US2481633A - Gear-operated wrench with spiral drive - Google Patents

Gear-operated wrench with spiral drive Download PDF

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Publication number
US2481633A
US2481633A US632738A US63273845A US2481633A US 2481633 A US2481633 A US 2481633A US 632738 A US632738 A US 632738A US 63273845 A US63273845 A US 63273845A US 2481633 A US2481633 A US 2481633A
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United States
Prior art keywords
element
sleeve
ratchet
shaft
collar
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Expired - Lifetime
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US632738A
Inventor
William W Wehner
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ERNEST A WEHNER
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ERNEST A WEHNER
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Priority to US632738A priority Critical patent/US2481633A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25BTOOLS OR BENCH DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, FOR FASTENING, CONNECTING, DISENGAGING OR HOLDING
    • B25B13/00Spanners; Wrenches
    • B25B13/46Spanners; Wrenches of the ratchet type, for providing a free return stroke of the handle
    • B25B13/461Spanners; Wrenches of the ratchet type, for providing a free return stroke of the handle with concentric driving and driven member
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25BTOOLS OR BENCH DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, FOR FASTENING, CONNECTING, DISENGAGING OR HOLDING
    • B25B17/00Hand-driven gear-operated wrenches or screwdrivers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S81/00Tools
    • Y10S81/02Spiral drive for wrenches
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T408/00Cutting by use of rotating axially moving tool
    • Y10T408/65Means to drive tool

Description

Sept. 13, 1949. w. w. WEHNER GEAR OPERATED WRENCH WITH SPIRAL DRIVE Filed Dec. 4. 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 yzwaww M W; Uri

Sept. 13, 1949. w, w, WEHNER GEAR OPERATED WRENCH WITH SPIRAL DRIVE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 4, 1945 ill 0 f 8 p0 m Patented Sept. 13, 1949 csiia-orsmrsnwasscn wrrrr SPIRAL DRIVE William W twenty-five per cent to Ernest A.

lington, N. J.

. ner, Arlin to rNi J-r ,as s or of Wehner, Ar-

Applicaticn December 4, 1945, Serial No. 632,738

1 Claim.

This invention relates to wrenches, and more particularly to a. wrench for use in tight or inconveniently accessible places.

Anv object of the inventionis to provide a wrench which will turn a nut, bolt or other screwthreaded-element in or out of work engagement without the necessity of side-wise movement of the, handle of the tool; and which is equipped so as to-be adaptable forthreading pipes; for use as a screw driver;v and for other similar rotational application.

The invention will be better understood by the following description with refereneeto theac companying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 is a longitudinal cross section of a fragmentary portion of the tool handle;

Figure la is an'elevation of a portion of the wrench endof the tool with one side of the housing removed;

v Figure 2 is a cross-sectionalview along the lined-20f Figure 1a; 7 V

Figure 3 is a side view, partly'in section, of the ratchet elements;

Figure 4' is atop plan view of one of collars; 3

Figure 5 is a top plan view of the'other ratchet collar; l

Figure 6 is a detail view'of the ratchet pawl and the support therefor; p g

Figure 7 is aside view ofa wrench adapter to fitinto the basic socket of the wrench; and

Figure 8 is a front face view of the: clutch selector button and associated keeper and guide plate-therefor.

Referring now to the drawings; there is illustrated a: work engager l0 (see Fig. '7) of a complemental external shape to fit into a polygonal opening ll in an annularly toothed, rotary socket H and is, ineffect, an adapter tofunction as a wrench, screw driver, pipe threader or whatever rotational work that is to be performed,

The annularly toothed socket II is rotated by means of a shaft I2 havinga 'worm screw l3 formedintegrally or attached thereon adjacent oneend-thereof. V p r u The screw I3 is shownconventionally as ofa plainstraight form; but, in practice, the same maybe; preferably, ofthe known form which is concave or curved arcuately from end to end thereof so as to increase its working strength and power because of greater spiral thread and toothengagement between the screw l3 and the rotary Socket H'. The shaft [2 is mounted r0 tatably in and extends longitudinally through an axial bore. [4' in an elongated stem extension l4 the ratchet oi a handle havingan anerture and laterally offset portion I5 to accommodate said Socket ll; A -the. pp site end of the shaft !2 i provided a poly onal portion It, to which a suit bl wrench. vcan be.;applie.d so as to rotate the-shaf On one face of the p ly nal p rtion; 16 may he provided a conventional spring protruded, ball [1 to engage a recess in the socket,- of the applied wren6h;- as is customary in e a p ica on of suchimplements. So, too, a transverse hole l8 may be rovidedinthe polygonal portion l6 for the insertion of a rod-like implement of small diameter to turn the shaft I2.

