US2526125A - Paper products and methods of making the same - Google Patents

Paper products and methods of making the same Download PDF

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US2526125A
US2526125A US44443842A US2526125A US 2526125 A US2526125 A US 2526125A US 44443842 A US44443842 A US 44443842A US 2526125 A US2526125 A US 2526125A
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fibres
paper
resin
fibers
making
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Jr Carleton S Francis
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American Viscose Corp
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American Viscose Corp
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21HPULP COMPOSITIONS; PREPARATION THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES D21C OR D21D; IMPREGNATING OR COATING OF PAPER; TREATMENT OF FINISHED PAPER NOT COVERED BY CLASS B31 OR SUBCLASS D21G; PAPER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D21H5/00Special paper or cardboard not otherwise provided for
    • D21H5/12Special paper or cardboard not otherwise provided for characterised by the use of special fibrous materials
    • D21H5/20Special paper or cardboard not otherwise provided for characterised by the use of special fibrous materials of organic non-cellulosic fibres too short for spinning, with or without cellulose fibres
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S206/00Special receptacle or package
    • Y10S206/819Material
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T442/00Fabric [woven, knitted, or nonwoven textile or cloth, etc.]
    • Y10T442/60Nonwoven fabric [i.e., nonwoven strand or fiber material]
    • Y10T442/69Autogenously bonded nonwoven fabric

Description

Patented Oct. 17, 1950 PAPER PRODUCTS AND METHODS OF MAKING THE SAME Carleton S. Francis, Jn, West Harwich, Mass., assignor, by mesne assignments, to American Viscose Corporation, Wilmington, Del., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Application May 25, 1942, Serial No. 444,438

This invention relates in general to paper making and in particular to a process of making paper and to the paper products so produced and includes correlated improvements designed to enhance the properties, characteristics, and uses of such products. The expression paper" as employed in the following specification and in the appended claims is intended to include all waterlaid fibrous products produced from fibres having a paper-making length and includes products which are flexible or stiff, thin or thick, soft or hard.

This application is a continuation-in-part of my co-pending application Ser. No. 300,876, filed October 23, 1939, (now Patent 2,459,803) which application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 157,018, filed August 2, 1937, now U. S. 2,253,000.

Heretofore in the manufacture of paper it has been customary to rely for strength almost solely upon the inter-felting of the fibres during the deposition of the fibres from an aqueous dispersion. It is well known that unless great care is used in the proper beating of the pulp, in the felting, and the calendering of the resulting paper, the products produced by conventional paper-making processes are deficient in tear resistance, fold resistance, and bursting strength. Moreover, unless water-insoluble sizes are employed for binding the fibres together, paper products made by conventional processes are not resistant to tearing when wet.

Heretofore some attempts have been made to bind together the paper fibres in paper products by mixing with the paper fibres a cellulose derivative and thereafter subjecting to heat and pressure or solvents to render the cellulose derivative fibres tacky in an attempt to cause these fibres to fuse or adhere to the non-adhesive paper fibres. Owing, however, to the inherent chemical and physical characteristics of cellulose derivatives, the products produced by such prior processes have not been entirely satisfactory. Among other things, cellulose derivatives, such, for example, as cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, and the like, are characterized by being inherently non-thermoplastlc, that is, when they are heated, they soften but do not become adhesive or tacky. To render cellulose derivatives truly thermoplastic and adheslvely tacky by heat and pressure alone, it is necessary to incorporate suitable plasticlzer in the cellulose derivative, but the use of such plasticizers increases the manufacturing difficulties and the cost of the resulting product. 0n the other hand, when an attempt is made to render 8 Claims. (Cl. 9221) cellulose derivatives adhesively tacky by use of organic solvents, it is found that the solvent does not penetrate the fibrous product uniformly and that when the solvent evaporates, there is deposited on the fibres in the product such a thin and friable coating of the cellulose derivative that the resulting bond is insufficient to achieve the correlated objects of the present invention.

Moreover, the use of organic solvents in a paper mill creates a fire hazard and necessitates the use of solvent recovery equipment for economical operation.

It is a general object of the present invention to provide a method for producing papers which will have improved properties, characteristics and uses, while avoiding the difiiculties and disadvantages inherent in the prior processes above described.

It is another object of the invention to provide a paper which is characterized by improved tensile strength and increased resistance to tearing, folding, bursting and abrasion.

