US2514875A - U-passage gas turbine with turbulent heat transfer zone - Google Patents

U-passage gas turbine with turbulent heat transfer zone Download PDF

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US2514875A
US2514875A US613349A US61334945A US2514875A US 2514875 A US2514875 A US 2514875A US 613349 A US613349 A US 613349A US 61334945 A US61334945 A US 61334945A US 2514875 A US2514875 A US 2514875A
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passages
rotor
gas
casing
legs
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Kollsman Paul
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C3/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid
    • F02C3/04Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid having a turbine driving a compressor
    • F02C3/045Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid having a turbine driving a compressor having compressor and turbine passages in a single rotor-module
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C1/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of hot gases or unheated pressurised gases, as the working fluid
    • F02C1/04Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of hot gases or unheated pressurised gases, as the working fluid the working fluid being heated indirectly
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C3/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid
    • F02C3/04Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid having a turbine driving a compressor
    • F02C3/045Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid having a turbine driving a compressor having compressor and turbine passages in a single rotor-module
    • F02C3/05Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid having a turbine driving a compressor having compressor and turbine passages in a single rotor-module the compressor and the turbine being of the radial flow type

Description

y 1950 P. KOLLSMAN 2,514,875

U-PASSAGE GAS TURBINE WITH TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER ZONE Filed Aug. 29, 1945 s Sheets-Sheet 1 9401. KOLLSMA/V,

Arroe/ve'n Z I6' 3 my 1 INVENTOR.

July 11, 1950 P KOLLSMAN 2,514,875

U-PASSAGE GA S TURBINE WITH TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER ZONE Filed Aug. 29, 1945 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 N axe/me /YOZZL .Z I6. 6. 59

IN VEN TOR. R404 Kanspmu,

V [By Arron/vex Pmma July 11,1950

i v UNITED U-PASSAGE GAS TURBINE WITH TURBU- LENT HEAT TRANSFER- ZONE Paul Kollsman, New York, N. Y.

Application August 29, 1945, Serial No. 613,349

'1 Claims.

This invention relates to a thermodynamic engine for converting heat energy into mechanical energy.

One object of the invention is the provision of a thermodynamic engine in which air or other gas is rotated to effect a compression-expansion cycle with the introduction of heat energy into the compressed gas, in which the rotational energy of the gas is imparted to the engine to client its rotation.

Another object of the invention is the provision of a thermodynamic engine in which air or other gas is rotated to effect a compression-expansion cycle, with heat imparted to the compressed gas, with the rotational energy of the gasreturned to the engine to effect its rotation and with the gas collected and discharged through a jet nozzle to produce a reactive force.

-' with an annular diffuser through which the gas is discharged to convert its rotational energy to assist the fiow of gas through the path, and in which mechanical energy may be taken directly from the rotating parts or in which the gas emerging from; the path may be discharged through a jet nozzle to secure a reactive thrust.

Other objects and features of the invention will be readily apparent to those'skilled in the art from the specification and appended drawings illustrating certain preferred embodiments in which:

Figure 1 is a view partly in section and partly in elevation of an engine according to the present invention. t

Figure 2 is a partial elevational view of the engine.

Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view through the engine on plane III-III of Figure 1.

Figure 4 is a view partly in vertical section and partly in elevation of a modified form of the invention.

Figure 5 is a partial sectional view on the line V-V of .Figure 4.

Figure 6 is a view partly in vertical section and partly in elevation of a further modification of the invention. l

1, and 3 there is provided a stationary exterior casing I having a forwardly extending cylindrical A portion 2 in which is supported an interior, stationary, cylindrical portion 3 by means of spider legs 4. Within the cylindrical portion 3 is mounted a rotatable shaft 5 as by means of bearings 6 and I. Upon the forward end of shaft 5 is mounted a rotor 8 of an electrical starting motor whose stator is indicated at 9 and the wiring connection at H. Upon the inner end of the shaft 5 is mounted a rotor indicated generally at H and comprised ofsections l3 and il joined together in spaced relations to provide an insulating space I5 therebetween. Adjacent to the axis of the rotor the space I5 is filled by an insulating seal Upon the sections l3 and II of the rotor l2 are mounted a plurality of circumferentially spaced, radially disposed fins l1 and I8 arranged in aligned relation so as to divide the space between the rotor 12 and the interior walls of the casing I into a plurality of individual substantially U-shaped passages or chambers. The fins II have axially extending portions I9 directed toward the air inlet provided between the cylindrical portions 2 and 3 and about the cylindrical portion 3 is disposed a ring 2| carrying a plurality Figure '7 is a partial view on the line VIL-VII' of Figure 6.

