US2480048A - Casting process - Google Patents

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US2480048A
US2480048A US544265A US54426544A US2480048A US 2480048 A US2480048 A US 2480048A US 544265 A US544265 A US 544265A US 54426544 A US54426544 A US 54426544A US 2480048 A US2480048 A US 2480048A
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mold
material
article
cavity
temperature
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US544265A
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William S Rice
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William S Rice
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C33/00Moulds or cores; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • B29C33/44Moulds or cores; Details thereof or accessories therefor with means for, or specially constructed to facilitate, the removal of articles, e.g. of undercut articles
    • B29C33/52Moulds or cores; Details thereof or accessories therefor with means for, or specially constructed to facilitate, the removal of articles, e.g. of undercut articles soluble or fusible
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C13/00Dental prostheses; Making same
    • A61C13/20Methods or devices for soldering, casting, moulding or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C33/00Moulds or cores; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • B29C33/38Moulds or cores; Details thereof or accessories therefor characterised by the material or the manufacturing process
    • B29C33/3842Manufacturing moulds, e.g. shaping the mould surface by machining
    • B29C33/3857Manufacturing moulds, e.g. shaping the mould surface by machining by making impressions of one or more parts of models, e.g. shaped articles and including possible subsequent assembly of the parts
    • B29C2033/3871Manufacturing moulds, e.g. shaping the mould surface by machining by making impressions of one or more parts of models, e.g. shaped articles and including possible subsequent assembly of the parts the models being organic material, e.g. living or dead bodies or parts thereof
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29LINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS B29C, RELATING TO PARTICULAR ARTICLES
    • B29L2031/00Other particular articles
    • B29L2031/753Medical equipment; Accessories therefor
    • B29L2031/7532Artificial members, protheses

Description

. 1949- w. 8. RICE 2,480,048

CASTING PROCESS Filed July 10, 1944 ZULZZL'a/W 5121 68, BY

atented ug. 23, 1949 [TED STATES casrmo PROCESS William S. Rice, Chicago, 111. Application July 10, 1944, Serial No. 544,265

4 Claims. 1

This invention relates to casting, and has to do with a casting process employing a low fusing mold which may readily be removed from the article cast therein so as to avoid injury to the cast article, such as might occur if the mold were removed from the article by chopping or breaking the mold as is done in casting articles in refractory molds.

My invention is directed to a casting process in which I provide a low fusing mold, this mold having therein a casting cavity conforming to the desired article to be cast, the mold, after casting of the article therein, being removed, convenient- 1y by melting, so as to separate the material of the mold from the cast article without injury to the latter. In the more specific and preferred form of my process, disclosed herein by way of example, I provide a mold formed of a metal fusible at a temperature which will not cause injury to or impairment of the article cast therein, and fill the cavity of the mold with a suitable material, conveniently a material of a character to be heat cured and to set at a temperaure lower than the fusing temperature of the metal of the mold, the mold with the material therein being then heated to a proper temperature to cause curing and setting of the material, after which the mold is heated to a higher temperature effective to cause fusing thereof without injury to the cast article, thereby melting the mold away from the article cast therein. Further objects and advantages of my invention will appear from the detail description.

In the drawings:

Figure l is a side View of a human ear illustrating the first step of the process of my invention, which consists in taking an impression of the ear cavity;

Figure 2 is a sectional View through a retaining ring disposed about the impression produced by the step of Figure i, this impression serving as a pattern about which the low fusing material which constitutes the mold is poured;

Figure 3 is a sectional view through the mold produced by the operation of Figure 2, with the mold cavity filled with a casting material of a character to be heat cured and to set when cured, the mold with the cavity thereof filled with the casting material bein subjected to heat treatment at a temperature below the fusing or dissolving temperature of the mold, there being a cover on the mold to protect the casting material from the heating medium;

Figure 4 is a view similar to Figure 3 but illustrating the step of removing the mold by fusing thereof away from the cast article;