It is a specific object of the present invention to provide a paper in which the improved properu ties, characteristics and uses do not depend solely upon the inter-felting of fibres as is accomplished by conventional methods 01' water-laying paper products, but on the contrary are due to the presence in the product of a reticulated fibrous structure extending throughout the mass of the paper product.

Another specific object of the present invention is to provide a paper which will show an improved wet tearing strength whereby it is adapted for use as a paper towelling or for any use where the product is exposed to the weather, as in building construction and in camouflage.

According to the process of the present invention, papers of improved properties, characteristics and uses are made by forming an aqueous suspension of normally non-adhesive fibres of paper-making length and synthetic resin fibres which are non-tacky at room temperature but which become tacky below the temperature at which paper-making fibres are damaged, depositing the mixture of fibres from said suspension in the form of a paper structure, drying and heating the structure to a temperature at which the resin fibres become tacky, and cooling the structure to effect fibre adhesion. The paper product is preferably subjected to pressure while the resin is in an adhesive condition. The expression paper structure" as used in the claims is intended to include sheets, layers, tubes and molded resin fibres adhesive.

articles of all kinds formed by the separation of the fibre mixture from its aqueous suspension.

For the paper-making fibres employed in the present invention, there are used any fibres of pape geinaklng length which are not rendered adhesive'y tacky by the treatment that renders the The paper of the invention may be prepared from any suitable paper-making fibres of suitable paper-making length, namely, vegetable fibres such, for example. as wood, rag fibres, cotton, fiax, jute, straw or other fibres derived from plants of various kinds; mineral fibres such, for example, as glass fibres, rock wool, asbestos, and the like; animal fibres such, for example, as wool, leather fibres, silk fibres, in particular, si k waste, as well as fibres derived from gelatine, casein, glue, and the like. The invention includes the use of appropriate mixtures of such fibres with each other and with textile and cordage wastes. The expression "paper-making fibres, as used herein, is intended to include all fibres adapted to be used in the making of paper, whether natural-occurring or artificial. When employing vegetable fibres, they may be prepared for paper-making by any suitable process such, for example, as the so-called sulphite process, sulphate process, soda process, kraft process or by suitable mechanical processes, and hydrated. bleached, washed, screened, beaten, aged and otherwise prepared for paper-making in a known manner. The mineral and animal fibres may be suitably purified and prepared for paper-making in a known manner.

The potentially adhesive resin fibres are fibres which have an inherent tackiness upon heating to a temperature below that at which the non-adhesive paper-making fibres are damaged or rendered tacky, such as fibres formed from the copolymers of two or more resin-forming compounds such, for example, as co-polymers of vinyl halide and vinyl acetate, co-polymers of vinyl halide and acrylic acid, co-polymers of vinyl compound and styrol compound.

For the thermoplastic fibre, it is preferred to employ the resin fibre because such fibres, as compared to the cellulose derivative fibres, are tougher and harder, become tacky at lower temperatures and cool to form tougher and more pliable products. Moreover, the resin/ fibres used are preferably those which are inert to acids, alkalies and dry-cleaning fluids, and are not waterswelling. Use of such resins prevents distortion of the adhesive bond under changing atmospheric conditions or in the resence of salts, acids and alkalies, so that the wet and dry tensile strength of the adhesive bond will be substantially the same.

The potential y adhesive resin fibres are preformed, extruded fibres and may be used in the unstretched or pre-stretched condition. However, since stretching tends to increase the cost and to render the resin brittle after heating, the use of unstretched resin fibres is preferred in the present invention. In the now preferred embodiment, the potentially adhesive resin fibre used in the present process is a low-melting resin fibre formed from a vinyl copolymer containing less than 80% vinyl chloride and the remainder vinyl acetate and having a macro-molecular weight of below 10,000, and which was stretched during manufacture less than 70% and which has a heat distortion point below 70 C. Using such a resin fibre, porous, flexible and even flufly paper structures can be produced since little or no appreciable pressure is required during activation.

The ratio of synthetic resin fibre to other fibre may also vary widely depending on the properties of the two types of fibres and may be regulated to suit the purpose for which the paper is destined, but in general a minor proportion, preferably from 3 per cent to 20 per cent of the synthetic resin fibre will be employed. Where a greater degree of strength or a closer bonding of the component fibres is desired, the percentage will be relatively high, whereas in papers of certain construction where it is desirable to have a comparatively small amount of bonding of the component fibres, the percentage will be relatively small.

