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Supersonic agitation

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Publication number
US2578505A
US2578505A US1261748A US2578505A US 2578505 A US2578505 A US 2578505A US 1261748 A US1261748 A US 1261748A US 2578505 A US2578505 A US 2578505A
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Prior art keywords
supersonic
transducers
container
pipe
wall
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Carlin Benson
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Sperry Products Inc
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Sperry Products Inc
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F11/00Mixers with shaking, oscillating, or vibrating mechanisms
    • B01F11/02Mixing by means of high-frequency, e.g. ultrasonic vibrations, e.g. jets impinging against a vibrating plate
    • B01F11/0283Mixing by means of high-frequency, e.g. ultrasonic vibrations, e.g. jets impinging against a vibrating plate transmitting the vibratory energy by means of a fluid, e.g. by means of air shock waves
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F11/00Mixers with shaking, oscillating, or vibrating mechanisms
    • B01F11/02Mixing by means of high-frequency, e.g. ultrasonic vibrations, e.g. jets impinging against a vibrating plate
    • B01F11/0241Mixing by means of high-frequency, e.g. ultrasonic vibrations, e.g. jets impinging against a vibrating plate for material continuously moving through a tube, e.g. by deforming the tube
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J19/00Chemical, physical, or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J19/08Processes employing the direct application of electric or wave energy, or particle radiation; Apparatus therefor
    • B01J19/10Processes employing the direct application of electric or wave energy, or particle radiation; Apparatus therefor employing sonic or ultrasonic vibrations
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S159/00Concentrating evaporators
    • Y10S159/90Concentrating evaporators using vibratory force

Description

m 2,578,505 9 SEARCH ROOM SUBSTITUTE FOR mssmc; XR

Dec. 11, 1951 a CARUN 2,578,505

SUPERSONIC AGITATION Filed March 2, 1948 OSC/LLATOR L J uin 11 INVENTOR.

By BENSON CARLIN aw -k ATTORNEY Patented Dec. 11, 1 951 SUPERSONIC AGITATION Benson Carlin, New York, N. Y., assignor to Sperry Products, Inc., Hoboken, N. J., a corporation of N ew York Application March 2, 1948, Serial N0. 12,617

8 Claims.

This invention relates to the supersonic agitation of materials, particularly liquids. Such agitation has been employed heretofore and it has been determined that very desirable changes can be effected within various mediums provided suflicient supersonic power can be developed. As heretofore employed, only sufficient power has been developed to indicate that very desirable changes could be effected within such mediums, but it has heretofore been impossible to concentrate enough power to determine the full value of such agitation. The indications, as gathered from work previously accomplished in this field, are that among the very desirable changes and results which could be effected, if sufficient power could be developed, are the following: destroy bacteria in order to obtain enzymes; more effective sterilization, mixing ordinarily immiscible compounds; treat metals in their molten state to change crystal structure; homogenize liquids more rapidly and in larger quantities.

It is, therefore, one of the principal objects of this invention to provide a method and means for generating suflicient supersonic power to accomplish the above and other purposes, and in general to provide more supersonic power than has heretofore been obtained by similar means.

It is a further object of this invention to provide a method and means for treating continuously flowing fluids with powerful supersonic energy.

It is another object of this invention to provide a method and means not only for delivering a high degree of supersonic power into a fluid, but also to insure that all portions of the fluid will be subject to the high power supersonic treatment.

It is still another object of this invention to provide a method and means for imparting supersonic energy to a fluid through the walls of a container and to insure maximum transfer of energy from the supersonic vibrator through the the container.

Further obiects and advantages of this invention will become apparent in the following detai ed description thereof.

In the accompanying drawings,

Fig. 1 is a transverse vertical section through an elongated fluid conductor showing one form of my invention applied thereto.

Fig. 2 is a longitudinal vertical section through the Fig. 1 device taken substantially on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 1 showing a portion of the container with a modified form of my invention applied thereto.

Referring to the drawings. I have shown this invention as applied to a container such as a pipe I0 having a circular cross section although it will be apparent that certain of the features of this invention are applicable to containers having other sections. Furthermore, I have shown this invention as applied to the case where fluid is adapted to flow continuously through the pipe I!) and be treated with supersonic energy as it flows, although it will be obvious that the principles of the invention will in large part apply also to the case where fluid is stationary within the confines of the container.

