US2584572A - Musical instrument - Google Patents

Musical instrument Download PDF

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Publication number
US2584572A
US2584572A US657460A US65746046A US2584572A US 2584572 A US2584572 A US 2584572A US 657460 A US657460 A US 657460A US 65746046 A US65746046 A US 65746046A US 2584572 A US2584572 A US 2584572A
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Prior art keywords
comb
reed
plates
instrument
teeth
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US657460A
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Gaukstern Joseph
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CHRIS KRATT Co
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CHRIS KRATT Co
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/12Free-reed wind instruments
    • G10D7/14Mouth-organs

Description

Feb. 5, 1952 J, GAUKSTERN 2,584,572

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed MflICh 2'7, 1946 INVENTOR JOSEPH GAUKSTERN A ORNEY Patented Feb. 5, 1952 MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Joseph Gaukstern, Maplewood, N. J assignor to Chris Kratt Company, Union, N. .1.

Application March 27, 1946, Serial No. 657,460

4 Claims. 1

My invention relates to musical instruments, more particularly to reed instruments played by the breath.

In a conventional device referred to as a barmonica, an elongated fiat tooth-like member referred to as a comb has attached to opposite faces reed plates, usually of metal, supporting a plurality of reeds which are positioned and supported in registry with elongated apertures or slots in the plates. These slots and reeds register with the spaces between the teeth of the comb member. These plates are usually nailed or stapled to the flat elongated comb. Positioned over the plates to protect the reeds and provide a smooth exterior are cover plates, likewise nailed or stapled to the comb. The comb is usually of hard wood. The reeds themselves are usually thin elongated metal ribbons secured to the plate by means of separate rivets so as to lie adjacent the slots and in registry therewith.

In assembly the comb and the reed plates are more or less aligned by eye, the nails extend through the reed plates into the comb. The cover plates are then also nailed to the comb. In fixing the reed plates and cover plates alignment can be and is frequently aiiected and the nails or staples are not always as tight as they should be. This permits the reed plates under certain conditions to vibrate along with the reeds causing impure tones and. lack of resonance. Lack of tightness also causes loss of air, thereby increasing the energy required for operating the instrument and causing inferior quality of tone. In time nails or staples become loose, not only due to use but also due to the fact that the wood of the comb, because of absorbed moisture, alterna-tely swells and contracts. This may permit shifting of the reed plates and contact between reeds and the comb teeth, thus destroying the value of the instrument.

Another objectionable feature to the use of wood combs is that it is extremely difi'icult to make one comb the exact duplicate of another. This requires more adjustments in assembly and increases the time of assembly which is required. The alternate swelling and contraction of the wood, due to absorption of moisture, may also be the cause of cracks in the wood, thereby affecting clarity of tones and resonance, and rendering the instrument to be in most cases unplayable.

It is customary to make the comb in such a way that the longitudinal axis coincides with the ai of t e Woo he teeth, in u a ros t e ra n. As a resul it s d f i lt o'r un l h n s of the teeth of the comb, the resulting sharp edges causing irritation of the lips and tongue of the player.

With. the usual nailed construction it is impossible to either clean or repair the instrument or to tighten up the parts once they become loose, because removing the nails or staples damages the instrument beyond repair as a rule.

It is, therefore, an object of my invention to provide an. improved musical instrument of the reed type which is played by the breath.

Another object of my invention is to provide such an instrument which may be quickly, accurately and automatically lined up, thereby increasing production and insuring a more accurate construction.

Another object of my invention is to provide an instrument which is air-tight and in which the various elements are firmly and tightly secured together as a compact unit.

Another object of my invention is to provide a comb of a construction and material which elimihates absorption of moisture, loosening of the parts and cracking and which can be accurately made and duplicated.

a still further object of my invention is to provide such an instrument which may be dis.- sembled for cleaning and which can be easily rep eel or tightened.

These and other objects will appear hereinafter.

The novel features which I believe to be characteristic of my invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims, but the invention itself will best be understood by reference to the following description taken in connection with h accompanying drawing in which Figure 1 a plan view with parts broken away to show details of construction, Figure 2 is a section taken along the line 2-4 of Figure 1, Figure 3 is exploded view in perspective showing details of construction and method of assembly, Figure c a plan of a detail showing the reed plate and reed, and Figure 5 is a section taken along the line e e of Figure 4.

in accordance with my invention I provide an elongated flat comb member Iii having a plurality of teeth 5!, i2 and. I3 rounded as indicated. This cornb plate is provided with a pair of shoulders 1 and is extending along one longitudinal edge for purposes to be described. I preferably mould this comb element of some plastic material, thus insuring accurate and like pieces under all conditions. The molded comb is not subject to splitting, will not absorb moisture and thus will not contract and expand under playing condi tions and loosen the parts of the instruments.