The just above described provisions are i made to rotatetheshaft by direct application of the said implements to in turn rotate the rotary member l [which carries the adapter element Ill; An, especial provision is made to cause rotation of the shaft l2 through the medium of a reciprooatory elementwhose movement is longitudinally of theishaft by meansand control of a selectively reversible ratchet driving mechanism as will now bodescribed. V V I Sleeved about the shaft l2 andmounted in the bore of the tool handle so as to have both a retatable and longitudinally reciprocatable movement isa sleeve eleriieriit [9. This sleeve element i9 is of substantial length and it is provided at its outer end with a circular holding and manipulating handle 29 (see Fig; 1). This handle element 210;, as illustrated, has its marginal portions rounded transversely and its hub portion is screw-threaded as at 21,; to the outer end of the sleeve 19. However, the handle element 20 may be ofv any other suitable type andattached in any other desirable manner to the sleeve I 9 so asto be conveniently usable in both the rotationv of the, sleeve by said element 29 or bymanipulation of the element in the reciprocation of, the sleeve A Shown, the shaft I2 is provided with'a lon+ gitudinally extending circumferential lug 22 which rides in a longitudinal groove 23 provided in the sleeve 19, By this provision the shaft l2 and sleeve |9- are held against independent r0.- tation,vbut are capable of longitudinalmovernent with relation to each other! The sleeve 19 is provided on its outer face with a pair ofoppositely formed spiral screw ways 24' which crosseach other at each convolution there of, the screwgrooving of the tube producing a multiplici y of substantially di mond-shaped islands 25 in the conventional manner. Sleeved on the elongated sleeve I 9 is aupairof ratchet cols 26 and 21, said collars being placed closely;

vision and arrangement the ratchet collars and 21 are held against endwise movement, but

municates and. extends on opposite sides of a central opening 45, with the outer ends of the slot 44 communicating with larger openings 46. The central opening 45 is in direct lateral alignment with the axis of the trunnions 36, while the outer openings 46 are in substantial central alignmentfwith the pawls 40, that are carried by the element 35. So, -too,'- the spring. element 38 is of an elongated leaf type, the opposite end portions of which are semi-looped, as at 41, and

are seated in the longitudinal groove or elongated recess 38' provided in the outer face of the element 35. By this provision, the spring they are permitted rotatable-movement either to gether or independently of each other, depending upon which pawl of the ratchet mechanism is set in working relation to the collar 26 or 21, as

the case may be. That is to say, when the pawl elements of the ratchet mechanism are set in a neutral position, as will be later more fully described, both of said ratchet collars 26 and 21 are free to rotate freely in either direction with the sleeve l9, but when one of the pawl elements is set in working relation to its companion collar, thatcollar is held from rotation in one direction While freely-rotatable in the opposite direction, and the other collar is free to rotate in either direction, and viceversa. 7

'''Each of the collars 26 and '21 is provided on its interior face with a pair of diametrically opposed inclined and spirally arranged lugs 33, extending from end to end thereof and adapted to work in the screw grooves 24 on the exterior of the sleeve IS, the only difference being that the lugs 33 on the one collarare arranged in reverse order 'to'the lugs on the other collar, that is to say, they are respectively arranged to cooperate with the right and left hand screw-threading of the sleeve l9. Each ofthe collars 26 and 21 is also provided with an annular series of ratchet teeth 34, the only difference'being in the fact that the teeth'of the one collar are in reverse order to those of the other collar and correspond'to the right and left hand arrangement of the lugs 33, as the case may be.