The non-adhesive paper fibres may be of any length suitable for paper-making and the length will vary with the type of machine used for mixing and sheeting the mixture of fibres. In general, the resin fibres will have substantially the same length as the non-adhesive fibres, but in some cases where desired, the resin fibres are longer than the other fibres to aflord more points of adhesion per fibre length and to permit the manufacture of porous and flexible structures.

The synthetic resin fibre and the paper-making fibre are mixed by a method suitable to the production of a particular type of paper, for example, by beating the fibres together in a suitable liquid or by adding the potentially adhesive fibres to the other fibres at any time prior to sheeting the fibres.

The mixture of paper-making fibres and thermoplastic resin fibres may be formed into a web by a suitable process, for example, by the use of machines of various types, such as the Fourdrinier," Harper, single cylinder or "Yankee multi-vat machine, mould, presse pate," or the like. It is to be understood that the invention is in no way limited to the use of any particular method or machine.

Generally speaking, in preparing the furnish or load, it is preferable to disperse the non-adhesive paper-making fibres separately in the aqueous dispersion medium, but in some cases the mixture of fibres may be beaten with water in a conventional manner in a paper pulp beater. In the preferred practice the resin fibres are mixed with the other fibres and the mixture stirred, or beaten, only long enough to insure that the resin fibres are substantially uniformly distributed through the fibre mass. By adding the resin fibres in this manner, the characteristics of the pulp may be properly adjusted by the paper maker without damage to the resin fibres, and thus the resin fibres can be prevented from undergoing any undesired physical or chemical changes, or breaking which might occur during the mixing or beating operation.

In paper products made heretofore by conventional processes, the fibers are usually bound together by the hydrated or beta cellulose which results from the beating of the fibers in water. This beating operation is expensive, time consuming and must be carefully controlled, otherwise the fibers may be insuificiently hydrated or they may be degraded so that they lose the greater part of their tensile strength. By the present invention it is possible to reduce or eliminate entirely the beating of the fibers in water, the beater being used merely as a means for mixing the paper fibres with the thermoplastic resin fibres. When the resin fibres are rendered tacky by heating, the tacky fibres serve to bind the paper fibres together, the bond being waterproof and nonswelling in water, thus being stronger and more permanent than the bonds produced by hydration of the paper fibres. Accordingly, the present invention provides for the production of a novel paper product in which the paper fibres are non-hydrated and un-degraded and bound together by waterproof permanent binders resulting from the heating of the thermoplastic resin fibres. In the preferred embodiment the resin fibres are bound to the paper fibres throughout the entire length or the resin fibres. If the fibrous structure of the resin fibres is retained the product will be porous, however, the activation of the resin fibres may be suflicient to cause these fibres to lose their structure and form an adhesive which extends throughout the product as a continuous filler, thus rendering the product non-pourous and waterand gas-impermeable.

When paper fibres are unhydrated the activation of the resin fibres should, in general, be increased to ensure the necessary bonding of the fibres.

The inherent tackiness of the resin fibres is activated by heating the paper to an appropriate temperature, for example, by the use of dry hot air, contact with heated surfaces, or steam. The temperature of the heat-treatment will depend upon time, pressure and the properties of the resin fibre and must necessarily be below that at which the paper is damaged. When the paper is cooled, the resin fibres become non-tacky and tough, and adhere to the other fibres, thus providing a paper product which possesses increased strength and greater tenacity between component fibres.

When the paper is made on a Fourdrinier or other continuous type of paper-making machine, the resin fibres in the paper may be activated during or after drying of the paper; if activated during drying, the resin fibres may be rendered adhesive by means of heated calender rolls cooperating with the last rolls of the drying rolls so that the paper is fed to the calender rolls in a pro-heated condition. By this means even papers of considerable thickness may be activated and pressed continuously in an economical manner.

Where the paper is made on hand screen or by a batch operation, as in a mould or cylinder machine, the paper is preferably passed through a dryer where it is pre-heated before it is activated. When the paper has been pre-heated to a temperature substantially near the activation temperature the activation may then be carried out in a continuous manner as by means of a calender.