As shown, fluid is flowing through pipe l0 and the problem consists in delivering the maximum amount of supersonic energy to all parts of the fluid during its flow through the pipe, and to deliver such energy in sufficient quantity to effect the desirable results outlined in the introduction hereto and which supersonic agitation thus far has only indicated as possible without fully achieving these end results.

For this purpose I mount on the surface of pipe Ill a plurality of electroacoustic transducers i I having their inner surfaces ground to fit closely the surface of pipe i0 so that intimate contact between the inner vibrating surfaces of transducers H and the outer surface of pipe I 0 can be achieved. The center of curvature of quartz crystals II is therefore the same center 0 as that of the pipe [0 and the energy delivered by such crystals will be concentrated substantially in the region of center 0. The transducers H are preferably quartz crystals which may be oscillated in the usual manner from any suitable source of high frequency oscillations.

By the above arrangement it will be seen that the entire energy of the plurality of crystals positioned around the periphery of pipe I 0 will be concentrated in the region of the central axis 0 of the pipe and the liquid in this region will receive the maximum concentrated supersonic energy. The violent agitation of the fluid in this region will set up turbulence so that continuously changing streams of fluid will flow inwardly from the outer region of the interior of the pipe toward the region of the central axis and thus substantially all of the liquid will be subject to the concentrated high intensity supersonic power.

In order to insure that all of the liquid will be subiect to the intense power of the region of the central axis 0, a plurality of concentric rings of crystals such as H and H may be provided longitudinally displaced along the pipe to increase the-turbulence and thus insure the passage of all of the liquid through the region oi, concentrated supersonic power at one or more periods during its passage through the pipe. As many longitudinally displaced bands of crystals may be provided as are found necessary to effect the desired results.

The arran ements shown and described in connection with Figs. 1 and 2 will result in con-- centrating in the region of the central axis 0 such power as the quartz crystals can transmit through the wall of pipe 10. To insure that the maximum amount of energy generated by the cr stals passes through the wall of pipe ID, the following relationships should be established:

(1) The product of the density multiplied by the velocity of the supersonic vibrations in the material should be equal to that of the crystal.

(2) The wall of pipe 10 should be tuned to the frequency of vibration of the crystal, i. e., the wall should be A; of a wave length in thickness. By Formula 1, the maximum transfer of energy is obtained from the standpoint of the material of the container wall; by Formula 2, the maximum transfer of energy is obtained from the standpoint of the dimensions of the container.

In a modified form of the invention as shown in Fig. 3. the crystals l2 may be set into the wall of pine l in place of the material of the wall. In this form of invention theprecautions set forth in Formulas 1 and 2 above are unnecessary becau ethe energy does not have to traverse the wall of wine I 0 but is transmitted directly to the liouid i hin the pine.

Having described m ivention what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. An apparatus for the supersonic agitation of fluids in a container, comprising a plurality of electro-acoustic transducers positioned substantially in a plane and ada ted to pass supersonic beams through the fluid. means for simultaneously energizing all of said transducers, the transducers being positioned to concentrate the beams substantially at a point within the container.

2. An a paratus for the supersonic agitation of fluids flowing in a pipe in the direction of the longitudinal axis thereof, comprising a plurality of electro-acoustic transducers positioned substantially in a plane and adapted to pass supersonic beams through the fluid, means for simultaneously energizing all of said transducers, the transducers being positionedto concentrate the beams substantially at a point in the longitudinal axis of the pipe.

3. An apparatus for the supersonic agitation of fluids flowing in a pipe in the direction of the longitudinal axis thereof, comprising a plurality of electro-acoustic transducers positioned substantially in a pluralitv of parallel planes displaced along the longitudinal axis of the pipe and adapted to pass su ersonic beams through the fluid, means for simultaneously energizing all of said transd cers, the transducers being positioned to concentrate the beams substantially in the longitudinal axis of the pipe.

4. An ap aratus for the su ersonic agitation of fluids flowing in a nine in the direction of the lon itudinal axis thereof, comprisin a plurality of e ct o-acoustic transducers positioned substantiall in a plurality of parallel planes displaced a n the lon itudinal axis of the pine and adapted to ass su ersonic beams throu h the fluid. the tran ducers in one plane being an ularly dis laced with respect to the tran ducers in the ad acent p ane. means for simu taneous enereizin a of said transducers. the transducers bein osit oned to c nc ntrate the beams substan al y in the lon itudinal axis of the D1ne 5. An a paratus for the su ersonic a itatinn of fl' ids in a container. com risin a plurality of electro-acoustic transducers positioned substantially in a plane and adapted to pass supersonic beams through the fluid, the transducers being positioned to concentrate. the beams substantially at a point within the container, means for simultaneously energizing all of said transducers, the transducers extending through the.