Figure 5 is a side view of the cast article remaining after fusing of the mold;

Figure 6 is a sectional view, with the article to be reproduced shown in elevation, illustrating the first step of the process of my invention as applied to producing a cast of a tooth, this first step consisting in makin an impression of the tooth;

Figure 7 is a sectional view, partly in elevation, illustrating the second step consisting in making a casting from the mold produced by the operation of Figure 6;

Figure 8 is a sectional view, partly in elevation, of a ring disposed about the casting produced by the operation of Figure 7, illustrating the step of pouring the low fusing material from which the mold is to be formed about the casting as a pattern;

Figure 9 is a sectional view of the mold produced by the operation of Figure 8, with the mold cavity filled with a casting material of a charactor to be cured and to set when subjected to heat treatment at a temperature lower than the meltin temperature of the mold, illustrating the step of heat treating the material in the mold cavity;

Figure 10 is a view similar to Figure 9 but illustrating the step of melting the mold from about the article cast therein; and

Figure 11 is a side view of the article cast in the mold after the mold has been melted from the cast article.

In applying devices to aid deaf people in hearing, commonly termed hearing aids, it is important that the instrument which goes into the ear fit the ear cavity accurately and comfortably so as to be retained in proper position therein and not cause undue discomfort to the user. Under present practice considerable delay in fitting such devices is incurred due to the necessity of having the patient present for the fitting, which also frequently causes considerable loss of time by the patient. By making an accurate reproduction of the patients ear cavity and shaping the instrument which goes into the ear accurately in accordance with this reproduction, an accurate and comfortable fit of the instrument can be assured and the delay incident to waiting until the patient is available for fitting the instrument to his car, as well as the loss of the patients time, can be avoided. In Figures 1 to 5, inclusive, I have illustrated the process of my invention as applied to casting an article, in the nature of a plug, corresponding accurately to the cavity of a persons ear, this article serving as a guide in constructing an instrument to be fitted into the car, by means of which the instrument can be so formed as to provide for an accurate and comfortable fit.

In Figure 1 an impression of thepavity or a persons ear e is taken by inserting nto the ear a suitable known impression material l2, this operation being performed in a known manner, and any suitable impression mater al which when set will retain the shape into whlch it has been formed may be used. For example, an impression plaster composition may be used, though I preferably use the impression material known co nmercially as Coeloid made by Coe Laborator es, Inc., of Chicago, Illinois. The latter impression material-Coeloi -after it has set sufficiently to retain the shape to which it has been formed possesses appreciable elasticity, which is desirable in certain cases as will be explained later. a

The impression taken as in F gure 1 produces a plug shaped articlei3, shown in Figure 2, con forming to the ear cavity from which the 1mpression is taken. After this article i3 has taken its completese t it is placed flatwise upon a supporting s face, as. in Figure 2, and a re ain: ing ring i l, formed of a metal or alloy having a high fusing temperature, is placed upon the supporting surface about the article i3, which serves as a pattern. The ring it is then filled to a suitable depth with a material i5 which may readily be removed, conveniently by application of heat at a suitable temperature to cause melting or fusing of the material [5, this ma erial serving as an investment for the article or pa ttern i3 and being of a character to set about the same and Within the ring I4. Conveniently the material I5 is an alloy consisting of 41.67% tin, 16.67% lead and ll.66% bismuth, having a fusion point of 212 F. Alternatively, an alloy consisting of 50% lead, 30% tin and b1smuth, hav ing a fusion point of 202 F. may be used. The molten alloy is poured from a suitable crucible or ladle l6 into the ring M, as illustrated, it being understood that the material of which the plug or pattern It. is formed is of such character as not to be impaired 'or in any way m uriousl y affected by the 'molt'en alloy with which it is invested. After. the investment material or alloy 15 has set, the pattern I 3 is removed therefrom, b breaking the pattern and removing the parts thereof where necessary, if this pattern be formed of plaster or other non-elastic material, or if the pattern be'formed of a material which when finally set possesses appreciable elasticity, I of which there are known materials including. Coeloid above -referred to, the pattern may be removed as a unit. That provides a mold comprising a heat destructible body formed of the mateial or alloy, l5, within the ring [4, having therein casting cavity'conforming accurately to t e pattern [3. The alloy used should be such as -t to have objectionable dimensional change in cooling from its melting point to room temperature, as will be understood by those familiar with the casting art, and the retaining ring is preferably should be of a metal or alloy having a fusion point or temperature considerably above that of the investment alloy.

