22 of a, combustion chamber in which the burner is operating. In this case also, the vanes -I are symmetrically arranged as in Fig. 2, a central and axial gap being left between the vanes 7 for the 3 insertion of the burner. The vanes 1 may be secured to the wall 22 by any suitable means, for example by welding along the edge [9. A ring 20 is integral with the Wall of the combustion chamber and serves to hold the burner firmly in position. A ring 2| is attached to the burner body I after the burner has been inserted to prevent excessive movement of the latter.

The function of the vanes l is to prevent vortex flow around the burner body I which flow may produce a core reversal near the burner with consequent carbon deposition on the burner face.

In Fig. 5 there is shown a burner according to Fig. 4 in a typical installation, in this case a, flame tube of the type described in Lubbock et al. Patent No. 2,398,654. The flame tube 25 is provided with swirlers 23 and 24 which produce a vortex flow having a core of reversed direction towards the burner, i. e., from right to left as shown in the drawing. The burner I extends axially into the flame tube 25 and, as shown in Fig. 4, is provided with a coaxial annular wall 22 Which partially blocks the flow of air through swirlers 23 in the end of the flame tube 25. Vanes l are attached to this wall, and as explained above, they prevent vortex flow occurring in the immediate vicinity of the burner I.

As a secondary function, the vanes I hel in pre-heating the fuel, the pre-heat at low fuel flows being considerable. This has the added advantage of decreasing the flow for a given pressure, thus increasing the range of the burner.

The burner described and constituting a feature of the invention, namely one with a plurality of divergent nozzles each with its own swirl chamber, is very simple and can be made to afiord good atomisation over a wide range.

I claim:

1. Combustion apparatus comprising a flame tube through which a combustion-supporting gas flows in a generally axial direction, a fuel injector extending axially into one end of said tube, an injection nozzle at one end of said injector, entry means into said tube for the gas, swirler means to produce a vortex flow in said tube having a core of reversed direction axially toward said nozzle, wall means in supporting relationship with said injector and extending coaxially therewith to define a chamber, a plurality of axially extending vanes disposed in circum- 4 ferentially spaced relation around said injector and extending radially for the major portion of the distance between said injector and said wall means to divide said chamber into pockets, and said wall means closing said pockets at their ends remote from said nozzle.

2. Combustion apparatus comprising a flame tube through which a combustion-supporting gas flows in a generally axial direction, a fuel injector extending axially into one end of said tube, a plurality of injection nozzles symmetrically disposed and each protruding in a difierent direction at one end of said injector, entry means into said tube for the gas, swirler means to produce a vortex flow in said tube having a core of reversed direction axially toward said nozzles, wall means in supporting relationship with said injector and extending coaxially therewith to define a chamber, a plurality of axially extending vanes disposed in circumferentially spaced relation around said injector and extending radially for the major portion of the distance between said injector and said wall means to divide said chamber into pockets, said wall means closing said pockets at their ends remote from said nozzles, and said vanes and nozzles being circumferentially alternated.

MATTHEW L. NATHAN.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS

US595297A 1944-05-19 1945-05-19 Combustion apparatus with vaned fuel injector means Expired - Lifetime US2618928A (en)