Wall of the container.

6. An apparatus for the supersonic agitation of 1 taneously energizing all of said transducers, the;

transducers consisting of piezo-electric crystals in engagement with the outer surface of the container wall, each crystal and the container wall bearing the following relationship: the product of the density multiplied by the velocity of the supersonic vibrations in the wall equals that of the crystal.

'7. An apparatus for the supersonic agitation of fluids in a container, comprising a plurality of electro-acoustic transducers positioned substantially in a plane and adapted to pass supersonic beams through the fluid, the transducers being positioned to concentrate the beam substantially at a point within the container, means for simultaneously energizing all of said transducers, the transducers consisting of piezo-electric crystals in engagement with the outer surface of the container wall, each crystal of the container wall bearing the following relationship: the wall of the container is of a thickness equal to one-quarter wave length of the vibrations generated by the crystal.

8. An apparatus for the supersonic agitation of fluids in a container, comprising a plurality of electro-acoustic transducers positioned substantially in a plane and adapted to pass supersonic beams through the fluid, the transducers being positioned to concentrate the beams substantially at a point within the container, means for simultaneously energizing all of said transducers, the

transducers consisting of piezo-electric crystals in engagement with the outer surface of the container wall, each crystal and the container bearing the following relationships: the product of the density multiplied by the velocity of the supersonic vibrations in the wall equals that of the crystal, and the wall of the container is of a thickness equal to one-quarter wave length of the vibrations generated by the crystal.

BENSON CARLIN.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

Switzerland Aug. 15, 1938

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Cited By (70)