After the mold has been produced in the above manner, the cavity thereof is filled, with a suitable material for' producing the desired cast article. This casting material should be'a settable material of such character as to fill completely and accurately all portions of; the casting cavity in the mold and not to be impaired or injured at temperatures required to destroy or dissolve the mold away from the cast article. Preferably, I employ a casting material which may be cured and will set at a temperature appreciably lower than the fusing temperature of the mold and which, when cured and set, has a fusing temperature sufiiciently higher than that of the mold so that it will not be softened to an objectionable extent or otherwise impaired or injured in the melting of the mold. I have found that an acrylic resin is well suited for the casting material. The resin which I preferably use is methyl methacrylate, which I mix in powder form with a suitable liquid, such as acrylic acid in its mono mer form, to provide a plastic mix of suitable consistency for packing into the mold cavity so as to enter into and completely fill all of the portions thereof. In Figure 3 the mold is shown with the cavity thereof filled with castire material !8, such as that above referred to, or any other suitable materiaL'after which th top of the mold is covered so as to be effectively closed by a slab or plate IQ of considerable thickness seating upon the upper end of the mold so as to close the latter, particularly the upper end of the mold cavity, and retain the casting material. [8 therein. The mold, with the contained casting material and closed by the slab id, is then im mersed in a bod of a suitable liquid 25, con veniently Water, within a container 25, the mold seating at its lower end upon a grate 22 of suitable height resting upon the bottom wall of the container. The liquid 20. within the container 2'! is then heated in any suitable manner, as by means of a burner 23', to a temperature below the fusing temperature of the mold but sufiiciently high to heat the mold and the casting material therein to the curing temperature of the latter, which is from 169 F. to F; when using the methyl methacrylate composition above mentioned. During this curing operation, the cover 19 seals the upper end of the mold against access of water to the casting material and also prevents escape of the latter from the mold cavity. The material 58 tends to expand somewhat during the curing operation since it is restrained against escape from the mold cavity by the cover l9, it is cast under pressure which is desirable as assuring accurate reproduction of the fine details of the mold cavity.

After the material l8 has been cured and has set, it will not be injuriously affected by the liquid or water 20, it being understood that the liquid used as a heating medium is of a character not to injure the material I8 after curing and setting thereof. The cover I9 may then be removed or not, as desired, and the temperature of the water 20 is then increased sufficiently to cause melting of the mold so as to free the cast article 24, as shown in Figure 4 in which the major portion of the mold has been melted. The material of the mold, as it is melted, passes downwardly through the grate 22 into the lower portion of the container 21, and when the mold has been completely melted the article 24 rests upon the grate and is completely freed of the material of the mold. It will be seen that the curing operation. and the operation of melting the mold may be. performed as, in effect, a continuous operation, which is conducive to expedition and facility in casting the. article and freeing it from the mold. By melting the mold fromv about the cast article, risk of injury to the latter is avoided and the article as cast conforms accurately to the pattern about. which the mold was 5 formed. The-cast article-may-then be treated with acid solution, or in any other suitable manner, for removing any dross that may remain thereon, the finished'article 24 then appearing as in Figure 5. This articl is an accurate reproduction of the original impression or plug and may safely be relied uponin making aninstrument to fit into the car from which the original impression was taken, with assurance that an instrument conforming to'the castarticle 24 will fit accurately and comfortably into the ear from which the impression was taken and will be properly retained therein.