The tackiness of the resin fibres may be modified by heating the resin fibres in the presence of a suitable plasticizer depending on the particular type of resin. The plasticizer may be incorporated in or carried by the resin fibres and/or by the non-adhesive fibres and may be incorporated in the fibres at any point prior to heating. In the preferred embodiment the plasticizer is incorporated in the resin mass prior to its formation into fibres and filaments. The plasticlzer lowers the temperature at which the resin fibres are rendered tacky upon heating. After heating, the plasticizer may be allowed to remain or, if desired, it may be removed by suitable means, such as evaporation or extraction, thereby preventing the resin fibres from again being rendered tacky at the original activating temperature and capable of remaining nontacky at ironing temperatures.

Where the aqueous dispersion medium is recir- 6 culated and reused it is possible to incorporate plasticizers in the medium either as a solution or as a suspension.

During the activation of the resin fibres, the paper product may be shaped into a pro-determined form by use of a suitable heated mould. If desired, the wet paper sheet may be shaped into a suitable form and then heated to dry the product and ultimately to activate the potentially adhesive fibres. In this way the pre-determined shape of the paper product will be permanently set by the binding of the fibres in the product.

The present invention is adapted for making paper products of all kinds, such, for example, as tissue paper, writing paper, book paper. bank note paper, wrapping paper, news print, boards, including wall boards, building felts, and moulded paper articles of all kinds. The expression "paper product" as used herein is intended to include all articles which are capable of being fabricated from paper-making fibres in accordance with the invention.

The properties, characteristics, and uses of the paper produced may be varied over wide limits depending, interalia, on the nature of the papermaking fibres, the nature of the potentially adhesive resin fibres, the process of fabrication, the extent of activation of the resin fibres, and the relative proportion of the resin fibres to the paper-making fibres. With low percentages of resin fibres and/or with moderate activation of the resin fibres, there may be produced articles having a substantial degree of flexibility, but also having an extreme toughness and resistance to folding, all of which are characteristics necessary in bank note paper. On the other hand, with greater percentages of the resin fibres, as from 10 to 50 per cent, there may be produced articles which are relatively stiff and resilient, which have a high resistance to bursting but which are still capable of being folded, bent, or shaped. Finally, by increasing the amount of resin fibre to above 50 per cent, there may be produced relatively stiff paper products which may be machined with woodworking tools, thus adapting the products for use as panels, insulating materials, machine parts, and the like.

It is to be understood that when the percentage of resin fibres is sufiiciently high to enable the resin to form a continuous phase throughout the product or to glaze the surface under the conditions of temperature and pressure employed, the paper products thus produced will be impermeable to water and air, which are desirable properties utilized in a wide variety of fields.

The activation of the resin fibers may be varied in accordance with the properties desired in the finished products. For example, by merely heating the resin fibres to that temperature at which they are softened sufiiciently to. be deformed by the pressure applied, th non-adhesive paper fibres may be imbedded in the resin fibres although little or no actual adhesion occurs. If the resin fibres are heated to a somewhat higher temperature, that is sufficient to render them tacky, they will become bonded to the non-adhesive paper fibres at the points where the fibres cross each other. Under moderate pressure the resin fibres may thus be tacky or bonded to the other fibres at spaced points along the length of the resin fibres thus producing a three dimensional reticulated web in the fibre structure. If while the resin fibres are tacky the paper product is subjected to a higher pressure the resin fibres may be bonded along their entire length with the other fibres thus producing a firmer and less porous structure than the structure previously described. Finally, at further increased temperatures and pressures, the resin fibres may be melted until they lose their fibre structure and the adhesive thus produced may be caused to spread through the paperproduct in the form of a more or less continuous film which will render the product more or less impermeable to gas and water.

One embodiment of the present invention contemplates the use of the product as a thermoplastic laminating medium. In such cases, it is essential that the proportion of synthetic resin fibres be sufficient to cause the surfaces of the paper product to present tackiness on heating. The paper manufacturer may. therefore, manufacture the thermoplastic paper product for sale as a laminating medium prior to the activation of the synthetic resin fibres.