In the form 01 the invention shown in of directional vanes 22 which curve in the direction of rotation of the rotor l2 and serve to direct the incoming gas to the passages between the fins II with a substantial tangential velocity. The inward ends of the fins l8 have axially extending portions 23 with the gas therebetween passing into a diffuser passage 24 formed between parallel annular walls 25 and 25; the gas passing from the outlet of diiiuser 24 into a collector 21 and being thence discharged through a jet nozzle 28 to produce a reactive working thrust.

Adjacent the bights of the U-shaped passages or chambers the casing l is provided with double walls 29 and 3| having a space 32 therebetween for the reception of a heating medium, here illustrated as gases of combustion from a burner nozzle 33 which are directed into the chamber 32. The inner wall 29 is shown as a relatively thin section to facilitate heat exchange and this wall is preferably formed of a material efiecting the transfer of heat with high efliciency. The heat exchange wall 23 extends not only around the bights of the U-shaped chambers but preferably for a distance along the legs of the passages between fins II. The heating gases within chamber 32 are discharged through outlet orifices 34. The legs of the passages or chambers between Figures 56 fins l1 and I. are of unequal length with the outangers 3 let leg between fins 58 extending the greater distance toward the axis of the rotor. A streamlined cap 35 is provided to reduce the air resistance which the elements in the cylindrical portion 3 would otherwise offer to movement.

In the operation of the machine the rotor is initially brought up to a considerable speed by energizing the electric motor formed :by stator 9 and rotor 8. Heat is supplied to the chamber 32 from the burner nozzle 33 to heat the gases compressed adjacent to the periphery of the engine. The air or gas in the passages between fins l8 will be at a considerably higher temperature than that between fins I1 and the diiference in density of the air in the columns and the'action of centrifugal force thereon will effect a flow of air through the passages from the intake portion ii! to the outlet portion 23. The incoming air will be directed with a substantial tangential velocity by returned to the machine inits movement inwardly toward the axis in the passage between the fins l8, but an additional rotational energy will Figures 6 and 7 is similar in its operation to that be imparted to the rotor by the greater length of shaped passages. Theair emergingfrom the outlet of diffuser 24 passes into the collector 21 and is finally discharged through the jet nozzle 28 to 'provideareactive forward thrust.

In theform of-the invention illustrated in Figures 4 and 5the' engine is quite similar to that illustrated in Figures 1, 2, and 3 but the mechanical energy is now taken from the machine from the rotor. shaft. Like parts in the machine have been given like reference numerals. The principal changes in the machine of Figures 4 and 5 lie in. the omission of the collector 21 and nozzle 38, the working extension of shaft 5, and the change in the relative lengths of the legs of the U-shaped gas' passages. The rotatable shaft 5 is provided with an extension 30 to which a power connection can bemade and the diffuser opening 24 is provided between parallel annular walls 36 and 31 joined together by spaced pins 38 with the air from the difiuser outlet discharged into the atmosphere.

In the form of the invention of Figures 4 and 5 the legs of the passages between fins l1 have been made considerably shorter than legs of the passages of the machine of Figures 1, 2 and 3 to secure a greater difierence in length between the incoming and outgoing legs. In the machine of the Figures 1 through 3 it is desirable to have a considerable pressure energy in the gas passing into the collector 21 with only suflicient rotational energy imparted to the rotor l2 to effect its selfrotation at the high speeds of operation of the machine.