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US2702691A (en) * 1949-05-06 1955-02-22 James Knights Company Generator system for producing rotating vibratory field
US2725219A (en) * 1953-02-16 1955-11-29 Firth George Reactor
US2738172A (en) * 1952-11-28 1956-03-13 Nat Dairy Res Lab Inc Apparatus for treatment of products with ultrasonic energy
US2765153A (en) * 1951-11-14 1956-10-02 Gielow Christian Process and means for handling plastic masses
US2791994A (en) * 1954-02-11 1957-05-14 Daniel A Grieb Ultrasonic mixing method and apparatus
US2791990A (en) * 1954-05-21 1957-05-14 Daniel A Grieb Ultrasonic mixing method and apparatus therefor
US2851764A (en) * 1952-10-24 1958-09-16 Standard Oil Co Method for cooling and lubricating cutting tools
US2864592A (en) * 1955-03-07 1958-12-16 Bendix Aviat Corp Liquid-vibrating apparatus
US2876083A (en) * 1953-06-29 1959-03-03 Prietl Franz Process of producing crystals from particles of crystallizable substance distributedin a liquid
US2891176A (en) * 1955-07-13 1959-06-16 Branson Instr Compressional wave generating apparatus
US2924542A (en) * 1957-09-09 1960-02-09 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Method for removing combustion chamber deposits
US2926622A (en) * 1955-08-23 1960-03-01 Gulton Ind Inc Ultrasonic soldering pot
US2950725A (en) * 1958-03-26 1960-08-30 Detrex Chem Ind Ultrasonic cleaning apparatus
US2960314A (en) * 1959-07-06 1960-11-15 Jr Albert G Bodine Method and apparatus for generating and transmitting sonic vibrations
US2985003A (en) * 1957-01-11 1961-05-23 Gen Motors Corp Sonic washer
US3002731A (en) * 1956-11-15 1961-10-03 Gen Motors Corp Apparatus for ultrasonic cleaning
US3052115A (en) * 1958-02-14 1962-09-04 Realisations Ultrasoniques Soc Ultrasonic apparatus for examining the interior of solid bodies
US3056589A (en) * 1958-06-23 1962-10-02 Bendix Corp Radially vibratile ceramic transducers
US3063683A (en) * 1959-07-22 1962-11-13 Beloit Iron Works Mixing apparatus
US3075097A (en) * 1959-10-20 1963-01-22 Gulton Ind Inc Ultrasonic device
US3087840A (en) * 1958-06-16 1963-04-30 Macrosonic Process Corp Methods and means for producing physical, chemical and physicochemical effects by large-amplitude sound waves
US3147954A (en) * 1961-02-01 1964-09-08 Rock Hill Printing & Finishing Apparatus for manufacturing emulsions of coloring material
US3191527A (en) * 1961-08-16 1965-06-29 Sperry Rand Corp Fluid pressure wave printer
US3200567A (en) * 1956-09-07 1965-08-17 Black Sivalls & Bryson Inc System for the sonic treatment of emulsions and for resolving the same into their constituent parts
US3222221A (en) * 1959-04-29 1965-12-07 Branson Instr Ultrasonic cleaning method and apparatus
US3229448A (en) * 1961-05-29 1966-01-18 Stanley E Jacke Ultrasonic degasifying device
US3348814A (en) * 1958-06-16 1967-10-24 Macrosonic Process Corp Methods and means for producing physical, chemical and physico-chemical effects by large-amplitude sound waves
US3464672A (en) * 1966-10-26 1969-09-02 Dynamics Corp America Sonic processing transducer
US3731267A (en) * 1971-01-04 1973-05-01 O Brandt Electro-acoustic transducer
US3930982A (en) * 1973-04-06 1976-01-06 The Carborundum Company Ferroelectric apparatus for dielectrophoresis particle extraction
US3946829A (en) * 1973-09-17 1976-03-30 Nippon Tokushu Togyo Kabushiki Kaisha Ultrasonic device
US4032438A (en) * 1975-09-19 1977-06-28 Ocean Ecology Ltd. Method and apparatus for ultrasonically removing contaminants from water
US4216403A (en) * 1977-07-27 1980-08-05 Hans List Monoaxially oriented piezoelectric polymer transducer for measurement of mechanical values on bodies
US4253962A (en) * 1979-12-12 1981-03-03 Thompson John R Non-destructive vibratory cleaning system for reverse osmosis and ultra filtration membranes
US4398925A (en) * 1982-01-21 1983-08-16 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Acoustic bubble removal method
WO1985001514A1 (en) * 1983-09-26 1985-04-11 University Of Iowa Research Foundation A method of and apparatus for harvesting mammalian cells
FR2586322A1 (en) * 1985-08-14 1987-02-20 Framatome Sa Process for cleaning and decontaminating vessels using ultrasonics and corresponding device
US4956149A (en) * 1987-07-02 1990-09-11 Nec Corporation Biosensor device provided with an agitator
US5123433A (en) * 1989-05-24 1992-06-23 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Ultrasonic flow nozzle cleaning apparatus
US5395592A (en) * 1993-10-04 1995-03-07 Bolleman; Brent Acoustic liquid processing device
WO1996020784A1 (en) * 1995-01-06 1996-07-11 Trustees Of Boston University Method and apparatus for enhancing chemical reactions through acoustic cavitation
US5611993A (en) * 1995-08-25 1997-03-18 Areopag Usa, Inc. Ultrasonic method of treating a continuous flow of fluid
US6106374A (en) * 1998-07-16 2000-08-22 International Business Machines Corporation Acoustically agitated delivery