By way of illustration, but not by way of limiting the invention there will be Given the following specific examples:

Example I Ten per cent of synthetic resin fibres, insoluble in water, for example, a low melting resin fibre formed from a vinyl copolymer containing less than 80% vinyl chloride and the remainder vinyl acetate and having a macromolecular weight of below 10,000 and which was stretched during manufacture less than 70% and which has a heat distortion point below 70 C., may be mixed with unbeaten and substantially unhydrated papermaking fibres in the beater or in the head box of the paper machine, the beating being limited to that necessary to disperse the synthetic resin fibres through the paper fibres. The furnish or charge is then sheeted in a known manner on a Fourdrinier paper machine. The

paper sheet is pre-heated on the drying cans and passed, while hot through calender rolls positioned at the end of the drying cans, the sheet being heated by such calender to a temperature of 125 C. and subjected to pressure of 300 pounds per square .inch which renders the resin fibres tacky. Although the product contains unhydrated paper fibres and is porous and flexible, it has a higher wet-tearing and bursting strength than the same sheet in which the resin fibres havenot been activated, or similar sheet not containing resin fibres and in which the paper fibres are hydrated.

Example H Novel and improved paper board may be made by the following process: of fibres of a copolymer of 90% vinyl chloride and 10% vinyl acetate having a melting point of about 150 C. is added to a paper beater in which the furnish consists of waste newspaper fibres. The resulting charge is fed into a vat from which the fibres .are sucked upwards against a perforated plate by u e of vacuum to form alayer about one-half inch in thickness. The wet sheet is transferred to a belt and passed beneath the plates of a heat d fiat bed press wherein it is subjected to 300 lbs. of pressure per square inch without heat. The sheet is then removed from the press and passed through a drying chamber where the tempsrature of the sheet is gradually raised to 180 C. whereupon the synthetic resin fibres become tacky and bond to the other fibres in the product. At the exit of the drying chamber, the sheet is passed while thuspre-heated through calender 8 rolls to compact the sheet while the synthetic resin fibres are in a tacky condition. Thereafter the sheet is allowed to cool. The resulting product will be a relatively stifi board adapted for use as wall board or for insulation, shoe construction, and the like.

Since certain changes in carrying out the above process, and certain modifications in the article which embody the invention may be made without departing from its scope, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. In a process for making a paper product, the steps comprising forming an aqueous suspension of cellulosic paper-making fibers of paper-making length and water-insoluble preformed, extruded thermoplastic resin fibers oi paper-making length while maintaining said resin fibers in fibrous form, said resin fibers being formed from a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate and being normally non-tacky, flexible, and tough, and being rendered tacky at a temperature below that at which the papermaking fibers are damaged; removing water from said suspension to deposit said paper-making and said resin fibers in the form of a paper product; and heating said product to efiect a tough. pliable, water-resistant bonding of fibers in said product, without destruction of the fibrous structure of said resin fibers.

2. In a process for making a paper product, the steps comprising forming an aqueous suspension of a mixture of cellulosic fibers of papermaking length and water-insoluble pre-formed. extruded thermoplastic resin fibers of papermaking length by heating said fibers with water for a period sufiicient to mix the fibers uniformly but insumcient to hydrate said cellulosic fibers substantially and insumcient to destroy the fibrous nature of said resin fibers, said resin fibers being formed from a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate and being normally non-tacky, flexible, and tough, and being rendered tacky at a temperature below that at which the papermaking fibers are damaged; removing water from said suspension to deposit said fibers in the form of a paper product comprising said paper-making fibers and said resin fibers; and heating said product to eflect a tough, pliable, water-resistant bonding of fibers in said product, without destruction of the fibrous structure of said resin fibers.

3. In a process for making a molded paper product, the steps comprising forming an aqueous suspension of a mixture of paper-making fibers of paper-making length and water-insoluble preformed, extruded thermoplastic resin fibers of paper-making length while maintaining said resin fibers in fibrous form, said resin fibers being formed from a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate and being normally non-tacky, flexible, and tough, and being rendered tacky at a temperature below that at which the papermaking fibers are damaged; removing a mixture of said paper-making and said resin fibers from said suspension in the form of a shaped structure by the use of a mold; and heating said structure to efl'ect a tough, pliable. water-resistant bonding of fibers in said product, without destruction of the fibrous structure of said resin fibers.

4. As an article of manufacture, a. paper product comprising water-laid paper-making fibers and water-insoluble pre-iormed, extruded, thermoplastic resin fibers formed from a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate, said resin fibers being normally non-tacky, flexible, and tough, and being rendered tacky at a temperature below that at which the paper-making fibers are damaged, fibers in said product being bonded to each other due to the thermal tackiness alter heating of said resin fibers.