In the form of the invention of Figures 4 and 5 it is desired that the gas emerging from the diffuser 24 have little pressure energy and that the energy of the gas passing through the engine be delivered to the rotor l2 in the form of rotational energy; therefore, the diflerencein length of the two legs of the U-shaped passages is made considerably greater in the form of the invention of Figures 4 and 5 to secure the transfer of the shown in Figures 4 and 5 and its-general construction may also be utilized with the collector and jet nozzle of Figures 1 through 3. The engine shown in Figures 6 and 7 comprises an outer casing 4| within which is mounted a rotatable shalt 42 on bearings 43 and 44. On shaft 42 is mounted a rotor 45 of an electric motor whose stator is indicated at 46 and the wiring connection thereto at 41. Upon shaft 42 is mounted a rotor, indicated generally'at 48, and comprising a pair of sections 49 and 5| mounted together in spaced relation to form an insulating space 52 therebetween. Adjacent the axis of the engine the space 52 is closed by a solid insulating seal 53. Upon sections 49 and 5| of the rotor 48 are mounted circumferentially spaced, radially disposed fins 54 and 55 which are aligned to form a plurality of individual substantially U-shaped passages or chambers. About the rotor fins there is disposed a casing 56 formed of a material effecting transfer of heat with high efiiciency, which casing is freely rotatable on the bearings 51 and 58 as a follower by air drag from the rotation of the air in the rotor chambers. Within casing l and about the periphery and one side of. the casing 56 is disposed a stationary casing 59 into which are directed combustion gases from a burner nozzle 6! with the combustion gases exhausted through an outlet 62. V I

For directing the incoming air or gas there are provided a plurality of vanes 53 similar to vanes 22 of the forms of the invention shown in Figures 1 through 5, the vanes 63 also serving to mechanically support thestationary portion containing bearing 43. Gas discharging from the engine from the passages between fins 55 passesthrough a difiuser passage 64, formed by parallel annular walls in the casing, to an outlet 55, from which they are exhausted to atmosphere in the case of an engine where mechanical energy is taken from the rotor shaft or from which they are collected and discharged from a jet nozzle as shown in the modification of Figures 1 through 3. v

The operation of the engine of Figures 6 and 7 is similiar to that previously described, the rotor 48 being initially brought up to a considerable speed by the electric motor and heat supplied from the chamber 59 through the walls of casing 55 to the compressed gas within the gas passages. Again the air flows through the gas passages by the diiference of density in the columns of the incoming and outgoing legs and the gas passing inwardly toward the axis between fins 55 returns its rotational energy to the rotor 58. The outgoing legs of the gas passages are again made longer than the incoming legs with resultant rotational mechanical energy supplied to the rotor of the engine. The diffuser 64 again serves to convert the rotational energy of the gas passing therethrough to assist the normal fiow of air through the rotor passages.

While the air or gas in the rotor passages in the forms of the invention illustrated in Figures pretation within the claims.

1 through 5 is. rotated in-contact with a stationary casing, ln the form ofthe invention shown in Figures ,6 andjl the casing", forming the outer boundary wall for the U-shaped passages, is free ito rotate as a follower to .the rotor ll which it will do at substantially one-half speed with a theoretical reduction in air frictional losses to one-fourth.

v While the legs of the gas passages have been referred to herein and in the appended claims as being radial it will be understood that they may i have any direction from the axis toward theperiphery which has a radial component.

While certain preferred embodiments of the invention have been specifically disclosed, it is understood that the invention is not limited thereto, as many variations will be'readily ap-- parent to thoses skilled in the art and the invention is to be given its broadest possible interterms of the following What is claimed is: l. A gas turbine comprising a stationary casing a rotor within said casing, said rotor including i a; body and a plurality of circumferentially spaced a casing, constitute individual and separate U- shaped passages, the legs of the U extending substantially radially and the bight of the U lying remote from the rotor axis, the two legs of. the passages being of unequal length, the end of the shorter leg constituting an intake port and the end of the longer leg constituting an outlet port located closer to the axis than the inlet port, said blades constituting continuous channel walls within the leg portions and the bight portion of said passages separating said passages from one another at the bight portion, and means associated with the casing for supplying heat to the U-shaped passages, whereby gas passing through said passages and compressed by centrifugal force is heated by transfer of heat from said casing within the area of greatest compression, the

heated gas expanding in its flow towards the discharge port transmitting energy to the rotor, and a difluser adjacent said discharge passages. the

diffuser including lateral walls defining between them a space: progressively enlarging with the distance from the axis, the lateral walls being substantially symmetrically arranged with respect to the outward direction of the discharged gas.

4. A gas turbine as set forth in claim 3 in which member; a core member within said outer memportion of the casing wall at the bight of said port transmitting energy to the rotor.

2. A gas turbine as set forth in claim 1 in which the heat transferring wall portion of the casin extends with a greater area over said longer leg than it extends over the shorter leg of said pas- .sages.