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US6604849B2 (en) * 1999-12-03 2003-08-12 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Slurry dilution system with an ultrasonic vibrator capable of in-situ adjustment of slurry concentration
US20030220592A1 (en) * 2002-03-18 2003-11-27 Dornier Medtech Systems Gmbh Apparatus and method for producing bipolar acoustic pulses
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Cited By (89)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2702691A (en) * 1949-05-06 1955-02-22 James Knights Company Generator system for producing rotating vibratory field
US2765153A (en) * 1951-11-14 1956-10-02 Gielow Christian Process and means for handling plastic masses
US2851764A (en) * 1952-10-24 1958-09-16 Standard Oil Co Method for cooling and lubricating cutting tools
US2738172A (en) * 1952-11-28 1956-03-13 Nat Dairy Res Lab Inc Apparatus for treatment of products with ultrasonic energy
US2725219A (en) * 1953-02-16 1955-11-29 Firth George Reactor
US2876083A (en) * 1953-06-29 1959-03-03 Prietl Franz Process of producing crystals from particles of crystallizable substance distributedin a liquid
US2791994A (en) * 1954-02-11 1957-05-14 Daniel A Grieb Ultrasonic mixing method and apparatus
US2791990A (en) * 1954-05-21 1957-05-14 Daniel A Grieb Ultrasonic mixing method and apparatus therefor
US2864592A (en) * 1955-03-07 1958-12-16 Bendix Aviat Corp Liquid-vibrating apparatus
US2891176A (en) * 1955-07-13 1959-06-16 Branson Instr Compressional wave generating apparatus
US2926622A (en) * 1955-08-23 1960-03-01 Gulton Ind Inc Ultrasonic soldering pot
US3200567A (en) * 1956-09-07 1965-08-17 Black Sivalls & Bryson Inc System for the sonic treatment of emulsions and for resolving the same into their constituent parts
US3002731A (en) * 1956-11-15 1961-10-03 Gen Motors Corp Apparatus for ultrasonic cleaning
US2985003A (en) * 1957-01-11 1961-05-23 Gen Motors Corp Sonic washer
US2924542A (en) * 1957-09-09 1960-02-09 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Method for removing combustion chamber deposits
US3052115A (en) * 1958-02-14 1962-09-04 Realisations Ultrasoniques Soc Ultrasonic apparatus for examining the interior of solid bodies
US2950725A (en) * 1958-03-26 1960-08-30 Detrex Chem Ind Ultrasonic cleaning apparatus
US3087840A (en) * 1958-06-16 1963-04-30 Macrosonic Process Corp Methods and means for producing physical, chemical and physicochemical effects by large-amplitude sound waves
US3348814A (en) * 1958-06-16 1967-10-24 Macrosonic Process Corp Methods and means for producing physical, chemical and physico-chemical effects by large-amplitude sound waves
US3056589A (en) * 1958-06-23 1962-10-02 Bendix Corp Radially vibratile ceramic transducers
US3222221A (en) * 1959-04-29 1965-12-07 Branson Instr Ultrasonic cleaning method and apparatus
US2960314A (en) * 1959-07-06 1960-11-15 Jr Albert G Bodine Method and apparatus for generating and transmitting sonic vibrations
US3063683A (en) * 1959-07-22 1962-11-13 Beloit Iron Works Mixing apparatus
US3075097A (en) * 1959-10-20 1963-01-22 Gulton Ind Inc Ultrasonic device
US3147954A (en) * 1961-02-01 1964-09-08 Rock Hill Printing & Finishing Apparatus for manufacturing emulsions of coloring material
US3229448A (en) * 1961-05-29 1966-01-18 Stanley E Jacke Ultrasonic degasifying device
US3191527A (en) * 1961-08-16 1965-06-29 Sperry Rand Corp Fluid pressure wave printer
US3464672A (en) * 1966-10-26 1969-09-02 Dynamics Corp America Sonic processing transducer
US3731267A (en) * 1971-01-04 1973-05-01 O Brandt Electro-acoustic transducer
US3930982A (en) * 1973-04-06 1976-01-06 The Carborundum Company Ferroelectric apparatus for dielectrophoresis particle extraction
US3946829A (en) * 1973-09-17 1976-03-30 Nippon Tokushu Togyo Kabushiki Kaisha Ultrasonic device
US4032438A (en) * 1975-09-19 1977-06-28 Ocean Ecology Ltd. Method and apparatus for ultrasonically removing contaminants from water
US4216403A (en) * 1977-07-27 1980-08-05 Hans List Monoaxially oriented piezoelectric polymer transducer for measurement of mechanical values on bodies
US4253962A (en) * 1979-12-12 1981-03-03 Thompson John R Non-destructive vibratory cleaning system for reverse osmosis and ultra filtration membranes
US4398925A (en) * 1982-01-21 1983-08-16 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Acoustic bubble removal method
WO1985001514A1 (en) * 1983-09-26 1985-04-11 University Of Iowa Research Foundation A method of and apparatus for harvesting mammalian cells
FR2586322A1 (en) * 1985-08-14 1987-02-20 Framatome Sa Process for cleaning and decontaminating vessels using ultrasonics and corresponding device
US4956149A (en) * 1987-07-02 1990-09-11 Nec Corporation Biosensor device provided with an agitator
US5123433A (en) * 1989-05-24 1992-06-23 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Ultrasonic flow nozzle cleaning apparatus
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