5. As an article of manufacture, a paper product comprising a water-laid mixture or cellulosic paper-making fibers and water-insoluble pretormed, extruded, thermoplastic resin fibers formed from a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate, said resin fibers being normally non-tacky, flexible, and tough. and being rendered tacky at a temperature below that at which the paper-making fibers are damaged, fibers in said product being bonded to each other due to the thermal tackiness after heatin of said resin fibers.

6. As an article manuiacture, a paper product comprising a water-laid mixture of substantially unhydrated celluloslc paper-making fibers and water-insoluble pre-iormed, extruded, thermoplastic resin fibers formed from a ccpolymer or vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate, said resin fibers being normally non-tacky, flexible, and tough, and being rendered tacky at a temperature below that at which the paper-making fibers are damaged, fibers in said product being bonded to each other substantially solely due to the thermal tackiness after heating 0! said resin fibers.

7. In a process for making a paper product, the step comprising water-laying paper-making fibers of paper-making length and water-insoluble pre-formed, extruded thermoplastic resin fibers oi paper-making length while maintaining said resin fibers in fibrous form to form a paper product comprising said aper-making fibers and said resin fibers and adapted to be heated to render said resin fibers tacky and to efiect bonding of fibers in said product by the thermoplastic material of said resin fibers; the said resin fibers being tormed oi. a copolymer oi. vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate and being normally non-tacky,

10 flexible, and tough, and being-rendered tacky at a temperature below that at which the papermaking fibers are damaged.

8. As an article of manufacture. a paper product comprising water-laid paper-making fibers and water-insoluble pre-i'crmed, extruded, thermoplastic resin fibers formed from a ccpolymer oi vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate, said resin fibers being normally non-tacky, flexible, and tough, and capable of being rendered tacky at a temperature below that at which the papermaking fibers are damaged to provide a product in which fibers in said product are bonded by the thermoplastic material 0! said resin fibers.

CARLETON S. FRANCIS. J a.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,829,585 Dreyfus et al Oct. 27, 1931 1,919,697 Grofi July 25, 1933 2,031,606 Johnston Feb. 25, 1936 2,038,679 Richter Apr. 28, 1936 2,069,771 Pascoe et al Feb. 9, 1937 2,140,048 Fikentscher et al. Dec. 13, 1938 2,156,455 Kleine et al May 2. 1939 2,253,000 Francis Aug. 19, 1941 2,277,049 Reed Mar. 24, 1942 2,278,896 Rugeley et al. Apr. 7, 1942 3,306,731 Francis Dec. 29, 1942 2,459,803 Francis Jan. 25, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 148,780 Austria Mar. 10, 1937 806,524 France Dec. 18, 1936 301,428 Great Britain Jan. 30, 1930 301,807 Great Britain Jan. 30, 1930 458,802 Great Britain Dec. 28. 1936 371,876 Germany May 23, 1923 OTHER REFERENCES Rayon Textile Monthly, June 1946, p. 51.

Claims (1)

1. IN A PROCESS FOR MAKING A PAPER PRODUCT, THE STEPS COMPRISING FORMING AN AQUEOUS SUSPENSION OF CELLULOSIC PAPER-MAKING FIBERS OF PAPER-MAKING LENGTH AND WATER-INSOLUBLE PREFORMED, EXTRUDED THERMOPLASTIC RESIN FIBERS OF PAPER-MAKING LENGTH WHILE MAINTAINING SAID RESIN FIBERS IN FIBROUS FORM, SAID RESIN FIBERS BEING FORMED FROM A COPOLYMER OF VINYL CHLORIDE AND VINYL ACETATE AND BEING NORMALLY NON-TACKY, FLEXIBLE, AND TOIUCH, AND BEING RENDERED TACKY AT A TEMPERATURE BELOW THAT AT WHICH THE PAPERMAKING FIBERS ARE DAMAGED; REMOVING WATER FROM SAID SUSPENSION TO DEPOSIT SAID PAPER-MAKING AND SAID RESIN FIBERS IN THE FORM OF A PAPER PRODUCT; AND HEATING SAID PRODUCT TO EFFECT A TOUGH, PLIABLE, WATER-RESISTANT BONDING OF FIBERS IN SAID PRODUCT, WITHOUT DESTRUCTION OF THE FIBROUS STRUCTURE OF SAID RESIN FIBERS.
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Cited By (35)