3. A gas turbine comprising a casing, a rotor within said casing, said rotor including a body and a plurality of circumferentially spaced substantially radially extending blades on said body, said blades together with said body defining a plurality of substantially U-shaped rotor channels which together with the interior wall of the casing constitute U-shaped passages, the legs of the U extending substantially radially and the bight of the U lying remote from the rotor axis, the two legs of the passages being of unequal length, the end of the shorter leg constituting an intake port and the end of the longer leg constituting an outlet port located closer to the axis then the inlet port, the said passages at the outlet port being of concave curvature with respect to the axis to discharge gas therefrom in a substantially radial outward direction, means associated with the casing for supplying heat to the her, one of said members being rotatable relatively to the other about an axis, the other member being stationary, the interior surface of the outer member and the exterior surface of the inner member providing an interior space between them, the rotatable member being provided with a plurality of circumferentially spaced substantially radially extending blades subdividing theinterior space into a plurality of substantially U-shaped'channels which together with the wall of the stationary member constitute individual and separate U-shaped passages, the legs of the U extending substantially radially and the bight of the U lying remote from the axis, the two legs of the passages being of unequal length, the end of the shorter leg constituting an intake port and the end of the longer leg constituting an outlet port located closer to the axis than the inlet port, said blades constituting continuous channel walls within the leg portions and the bight portion of said passages separating said passages from one another at the bight portion; and means associated with the stationary member for supplying heat to the wall portion of the stationary member at the bight of the said U-shaped passages, whereby gas passing through said passages and compressed by centrifugal force at the bight is heated by transfer of heat from said wall portion within the area of greatest compression, transfer of heat being promoted by the flow of gas within said passages and also by the relative movement of said passages with respect to said wall portion, the heated gas expanding in its flow towards the discharge port and transferring energy to the blades of the rotating members.

6. A gas turbine comprising an outer enclosing member, a core member within said outer member, one of said members being rotatable relatively to the other about an axis, the other member being stationary, the interior surface of the outer member and the exterior surface of the inner member providing an interior space between them, the rotatable member being provided with a plurality of circumferentially spaced substantially radially extending blades, an intermediate casing within said space mounted with freedom to spin about said axis, said blades subdividing the space between the rotatable member and said intermediate casing into a plurality of substantially U-shaped channels which together with the wall of said intermediate casing constitute U-shaped passages, the legs of the U- extending substantially radially and the bight of the U lying remote from the axis, the two legs of the passages being of unequal length, the end of the shorter leg constiportion of the casing wall at the bight of said tuting an intake port and the end of the longer leg constituting an loutlet port located closer to the axis than ,the inletport; and meanstor supplying heat to the bight of said U-shaped passages exterior ofsaidpassages, whereby gas pass- 8v through said passages is heated within the passage portion within which the gas is under greatest compression, the heated gas expanding v in its flow towards the discharge port and transmitting' energy to the rotor.

'7. A'gasturbine comprising a casing, a rotor "within said casing, said rotor including a body and Ya plurality of circumferentially spaced subi 'stantially radially extending blades on said body, said blades together with said body defining a plurality of substantially U-shaped rotor channels which together with the interior wall of the easing constitute U-shaped'passages, the legs of the U extending substantially radially and the bight of the Ulying remotefrom the rotor axis, the two legs ofthe' passages being of unequal length, the

end of the shorter leg constituting an intake'port and the end of the longer leg constituting an outlet port located closer to the axis than'the inlet port. the body of the rotor comprising two portlons, one portion being adjacent said shorter leg and the other portion being adjacent the longer leg, said two portions being separated by an area having Poorer heat conductivity than the said 1 1 associated portions. and means with the casing 'for'supplying heatto the portion 01' the, casing REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the men: thispatent: I

. UNITED swim PATENTS Number Name Date 1,256,674 Fiittinger Feb.19, 1918 2,256,198 Hahn Sept. 16, 1941 2,272,676 Leduc -n; Feb. 10, 1942 2,283,176 Birmann May 19, 1942 2,334,625 Heppner Nov. 16, 1943 2,432,359 Streid Dec. 9, 1947 OTHER nsmamcss Steam and Gas Turbines," by Dr. A. Stodola, translated by Dr. L. C. Loewenstein, McGraw-Hill Book Company, .New York, 1927, vol. II. p es 1220-1221.