Since the impression taken in Figure 1 is a positive impression, that is an impression of the inside of the ear, that impression may be used directly as the pattern for forming the corresponding cavity in the mold. Where a negative impression is originally taken, for example the impression of a tooth, it is necessary to make a positive of the impression, which positive is then used as a pattern for forming the cavity in the mold. The process in the latter case is essentially the same as that above described, with the exception of the preliminary steps for obtaining the pattern for use in producing the mold.

Referring to Figures 6 to 11, inclusive, in Figure 6 I have illustrated the steps of taking an impression of a tooth, such as a molar 25 in a mold 26, preferably formed of Coeloid, though this mold may be formed of any other suitable known impression material which when set possesses sufiicientelasticity to permit of removal of the tooth 25 from the mold without adversely affecting the accuracy of the impression therein. The mold 25 is of cylindrical form and, after this mold has set, it is placed within a suitable retaining ring 27 fitting closely about the mold and extending a suitable distance there above, the underface of the mold and the lower end of the ring resting upon a suitable fiat supporting surface. The cavity of the mold 2B, and the ring 21 to a suitable height above the mold, are then filled with a suitable impression material in liquid form, which when set is elastic but sufficiently rigid to retain its form into which it is shaped by the mold cavity, this material being poured into the mold cavity and the ring from a suitable container 28, as shown in Figure 7. In that connection, no difiiculty arises from using the same material for the mold 26 and for producing therefrom the desired pattern, since this impression material Coeloid -when set, will not adhere to the same material poured in contact therewith. Any other suitable impression material may be used, if desired, for forming the desired pattern or model from the mold 26. After the impression material which has been poured into the cavity of the mold 26 and into the ring 21 has set, the resultant model, comprising a disc-shaped plate 30 and a pattern 3| integral with and projecting from the plate 30, conforming to the cavity in mold 26, is removed from this mold, that being permitted by the elasticity of mold 2t and, preferably, of the-mold material of which the pattern is formed.

After the pattern has been produced in the manner above explained, it is placed upon a suitable flat supporting surface with the pattern 3| disposed upward, and a retaining ring is then placed about the base plate 30, fitting snugly thereabout with its lower end in contact with the supporting surface, the pattern 3| being disposed centrally within the ring as shown in Figure 8. The pattern is then invested with a low It will be understood,

fusing material, such as'the alloy above referred to, poured into the ring from the ladle or crucible l6, as before. After the investment material I 5 has set, the pattern 3| is removed therefrom providing a low fusing mold having therein a casting cavity conforming accurately to the pattern 3|. This cavity is then filled with a casting material, such as the methyl methacrylate composition above described. The top of the mold is then closed'by a cover IQ of considerable weight, as and for the reasons above set forth. The mold, with the contained'casting material, is then heated to proper temperature for effecting curing and setting of the casting material, and the mold is then melted away from the cast article. In Figure 9 the casting material is indicated by the reference number IB since the shape of the mold cavity is different than in Figure 3, though it will be understood that the casting material is the same, or may be the same, in both cases.

Instead of heating the mold and the contained casting material in liquid, the mold may be passed upon a traveling grate 33 moving at appropriate speed through a furnace 34 of any suitable known construction. This furnace 34 has graduated. heating zones, as is known, such that during the first portion of the travel of the mold through the furnace the mold is heated to a proper temperature for effecting curing and setting of the casting material E8 while avoiding heating of the mold to a sufficiently high temperature to cause objectionable softening or fusing thereof. After completion of the curing and setting of the material la the mold passes into the higher temperature zone of the furnace, Where it is heated to a sufiiciently high temperature to cause; melting of the mold, thereby melting it away from the cast article, the melted material of the mold passing downward through the grate 33 into a suitable trough or tray 35 so disposed that the mold passes thereabove during the operation of melting the material of the mold. The cast article thus freed from the material of the mold rests upon the grate 33 from which it may be removed, the melting operation for removing the body of the mold being shown in Figure 10, in which the major portion of the mold has been melted away. The cast article from which the mold has been removed may then be treated with acid, manner, to remove therefrom any remaining dross, and then appears as in Figure 11, the article 36 accurately reproducing the pattern 35 and, therefore, accurately reproducing the original tooth 25.