Arranged in laterally opposed relation to the pair of ratchet collars 26 and 21 is an elongated rockable pawl-holding and controlling element 35 which is pivotally mounted, midway between its ends, on trunnion-s 36,said element 35 being located in a longitudinal recess 31 in the adjacent portion of the stem tool handle, and the trunnions 36 being journaled-in suitable bearing openings provided therefor in the opposite side walls of the recess 31. A spring element 38 yieldably holds the rockable element 35 in a normally neutral position, and it also functions, together with a slidably mounted opposed but ton 39, which latter is adjusted-in either direction from its neutral position to rock the element 35 and move'one of its carried pawls 40 into working relation with respect to its companion collar 26 or 21, as the case may be.

As shown more clearly in Figures 3 and 8, the controlling button 39 for the rockable element-35 is'held slidably in place by an escutcheon or keeper plate 4| which is placed to cover the elongated recess 31 'and is' secured in position by screw or'bolt elements 42 which are insertible throughapertures 43 provided therefor at the opposite ends of the plate 4| and into screwthreaded apertures provided obviously therefor in the adjacent portions of the stem extension l4 of the main body. As shown, the plate '44 is provided with a longitudinal slot 44 which comried companion pawl 40 in working element is held against lateral movement independently of the rockable element 35, but is permitted limited longitudinal movement in said grooved outer face portion of the element 35. Normally, this spring element 36 is moved somewhat outwardly from the outer face of the rockable element 35, but, inthe neutral position of the element 35,- with the controlling button39 positioned so as to be engaged in the. central opening 45 of the keeper plate 4|, the middle portion of the spring elementis thrust and de- .formed inwardly toward the adjacent middle portion of the rockable element 35. In thiscOn-Z nection, it is noted that. the button 39 is provided with'a steppedportion 48' of transverse dimensions permitting it to slide freely inthe slot 44 of the keeper plate 4!. With this stepped portion 48 of the button positioned within the central opening 45 the-spring element 38 holds the rockable member in its neutral position with both of the ratchet pawls out of engagement with their companion ratchet collars 26 and 21..

To set either of the carried pawls 40 on the rockable element 35 in working relation to its companion ratchet collar 26 or 21, as the case may be, the button 39 is moved toward either of the end openings in'the keeper plate 4|- and when the button reaches the particular opening'46, the spring element 38 forces the adjacent end portion of the rockable element 35 toward the. companion ratchet collar and places the carrelation' to the teeth 34 of the particular collar. A like result follows when the button 39 is moved in the op-- posite direction. When the button 39 reaches either of the openings 46'; the spring elementj38 causes the buttonto seat a stepped portion; 49 thereof of larger diameter thanthe stepped pertion into the particular opening 46, thus hol'ding-the button in its adjusted position until pressed inwardly against thetension of the spring element 38 so that it may be slid back to its normal central position. It is thus evident that the" spring element'p38 not only holds the rockable element 35 in its neutral and operated positions, but also holds the controlling button 39 in its neutraland adjusted positions. V 9

As to the particular form of the rotary element H and the adapter element 10, iteis here noted that the interior opening I'! of therotary element" Il may be of van'y'polygonal or other shape to receive the adapter element and hold the same against rotary movement'independently of the rotary element. As shown (see Figs. la and 2) the.

rotary element has a generally circular opening l I, the wall of which is serrated or star-shaped. However, as 'just above notedQthe shape of this opening may be of any other'suitable or ap; proved form. By the same token, the external contour of the adapter element l0 may be of other complemental shapes. In this connection, also,

while not shown in detail, it is here noted that g the adapter elementirwilla have: interior:- openings ofivarious--shaipes, .tozaccommodateititozthezpar ti'eulan kindat! work: intended; thatsi-sitmsay, for wrench purposes, theeopeni ngirr'thezadapter' element I will be either square; hexagonals or other contaminate-nape teengage the head of a bolt, screw or nut or other element to be likewise tightened or loosened-'3 scares; varions'forms of socketa mar' er v e dn e a ap e t cc modate it to screw driver bladestandthe like, or; in other -cases, it may be providedjfor the accommodati o'rr of pipe cuttihgy'threading and othenonerations. As the particular form antler-'- raggementof the accommodatingg opening; in 'the adapter element is not concerneduin the-present irrventipn the same is notashownrin detazitin the accompanying drawings. However, thertoolyeaco n i t e adapte eme I is indicated only schematically, as at ID in Figure 7.