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Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2890570A (en) * 1952-10-14 1959-06-16 Georgia Tech Res Inst Power unit for the conversion of heat energy of fluids into mechanical energy
US3087439A (en) * 1958-12-04 1963-04-30 Petrocokino Denis Dimitri Conveyance system
US3931713A (en) * 1973-10-11 1976-01-13 Michael Eskeli Turbine with regeneration
US4023366A (en) * 1975-09-26 1977-05-17 Cryo-Power, Inc. Isothermal open cycle thermodynamic engine and method
US5473899A (en) * 1993-06-10 1995-12-12 Viteri; Fermin Turbomachinery for Modified Ericsson engines and other power/refrigeration applications
US5680764A (en) * 1995-06-07 1997-10-28 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Clean air engines transportation and other power applications
EP1251256A1 (en) * 2001-04-17 2002-10-23 Heinz Dipl.-Ing. Fehrs Gas turbine
GB2379956A (en) * 2001-06-29 2003-03-26 Brian Sowards Rotary internal combustion engine
FR2842246A1 (en) * 2002-07-15 2004-01-16 Remy Eric Patrick Mercier Centrifugal heat engine has chamber divided by concentric separator into two compartments that are sub-divided into sectors
US20060075752A1 (en) * 2004-10-12 2006-04-13 Guy Silver Method and system for electrical and mechanical power generation using Stirling engine principles
WO2008064660A3 (en) * 2006-11-28 2009-06-11 Hermann Berthold Method and device for the operation of a generator by means of a hot gas steam turbine
IT201600105432A1 (en) * 2016-10-20 2017-01-20 Algerino Patrignani turbine Cylinder

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1256674A (en) * 1918-01-11 1918-02-19 Hermann Foettinger Rotary gas-engine.
US2256198A (en) * 1938-05-27 1941-09-16 Ernst Heinkel Aircraft power plant
US2272676A (en) * 1938-12-23 1942-02-10 Leduc Rene Continuous flow gas turbine
US2283176A (en) * 1937-11-29 1942-05-19 Turbo Engineering Corp Elastic fluid mechanism
US2334625A (en) * 1941-03-26 1943-11-16 Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd Turbomachine
US2432359A (en) * 1947-12-09 Internal-combustion turbine power

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2432359A (en) * 1947-12-09 Internal-combustion turbine power
US1256674A (en) * 1918-01-11 1918-02-19 Hermann Foettinger Rotary gas-engine.
US2283176A (en) * 1937-11-29 1942-05-19 Turbo Engineering Corp Elastic fluid mechanism
US2256198A (en) * 1938-05-27 1941-09-16 Ernst Heinkel Aircraft power plant
US2272676A (en) * 1938-12-23 1942-02-10 Leduc Rene Continuous flow gas turbine
US2334625A (en) * 1941-03-26 1943-11-16 Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd Turbomachine

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2890570A (en) * 1952-10-14 1959-06-16 Georgia Tech Res Inst Power unit for the conversion of heat energy of fluids into mechanical energy
US3087439A (en) * 1958-12-04 1963-04-30 Petrocokino Denis Dimitri Conveyance system
US3931713A (en) * 1973-10-11 1976-01-13 Michael Eskeli Turbine with regeneration
US4023366A (en) * 1975-09-26 1977-05-17 Cryo-Power, Inc. Isothermal open cycle thermodynamic engine and method
US5473899A (en) * 1993-06-10 1995-12-12 Viteri; Fermin Turbomachinery for Modified Ericsson engines and other power/refrigeration applications
US5680764A (en) * 1995-06-07 1997-10-28 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Clean air engines transportation and other power applications
EP1251256A1 (en) * 2001-04-17 2002-10-23 Heinz Dipl.-Ing. Fehrs Gas turbine
GB2379956B (en) * 2001-06-29 2004-10-27 Brian Sowards Internal combustion engine
GB2379956A (en) * 2001-06-29 2003-03-26 Brian Sowards Rotary internal combustion engine
FR2842246A1 (en) * 2002-07-15 2004-01-16 Remy Eric Patrick Mercier Centrifugal heat engine has chamber divided by concentric separator into two compartments that are sub-divided into sectors
US20060075752A1 (en) * 2004-10-12 2006-04-13 Guy Silver Method and system for electrical and mechanical power generation using Stirling engine principles
US8051655B2 (en) 2004-10-12 2011-11-08 Guy Silver Method and system for electrical and mechanical power generation using stirling engine principles
WO2008064660A3 (en) * 2006-11-28 2009-06-11 Hermann Berthold Method and device for the operation of a generator by means of a hot gas steam turbine
IT201600105432A1 (en) * 2016-10-20 2017-01-20 Algerino Patrignani turbine Cylinder

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