Heating of the mold in water, particularly for melting the mold, is advantageous as preventing objectionable oxidation of the alloy which may be recovered and reused for succeeding molds. however, that the mold may be heated in any suitable manner and, where desired or necessary, such heating may be effected within a suitable atmosphere to prevent oxidation or other action on the mold material such as would interfere with its being reused.

In the production of impressions or plugs, as above described, these articles are unique or individual to the persons from which the impression has been taken and, since ordinarily but one cast article is required, there is no particular reason for retaining the mold which may be destroyed for the purpose of removing the cast article therefrom, as above explained. Likewise, in the casting of teeth and other articles which or in any other suitable are to be retained as reference samples, there is no particular reason for retaining the mold. It will be understood, however, that the casting process of my invention may be used to advantage in cases where it is desired to reproduce an article in considerable numbers, and provides an inexpensive and high speed casting method for that purpose.

In general, the method of my invention comprises forming a mold of a low fusing material, such as an alloy or other material which may be destroyed by the application of heat or in any other suitable manner, and casting in this mold, from a suitable material, the desired article, the mold being then melted so as to free the cast article without risk of injury thereto, such as might occur if the mold were removed from the cast article by breaking up or cutting away the material of the mold.

I claim:

1. The steps in the method of making an article of the class described, which comprise forming a mold body of relatively low fusing metal about a pattern and subsequently removing said pattern to leave a mold cavity, filling said cavity with a material curable at a temperature below the relatively low fusing temperature of the mold body, heating the mold body and the material in said cavity to a temperature sufficiently high to cure said material and to form a cured article but below the fusing temperature of the mold body, and thereafter as a continuous process with said curing operation increasing the heat to heat the mold body to its fusing temperature to melt the same but below the temperature which will deleteriously affect the cured article.

2. The steps in the method of making an article of the class described, which comprise forming a mold body of relatively low fusing metal about a pattern and subsequently removing said pattern to leave a mold cavity, filling said cavity with a material curable at a temperature below the relativel low fusing temperature of the mold body, heating the mold body and the material in said cavity to a temperature sufficiently high to cure said material and to form a cured article but below the fusing temperature of the mold body, thereafter as a continuous process with said curing operation increasing the heat to heat the mold body to its fusing temperature to melt the same but below the temperature which will deleteriously affect the cured article, and permitting the molten mold material to flow away from the cured article during the application of the heat for melting the mold body,

3. The steps in the method of making an article of the class described, which comprise forming a mold body of relatively low fusing metal about a pattern and subsequently removing said pattern to leave a mold cavity opening from one side of the mold body, filling said cavity with a resinous material curable at a temperature below the relatively low fusing temperature of the mold body and which tends to expand when heated to cure the same, applying closure means over the open side of said cavity, heating the mold body and the material in said cavity to a temperature sufficiently high to cure said material to form a cured article and to cause said resinous material to tend to expand but below the fusing temperature of the mold body, utilizing said closure means to restrain said resinous material against escape from the mold cavity during the curing operation whereby to mold said resinous material under pressure, thereafter as a continuous process with said curing operation increasing the heat to heat the mold body to its fusing temperature to melt the same but below the temperature which will deleteriously affect the cured article, and permitting the molten mold material to flow away from the cured article during the application of the heat for melting the mold body.