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US2653870A (en) * 1949-10-22 1953-09-29 Richard P Kast High-strength paper and method of making
US2721140A (en) * 1952-09-19 1955-10-18 Hercules Powder Co Ltd Paper of high wet strength and process therefor
US2721139A (en) * 1952-08-27 1955-10-18 Hurlbut Paper Company Paper manufacture
US2881680A (en) * 1952-12-05 1959-04-14 Spengler Method of making plant pots
US2899351A (en) * 1959-08-11 Thermoplastic paper
US2905585A (en) * 1954-09-30 1959-09-22 Du Pont Self-bonded paper
US2920992A (en) * 1954-09-22 1960-01-12 Du Pont Article of commerce
US2932601A (en) * 1954-11-12 1960-04-12 Hawley Products Co Process of preparing felted products containing hydratable and non-hydratable fibers
US2943013A (en) * 1956-07-27 1960-06-28 Hurlbut Paper Company High ash content absorbent paper for the decorative laminating industry and a process for preparing the same
US2964040A (en) * 1956-07-23 1960-12-13 Personal Products Corp Absorbent product
US3019155A (en) * 1956-12-21 1962-01-30 Francis H Snyder And Associate Decorative laminates
US3026242A (en) * 1957-08-06 1962-03-20 Du Pont Composition board
US3032465A (en) * 1958-11-28 1962-05-01 Kimberly Clark Co Paper composed of fibers having different temperature-responsive dimensional-change characteristics, and method of producing it
US3035965A (en) * 1958-09-23 1962-05-22 Kimberly Clark Co Paper composed of synthetic fibers, and fibrous binder for use in the manufacture thereof
US3057772A (en) * 1957-04-23 1962-10-09 Riegel Paper Corp Synthetic fiber paper and method of making same
US3080271A (en) * 1959-10-23 1963-03-05 Du Pont Method of making shaped fiber reinforced rubber diaphragms
US3095345A (en) * 1961-03-22 1963-06-25 Riegel Paper Corp Process for manufacturing paper from synthetic fibers
US3135590A (en) * 1957-07-12 1964-06-02 Norton Co Dimensionally stabilized paper and coated abrasives made therefrom
US3142612A (en) * 1962-08-09 1964-07-28 Fram Corp Method of forming a fiber glass water coalescing media and article thereof
US3184373A (en) * 1961-07-05 1965-05-18 Mead Corp Filled paper containing a mixture of resin and mucilaginous material as a retention aid and process for producing said paper
DE2156888A1 (en) * 1970-11-16 1972-05-25
US4181767A (en) * 1977-04-25 1980-01-01 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Plaster board panels
US4204941A (en) * 1977-10-19 1980-05-27 Solvay & Cie Process for the manufacture of a permeable diaphragm for an electrolysis cell
US4210515A (en) * 1975-02-10 1980-07-01 Basf Wyandotte Corporation Thermoplastic fibers as separator or diaphragm in electrochemical cells
US4410411A (en) * 1973-01-17 1983-10-18 Diamond Shamrock Corporation Dimensionally stable asbestos diaphragms
EP0107382A1 (en) * 1982-09-30 1984-05-02 Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Ltd. Polyethylene synthetic pulp
US4489025A (en) * 1973-01-17 1984-12-18 Diamond Shamrock Chemicals Company Preparation of dimensionally stable asbestos diaphragms
US4701250A (en) * 1973-01-17 1987-10-20 Eltech Systems Corporation Dimensionally stable asbestos diaphragm coated foraminous cathode
US5685956A (en) * 1992-05-12 1997-11-11 The Budd Company Method and apparatus for binding fibers in a fiber reinforced preform
US5820801A (en) * 1992-05-12 1998-10-13 The Budd Company Reinforced thermoplastic molding technique method
US5972169A (en) * 1998-01-15 1999-10-26 The Budd Company Slurry preform system
US6537616B2 (en) * 1998-11-12 2003-03-25 Paper Technology Foundation Inc. Stam-assisted paper impregnation
US20050136241A1 (en) * 2001-08-07 2005-06-23 Johns Manville International, Inc. Method of making coated mat online and coated mat products
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US2626214A (en) * 1949-06-14 1953-01-20 C H Dexter & Sons Inc Paper from long synthetic fibers and partially water soluble sodium carboxymethylcellulose and method
US2653870A (en) * 1949-10-22 1953-09-29 Richard P Kast High-strength paper and method of making