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Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2715813A (en) * 1952-04-14 1955-08-23 Frederick T Holmes Fuel injector and flame holder
US2734560A (en) * 1956-02-14 Burner and combustion system
US2741090A (en) * 1949-06-30 1956-04-10 Rolls Royce Combustion equipment for gas-turbine engines with anticarbon wall portion
US2745250A (en) * 1952-09-26 1956-05-15 Gen Electric Reverse vortex combustion chamber
US2782597A (en) * 1952-03-15 1957-02-26 Gen Electric Combustion chamber having improved air inlet means
US2806356A (en) * 1952-08-27 1957-09-17 Theodore Raymond R Bocchio Combustion initiator
US3019605A (en) * 1956-11-21 1962-02-06 Rolls Royce Combustion apparatus of gas turbine engines with means controlling air flow conditions in the combustion apparatus
US3273343A (en) * 1965-03-08 1966-09-20 Dickens Inc Combustion chamber construction in gas turbine power plant
US3306333A (en) * 1964-03-31 1967-02-28 Bendix Corp Air spray combustor
US3315725A (en) * 1965-10-18 1967-04-25 Phillips Petroleum Co Process and burner and burner assembly for lpg
US3958413A (en) * 1974-09-03 1976-05-25 General Motors Corporation Combustion method and apparatus
US4566268A (en) * 1983-05-10 1986-01-28 Bbc Aktiengesellschaft Brown, Boveri & Cie Multifuel burner
US4653278A (en) * 1985-08-23 1987-03-31 General Electric Company Gas turbine engine carburetor
US5247790A (en) * 1992-09-18 1993-09-28 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Gas turbine fuel nozzle with replaceable cap
EP0711953A2 (en) * 1994-11-12 1996-05-15 Abb Research Ltd. Premix burner
US5826423A (en) * 1996-11-13 1998-10-27 Solar Turbines Incorporated Dual fuel injection method and apparatus with multiple air blast liquid fuel atomizers
US20040237929A1 (en) * 2003-05-30 2004-12-02 Caterpillar Inc. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine
US20050115244A1 (en) * 2002-05-16 2005-06-02 Timothy Griffin Premix burner
US20060086831A1 (en) * 2004-10-26 2006-04-27 Industrial Technology Research Institute High pressure water sprayer
US20090068609A1 (en) * 2006-03-30 2009-03-12 Alstom Technology Ltd Burner Arrangement
US8429915B1 (en) * 2011-10-17 2013-04-30 General Electric Company Injector having multiple fuel pegs

Citations (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1468370A (en) * 1919-06-21 1923-09-18 Anthony Co Nebulizer of liquids
US1529531A (en) * 1924-09-18 1925-03-10 Young George Laing Spray nozzle
US1603032A (en) * 1924-11-19 1926-10-12 Hauck Mfg Co Burner apparatus for liquid fuels
US1855187A (en) * 1928-12-27 1932-04-26 Timken Silent Automatic Compan Oil burner
US1862673A (en) * 1929-04-05 1932-06-14 Thermal Engineering Corp Gas burner
US2097255A (en) * 1937-10-26 Method of and apparatus fob burn
US2140785A (en) * 1935-10-30 1938-12-20 Surface Combustion Corp Firing apparatus for furnaces
US2284906A (en) * 1939-03-06 1942-06-02 Clayton Manufacturing Co Method and apparatus for burning fuel
US2289625A (en) * 1941-06-24 1942-07-14 Joseph E Burns Dental floss holder
US2380463A (en) * 1942-06-23 1945-07-31 Babcock & Wilcox Co Fluent fuel burner
US2385833A (en) * 1943-01-27 1945-10-02 Kevork K Nahigyan Fuel vaporizer for jet propulsion units
US2398654A (en) * 1940-01-24 1946-04-16 Anglo Saxon Petroleum Co Combustion burner
US2404335A (en) * 1939-12-09 1946-07-16 Power Jets Res & Dev Ltd Liquid fuel burner, vaporizer, and combustion engine

Patent Citations (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2097255A (en) * 1937-10-26 Method of and apparatus fob burn
US1468370A (en) * 1919-06-21 1923-09-18 Anthony Co Nebulizer of liquids
US1529531A (en) * 1924-09-18 1925-03-10 Young George Laing Spray nozzle
US1603032A (en) * 1924-11-19 1926-10-12 Hauck Mfg Co Burner apparatus for liquid fuels
US1855187A (en) * 1928-12-27 1932-04-26 Timken Silent Automatic Compan Oil burner
US1862673A (en) * 1929-04-05 1932-06-14 Thermal Engineering Corp Gas burner
US2140785A (en) * 1935-10-30 1938-12-20 Surface Combustion Corp Firing apparatus for furnaces
US2284906A (en) * 1939-03-06 1942-06-02 Clayton Manufacturing Co Method and apparatus for burning fuel
US2404335A (en) * 1939-12-09 1946-07-16 Power Jets Res & Dev Ltd Liquid fuel burner, vaporizer, and combustion engine
US2398654A (en) * 1940-01-24 1946-04-16 Anglo Saxon Petroleum Co Combustion burner
US2289625A (en) * 1941-06-24 1942-07-14 Joseph E Burns Dental floss holder
US2380463A (en) * 1942-06-23 1945-07-31 Babcock & Wilcox Co Fluent fuel burner
US2385833A (en) * 1943-01-27 1945-10-02 Kevork K Nahigyan Fuel vaporizer for jet propulsion units