In some adaptations of the invention, the opening II in the socket ll may be provided at one or more places with a spring-urged ball or balls 50, said ball elements to engage in complemental recesses l placed correspondingly on the outer face of the adapter element I0. So, too, the mounting of the rotary element II in the offset end portion of the main body may be accomplished in any approved manner. As shown, however, the main body is divided longitudinally so that the offset end portion produces two opposed hollow housings 52 in the top and bottom Walls of which are provided aligned openings 53 through which the opposite end portions of the rotary element H protrude, the intermediate peripherally toothed portion 54 of the rotary element being in the form of an integral annular collar, which, at opposite sides, abuts the adjacent inner faces of the upper and lower walls of the sections 52 (see Fig. 2). The chamber within the housing sections 52 also afiords a container for a heavy oil or semi-plastic lubricant.

As to the pawl elements 40 of the ratchet mechanism, it is here noted that the same may be of any suitable or approved form and arrangement. A practical and efficient form of the ratchet pawls and the arrangement thereof is illustrated in detail in Figure 6, in which figure the showing is a fragmentary cross-section through the rocker element 35 in the region of the ratchet collar 21. As shown, the rockable element 35 is of a peculiar undercut form in cross-section. Its peculiar form produces a perpendicular shoulder 55 at one longitudinal edge thereof, against which shoulder 55 the pawl element 40 normally abuts. As illustrated more clearly in Figure 3, the pawl element is in the form of a substantially wide plate, and as shown in Figure 6, it is provided at one edge with a bead 5B which is circular in crosssection and is fitted into a corresponding opening 51 in the body of the element 35 adjacent the base of the perpendicular flange or shoulder 55. The pawl 40 is yielda-bly held against said shoulder 55 by a spring element 58 which is supported on an arcuate stem 59 protruding from the face of the pawl and the stem and spring being both received in a correspondingly arcuate recess 50 in the opposed body portion of the element 35. By this provision, when an attempt is made to rotate the ratchet collar 21 in one direction, the pawl 40, being against the shoulder or flange 55, arrests the movement of the collar, but, when the collar is rotated in the opposite direction, the spring 58 yields and permits the pawl to swing away from the shoulder or flange there; is an eseapement or the teeth from the previously engagedapawl' 40: The same construction and: pawla arrangement ob tai'ns; as": to the other ratchetcollar 26:; except thatsthe relative positions?of the flange or'shoul diet 55 anct th pawlz lll is in reverse orderto that shown inJEig'uretG.

TIZEG'OIQ'GIEILfiQJ-QIO'E the tool -of the present inventiorrbe accomplished in different ways: Gne' niethOd is to rotate th'eshaft l 2 by direct, anfilicatiort ofawrench or other implement-to theprotruded? end; of the shaft, tlrus directly rotating? the-"wornr screw 13 and: driving the retattabl etelement- M2, This,: ofcourse, may: be accomplished by; rotating the shaft I: in either dsirection,:,v as? desired or necessary. Another method ofoperation is-to grasp. themanipulating headi-ori element-2 0 at 'the' ou'ter end of the'sleev' I9 and rotate the same, thus turning the sleeve, and, through the engagement of the lug 22 on the shaft I 2 in the groove 23 of the sleeve I9, the shaft I2 is thereby positively rotated in either direction. It is here also noted that, in the direct rotation of the shaft l2 by the rotation of the sleeve l9, as just described, the lug and groove engagement between the shaft and the sleeve is such that the sleeve may be withdrawn to different distances outwardly on the shaft, as may be desired for convenience, and with the sleeve thus adjusted, the same may be rotated by means of the manipulating head 20 at the outer end thereof. It is, of course, understood that to rotate the shaft l2 by means of the sleeve l9, as just previously described, the rockable element 35 must be set in a neutral position so that neither of the pawl elements 40 is in working relation to the respective ratchet collars 26 and 21. Still another method of operation is by reciprocating the sleeve l9 longitudinally, and for which operation either one of the pawls 40, according to the direction in which it is intended to rotate the shaft I 2, is set in working relation to its companion collar 26 or 21, as the case may be. Thus, with one of the ratchet collars estopped from rotation in one direction by the setting of the companion pawl 40, if the sleeve is forced longitudinally in one direction, the collar being held by the pawl, the sleeve and the shaft I2 keyed thereto are turned in the direction according to the threading of the collar, that is, as to whether it is right or left hand, but on the return stroke of reciprocation, the collar is free to rotate, hence, the movement of the keyed shaft and sleeve is longitudinal and without rotation. By token, which the other pawl element 40 placed in working relation to its companion ratchet collar, the combined rotation of the shaft and sleeve is positive in one direction of reciprocation, but in an opposite direction of rotation.