4. The method of making an article of the class described, which comprises forming a pattern of the article, placing the pattern on a supporting surface, placing a retaining ring upon the supporting surface about said pattern, introducing to suitable depth in said ring and about said pattern a molten'metal fusible at a relatively low temperature to form a mold body and allowing same to set, removing the pattern from said mold body to form a mold cavity therein, filling said cavity with a material curable at a temperature below the relatively low fusing temperature of the mold body and adapted to constitute the body of the finished article, placing the ring having therein the mold body with said last mentioned material in the mold cavity thereof in inverted position upon a grate, heating the material in said cavity to a temperature sufficiently high to cure said material to form a cured article but below the fusing temperature of the mold body, thereafter as a continuous process with said curing operation increasing the heat to heat the mold body to its fusing temperature to melt the same but below the temperature which will deleteriously affect the cured article, and permitting the molten mold material to flow away from the cured article during the application of the heat for melting the mold body.

, WILLIAM S. RICE.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 720,482 Richards Feb. 10, 1903 935,254 Gleason Sept. 28, 1909 1,087,974 Owen Feb. 24, 1914 1,135,962 Aylsworth Apr. 13, 1915 1,343,191 Allcutt June 15, 1920 1,523,519 Gibbons Jan. 20, 1925 1,796,470 Meyer Mar. 17, 1931 1,822,285 Hagman Sept. 8, 1931 2,017,216 Marcus Oct. 15, 1935 2,203,421 Stevenson et a1. June 4, 1940 2,249,890 Droge July 22, 1941

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Cited By (19)

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US2571397A (en) * 1946-02-12 1951-10-16 Wells Marjorie Stewart Method of producing printing plates
US2621366A (en) * 1950-01-24 1952-12-16 Kish Plastic Products Inc Method of making templates
US2632922A (en) * 1949-09-27 1953-03-31 Kish Plastic Products Inc Method of making reproduction fixtures
US2755510A (en) * 1951-02-28 1956-07-24 Smith Corp A O Method of making profiling machine models
US2759232A (en) * 1953-01-02 1956-08-21 Arwood Prec Castings Corp Process of removing wax, plastic, and like pattern materials from thin shell molds
US2911949A (en) * 1955-01-10 1959-11-10 Parker Pen Co Writing instrument
US3475528A (en) * 1967-07-10 1969-10-28 Beltone Electronics Corp Process for making custom ear molds for in-the-ear hearing aids
US3854195A (en) * 1973-12-03 1974-12-17 T Landing Method of making an intricate free-form cast metal art object
FR2427188A1 (en) * 1978-05-31 1979-12-28 Nitto Electric Ind Co Method for producing a mold plastic article having a hollow portion of complicated shape
US4591474A (en) * 1982-03-02 1986-05-27 Columbia Fabricators Method for casting concrete members
US4735759A (en) * 1985-02-04 1988-04-05 Gaspare Bellafiore Method of making a hearing aid
US4877402A (en) * 1983-09-26 1989-10-31 Kyocera Corporation Artificial tooth crown and method of producing the same
WO1993022120A1 (en) * 1992-05-07 1993-11-11 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Interengaging fastener member and method of making same
EP0625386A1 (en) * 1993-04-13 1994-11-23 Juan De Antonio Gonalons An investment casting process where the lost pattern is formed in a lost mold
US20050042577A1 (en) * 2003-08-19 2005-02-24 Kvitrud James R. Dental crown forms and methods
US20050040551A1 (en) * 2003-08-19 2005-02-24 Biegler Robert M. Hardenable dental article and method of manufacturing the same
US20050042576A1 (en) * 2003-08-19 2005-02-24 Oxman Joel D. Dental article forms and methods
US20090032989A1 (en) * 2001-08-15 2009-02-05 3M Innovative Properties Company Hardenable self-supporting structures and methods
US20100331334A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2010-12-30 Koh Yung-Hyo Inhibitors of mek

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US985254A (en) * 1910-05-09 1911-02-28 William H Finkenbinder Rail-fastener.
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Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2571397A (en) * 1946-02-12 1951-10-16 Wells Marjorie Stewart Method of producing printing plates
US2632922A (en) * 1949-09-27 1953-03-31 Kish Plastic Products Inc Method of making reproduction fixtures
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