Because of the rounded teeth, no irritation is caused by contact of the tongue or lips with the teeth on the comb.

It is highly desirable that the reed plates should be tight against a surface of the comb and that no air escape during playing except by the reeds. The reed plates [6 and l! are secured to'opposite faces of the comb ID by means of the screws and nuts [8, l9 and 20. They are assembled by inserting the reed plates and comb plate in a fixture. the reed plates being slightly wider than the comb so that pressure may be exerted against the free edges to push the plates against the shoulders I4 and IS. The screws and nuts are then positioned in place and the plates tightened down against the comb by drawing up the screws and nuts. This not only tightens the plates against the opposite faces of the comb, but also places the ed es tightly against the shoulders 14 and IE to further insure a mechanically tight and air-tight assembly. This prevents shifting of the reed plates and binds the reed plates and comb solidly into one compact body which improves the tone as to clearness and volume. As pointed out above, the shoulders serve to establish a close contact with the reed plates and thereby act to prevent escape of air which reduces the consumption of air while playing the instrument and improves the ton be ides making the instrument easy to play. The shoulders further serve to bind the reed plates and comb element into one solid, tight body. The shoulder also permits uniform and accurate assembly of the elements of the instrument as the shoulders serve as an end base for the reed plate The cover plates 2! and 22 may th n be positioned over the reed plates and secured to the omb and reed plates by nuts and screws such as 25 and 25 passing through the cover plates, reed plates and comb.

Because of the fact that the elements are bolted together, they may easily be taken apart for cleaning and repairing or may be easily ti htened without any harm or dama e to any component parts. quality of the instrument.

In accordance with my invention the reed plat s are provided with a plurality of slots, such as 30 shown in Figure 5, with which the reed element, such as 31, re isters. provided with a square head 32, which is apertured. The reed plate i6 is provided with an extruded portion 33 which is received within the aperture within the head 32 of the reed. The extrusion is then peened over as at 45. way an extra element is saved and an extra operation of inserting a rivet through the aperture in the reed plate and the reed is also eliminated. If desired the extruded portion could be made square as well as the aperture in the reed so that the reeds are automatically and accurately positioned when received over the extrusion.

While I have indicated the preferred embodiments of my invention of which I am now aware and have also indicated only one specific application for which my invention may be employed, it will be apparent that my invention is by no means limited to the exact forms illustrated or th use indicated, but that many variations may be made in the particular structure used and the purpose for which it is employed without departing from the scope of my invention as set forth in the appended claims.

What I claim as new is:

1. A reed instrument including a molded This prolongs the life and The reed 3! is In this u elongated plate-like comb element of plastic material and having along one edge shoulders having inside shoulders normal to the surface of said plate-like comb element, and a plurality of teeth along the other edge, reed plates coextensive with said comb element and each having one longitudinal edge in engagement with an inside surface of a shoulder, the other longitudinal edge of each of said reed plates extending slightly beyond the ends of the teeth of said comb element, said comb element and said reed plates having registering apertures extending therethrough adjacent said shoulder and screw means for maintaining said reed plates and said comb element in engagement, and cover plates extending coextensive with said comb element and said reed plates, the ends of said comb element, reed plates and cover plates having registering apertures extending therethrough, and screw means bolting said reed plates, cover plates and comb element compactly and tightly together, said reed plates h ving reeds registering with the spaces betwee' d teeth, said plates having integral extru portions extending through the reeds and pee 5d over against said reeds to secure said reeds to said plates, said teeth being rounded heir outer ends, said reed plates permitting pressure to be applied to said other longitudinal edges upon assembly of said instrument whereby said screw means can be tightened to lock the elements of said instriunent in aligne and tight assembly.

2. A reed instrument including a molded clon gated plate-like comb element of plastic material having along one edge shoulders having inside surfaces normal to the surfaces of the platelike comb element, and a plurality of teeth alon the other edge, the ends of said teeth on said comb element being rounded, reed plates c0extensive with said comb element and each having one longitudinal edge in engagement with an inside surface of a shoulder, the other longitudinal edge of said reed plates extending slightly beyond the ends of the teeth of said comb element, said comb element and said reed plates having registering apertures extending therethrough adjacent said shoulders, and screw means for maintaining said reed plates and said comb element in engagement, cover plates extending coextensive with said comb element and said reed plates, the ends of said comb element, r ed plates and cover plates having registering aper ures thcrethrough, said reed plates permitting "ssure to be applied to the other longitudinal e es upon assembly of said instrument whereby said screw means be extended through said re istering apertures for bolting said reed plates, cover plates and comb element in aligned and tight assembly.