While the accompanying drawings illustrate a practical exemplification of the invention, it is understood that modifications in the same is contemplated within the spirit and scope of the appended claim. The invention, therefore, is not limited to the specific construction and arrangement shown.

Having thus described the invention, what is clamed is:

A manually operated rotatable tool comprising a tool handle having a longitudinal bore therethrough and an apertured offset at one end thereof, a rotatable socket journaled in said offset and having peripheral gear teeth thereon, a rotatable shaft in the bore of said handle having a polygonal outer end portion disposed beyond the end the same 6f-:said:hand1e4remotefrom said. offset; a worm gear on theinnerdend of saidshaft meshing with the gear'teeth on said socket, and manually operatedxmeans for rotating said shaft comprising asleeve surrounding said shaft within said handle bore and having avlongitudinal; keyway in the inner surface and a pair of oppositely curved spiral grooves in the outer surface thereof; 9. lug on said shaft engaged insaid sleeve keyway rotationally connecting said sleeve to said shaft while-providing freedom :of relative longitudinal movement therebetween, a pair of juxtaposed c01- lars journaled in said handle surrounding, said sleeve having internally thereof respective spiral lugs-oppositely curved and. engaged respectively inrsaid oppositely curved sleeve grooves, and'external ratchet teeth on said collars, the ratchet teeth on said two collars facing in'opposite direc- 5. shaft and said handle.

8 tion's,:-and pawlmeans carrieclrby said handle selectively engageable with said collars to control the direction of rotation ;of said sleeve upon lengthwise movement. thereof relative. to said a Wi L IAM' iWI [Blp REFERENCES ormn; The following references are ofrecord in the 10 kb h entzf Number Date

US632738A 1945-12-04 1945-12-04 Gear-operated wrench with spiral drive Expired - Lifetime US2481633A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3498159A (en) * 1967-09-26 1970-03-03 C & D Power Tool Co Inc Power wrench for oil field uses
US4665953A (en) * 1985-12-16 1987-05-19 Randall Paul D Reversible safety wire pliers
US5211209A (en) * 1991-12-02 1993-05-18 Milbar Corporation Reversible direction wire twisting pliers

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US281068A (en) * 1883-07-10 Hand-drill
US685544A (en) * 1901-01-05 1901-10-29 French Sa Wrench.
US873296A (en) * 1905-08-19 1907-12-10 Charles Henry Chappelle Screw-driver.
US1268275A (en) * 1918-03-25 1918-06-04 Clifford Otis Poole Ratchet-nut-turning machine.
US1401817A (en) * 1920-05-26 1921-12-27 Frederick B Casmire Wrench

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US281068A (en) * 1883-07-10 Hand-drill
US685544A (en) * 1901-01-05 1901-10-29 French Sa Wrench.
US873296A (en) * 1905-08-19 1907-12-10 Charles Henry Chappelle Screw-driver.
US1268275A (en) * 1918-03-25 1918-06-04 Clifford Otis Poole Ratchet-nut-turning machine.
US1401817A (en) * 1920-05-26 1921-12-27 Frederick B Casmire Wrench

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3498159A (en) * 1967-09-26 1970-03-03 C & D Power Tool Co Inc Power wrench for oil field uses
US4665953A (en) * 1985-12-16 1987-05-19 Randall Paul D Reversible safety wire pliers
US5211209A (en) * 1991-12-02 1993-05-18 Milbar Corporation Reversible direction wire twisting pliers

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