Cited By (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2734560A (en) * 1956-02-14 Burner and combustion system
US2741090A (en) * 1949-06-30 1956-04-10 Rolls Royce Combustion equipment for gas-turbine engines with anticarbon wall portion
US2782597A (en) * 1952-03-15 1957-02-26 Gen Electric Combustion chamber having improved air inlet means
US2715813A (en) * 1952-04-14 1955-08-23 Frederick T Holmes Fuel injector and flame holder
US2806356A (en) * 1952-08-27 1957-09-17 Theodore Raymond R Bocchio Combustion initiator
US2745250A (en) * 1952-09-26 1956-05-15 Gen Electric Reverse vortex combustion chamber
US3019605A (en) * 1956-11-21 1962-02-06 Rolls Royce Combustion apparatus of gas turbine engines with means controlling air flow conditions in the combustion apparatus
US3306333A (en) * 1964-03-31 1967-02-28 Bendix Corp Air spray combustor
US3273343A (en) * 1965-03-08 1966-09-20 Dickens Inc Combustion chamber construction in gas turbine power plant
US3315725A (en) * 1965-10-18 1967-04-25 Phillips Petroleum Co Process and burner and burner assembly for lpg
US3958413A (en) * 1974-09-03 1976-05-25 General Motors Corporation Combustion method and apparatus
US4566268A (en) * 1983-05-10 1986-01-28 Bbc Aktiengesellschaft Brown, Boveri & Cie Multifuel burner
US4653278A (en) * 1985-08-23 1987-03-31 General Electric Company Gas turbine engine carburetor
US5247790A (en) * 1992-09-18 1993-09-28 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Gas turbine fuel nozzle with replaceable cap
EP0711953A2 (en) * 1994-11-12 1996-05-15 Abb Research Ltd. Premix burner
EP0711953A3 (en) * 1994-11-12 1997-09-03 Abb Research Ltd Premix burner
US5826423A (en) * 1996-11-13 1998-10-27 Solar Turbines Incorporated Dual fuel injection method and apparatus with multiple air blast liquid fuel atomizers
US7013648B2 (en) * 2002-05-16 2006-03-21 Alstom Technology Ltd. Premix burner
US20050115244A1 (en) * 2002-05-16 2005-06-02 Timothy Griffin Premix burner
US20070215099A1 (en) * 2003-05-30 2007-09-20 Caterpillar Inc. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine
US7032566B2 (en) 2003-05-30 2006-04-25 Caterpillar Inc. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine
US7909271B2 (en) 2003-05-30 2011-03-22 Caterpillar Inc. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine
US20060231064A1 (en) * 2003-05-30 2006-10-19 Caterpillar Inc. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine
US20040237929A1 (en) * 2003-05-30 2004-12-02 Caterpillar Inc. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine
US7290520B2 (en) 2003-05-30 2007-11-06 Caterpillar Inc Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine
US7444980B2 (en) 2003-05-30 2008-11-04 Caterpillar Inc. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine
US20080308656A1 (en) * 2003-05-30 2008-12-18 Caterpillar Inc. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine
US20060086831A1 (en) * 2004-10-26 2006-04-27 Industrial Technology Research Institute High pressure water sprayer
US20090068609A1 (en) * 2006-03-30 2009-03-12 Alstom Technology Ltd Burner Arrangement
US8801429B2 (en) * 2006-03-30 2014-08-12 Alstom Technology Ltd Burner arrangement
US8429915B1 (en) * 2011-10-17 2013-04-30 General Electric Company Injector having multiple fuel pegs

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