US2721139A (en) * 1952-08-27 1955-10-18 Hurlbut Paper Company Paper manufacture
US2721140A (en) * 1952-09-19 1955-10-18 Hercules Powder Co Ltd Paper of high wet strength and process therefor
US2881680A (en) * 1952-12-05 1959-04-14 Spengler Method of making plant pots
US2920992A (en) * 1954-09-22 1960-01-12 Du Pont Article of commerce
US2905585A (en) * 1954-09-30 1959-09-22 Du Pont Self-bonded paper
US2932601A (en) * 1954-11-12 1960-04-12 Hawley Products Co Process of preparing felted products containing hydratable and non-hydratable fibers
US2964040A (en) * 1956-07-23 1960-12-13 Personal Products Corp Absorbent product
US2943013A (en) * 1956-07-27 1960-06-28 Hurlbut Paper Company High ash content absorbent paper for the decorative laminating industry and a process for preparing the same
US3019155A (en) * 1956-12-21 1962-01-30 Francis H Snyder And Associate Decorative laminates
US3057772A (en) * 1957-04-23 1962-10-09 Riegel Paper Corp Synthetic fiber paper and method of making same
US3135590A (en) * 1957-07-12 1964-06-02 Norton Co Dimensionally stabilized paper and coated abrasives made therefrom
US3026242A (en) * 1957-08-06 1962-03-20 Du Pont Composition board
US3035965A (en) * 1958-09-23 1962-05-22 Kimberly Clark Co Paper composed of synthetic fibers, and fibrous binder for use in the manufacture thereof
US3032465A (en) * 1958-11-28 1962-05-01 Kimberly Clark Co Paper composed of fibers having different temperature-responsive dimensional-change characteristics, and method of producing it
US3080271A (en) * 1959-10-23 1963-03-05 Du Pont Method of making shaped fiber reinforced rubber diaphragms
US3095345A (en) * 1961-03-22 1963-06-25 Riegel Paper Corp Process for manufacturing paper from synthetic fibers
US3184373A (en) * 1961-07-05 1965-05-18 Mead Corp Filled paper containing a mixture of resin and mucilaginous material as a retention aid and process for producing said paper
US3142612A (en) * 1962-08-09 1964-07-28 Fram Corp Method of forming a fiber glass water coalescing media and article thereof
DE2156888A1 (en) * 1970-11-16 1972-05-25
US4701250A (en) * 1973-01-17 1987-10-20 Eltech Systems Corporation Dimensionally stable asbestos diaphragm coated foraminous cathode
US4489025A (en) * 1973-01-17 1984-12-18 Diamond Shamrock Chemicals Company Preparation of dimensionally stable asbestos diaphragms
US4410411A (en) * 1973-01-17 1983-10-18 Diamond Shamrock Corporation Dimensionally stable asbestos diaphragms
US4210515A (en) * 1975-02-10 1980-07-01 Basf Wyandotte Corporation Thermoplastic fibers as separator or diaphragm in electrochemical cells
US4181767A (en) * 1977-04-25 1980-01-01 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Plaster board panels
US4204941A (en) * 1977-10-19 1980-05-27 Solvay & Cie Process for the manufacture of a permeable diaphragm for an electrolysis cell
EP0107382A1 (en) * 1982-09-30 1984-05-02 Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Ltd. Polyethylene synthetic pulp
US5685956A (en) * 1992-05-12 1997-11-11 The Budd Company Method and apparatus for binding fibers in a fiber reinforced preform
US5820801A (en) * 1992-05-12 1998-10-13 The Budd Company Reinforced thermoplastic molding technique method
US5972169A (en) * 1998-01-15 1999-10-26 The Budd Company Slurry preform system
US6086720A (en) * 1998-01-15 2000-07-11 The Budd Company Slurry preform system
US6537616B2 (en) * 1998-11-12 2003-03-25 Paper Technology Foundation Inc. Stam-assisted paper impregnation
US20050136241A1 (en) * 2001-08-07 2005-06-23 Johns Manville International, Inc. Method of making coated mat online and coated mat products
US7462259B2 (en) * 2001-08-07 2008-12-09 Johns Mnaville Method of making coated mat online
US20070006985A1 (en) * 2005-07-11 2007-01-11 Chin-Fu Lee Tissue paper with transparent patterns

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DE835393C (en) 1952-03-31 grant
BE475208A (en) grant
FR951617A (en) 1949-10-31 grant

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