3. A musical instrument including a molded, elongated, plate-like element of plastic material and having a plurality of teeth along one edge and shoulders having inside surfaces normal to the opposite faces of said plate-like comb ele ment at its opposite edge, a reed plate coextensive with each face of said comb element and having one longitudinal edge in engagement with an inside surface of a shoulder, the other longi-- tudinal edge of said reed plates extending slightly beyond the ends of the teeth of said comb element and means clamping said reed plates against said shoulders and the faces of said comb element, the ends of said teeth of said comb element being rounded, said reed plates permitting pressure to be applied to said other longitudinal edges upon assembly of said instrument whereby molded, elongated, plate-like comb element of 5 plastic material having along one edge shoulders having inside surfaces extending from opposite faces of and normal to the faces of said plate-like comb element, a reed plate on each face of said comb element and coextensive of said comb element and having one longitudinal edge in engagement with the inside surface of an adjacent shoulder and means clamping said reed plate against the face of said comb element, the thickness of said reed plate and the height of said shoulder being substantially the same whereby said shoulder and the surface of said reed plate are flush with each other, the other edge of said reed plate extending slightly beyond the ends of the teeth of said comb element, the ends of said teeth being rounded, said reed plates ,permitting pressure to be applied to said other edges upon assembly of said instrument whereby said clamping means can be locked in place with the elements of said instrument in an aligned and tight assembly.

JOSEPH GAUKS'I'ERN.

6 REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent: 1

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 351,049 Hammond Oct 19, 1886 588,107 Fairfield Aug, 10, 1897 611,237 Curtis Sept. 27, 1898 1,009,903 Hohner Nov. 28, 1911 1,434,838 Oedell Nov. 7, 1922 1,518,257 Dusinberre Dec. 9, 1924 2,407,312 Magnus Sept. 10, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 35,345 Germany of 1891 55,345 Germany Feb. 18, 1891 268,675 Germany Dec. 27, 1913 382,123 Germany Sept. 28, 1923 69,592 Australia Aug. 10, 1915

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2718808A (en) * 1951-07-24 1955-09-27 Finn H Magnus Harmonica construction
US4502362A (en) * 1982-09-22 1985-03-05 Matth. Hohner Ag Mouth organ
US20100242706A1 (en) * 2009-03-25 2010-09-30 Math. Hohner AG Comb

Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE268675C (en) *
DE55345C (en) *
DE35345C (en) *
US351049A (en) * 1886-10-19 Reed for musical instruments
US588107A (en) * 1897-08-10 Harmonica
US611237A (en) * 1898-09-27 Charles l
US1009903A (en) * 1911-06-20 1911-11-28 Matthias Hohner Mouth-harmonica.
US1434838A (en) * 1922-05-15 1922-11-07 Waterbury Clock Co Watch
DE382123C (en) * 1923-09-28 Hohner Ag Matth harmonica
US1518257A (en) * 1921-05-19 1924-12-09 Glenora Harmonica Company Inc Harmonica
US2407312A (en) * 1943-02-20 1946-09-10 Internat Plastic Harmonica Cor Plastic harmonica

Patent Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE268675C (en) *
DE55345C (en) *
DE35345C (en) *
US351049A (en) * 1886-10-19 Reed for musical instruments
US588107A (en) * 1897-08-10 Harmonica
US611237A (en) * 1898-09-27 Charles l
DE382123C (en) * 1923-09-28 Hohner Ag Matth harmonica
US1009903A (en) * 1911-06-20 1911-11-28 Matthias Hohner Mouth-harmonica.
US1518257A (en) * 1921-05-19 1924-12-09 Glenora Harmonica Company Inc Harmonica
US1434838A (en) * 1922-05-15 1922-11-07 Waterbury Clock Co Watch
US2407312A (en) * 1943-02-20 1946-09-10 Internat Plastic Harmonica Cor Plastic harmonica

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2718808A (en) * 1951-07-24 1955-09-27 Finn H Magnus Harmonica construction
US4502362A (en) * 1982-09-22 1985-03-05 Matth. Hohner Ag Mouth organ
US20100242706A1 (en) * 2009-03-25 2010-09-30 Math. Hohner AG Comb
US7973229B2 (en) * 2009-03-25 2011-07-05 Matth. Hohner Ag Comb

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