US2479673A - Directional microwave transmission system having dielectric lens - Google Patents

Directional microwave transmission system having dielectric lens Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2479673A
US2479673A US611649A US61164945A US2479673A US 2479673 A US2479673 A US 2479673A US 611649 A US611649 A US 611649A US 61164945 A US61164945 A US 61164945A US 2479673 A US2479673 A US 2479673A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
dielectric
wave
radiation
microwave transmission
reflections
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US611649A
Inventor
Vore Henry B De
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
RCA Corp
Original Assignee
RCA Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by RCA Corp filed Critical RCA Corp
Priority to US611649A priority Critical patent/US2479673A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2479673A publication Critical patent/US2479673A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P5/00Coupling devices of the waveguide type
    • H01P5/02Coupling devices of the waveguide type with invariable factor of coupling
    • H01P5/022Transitions between lines of the same kind and shape, but with different dimensions
    • H01P5/024Transitions between lines of the same kind and shape, but with different dimensions between hollow waveguides
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q19/00Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic
    • H01Q19/06Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic using refracting or diffracting devices, e.g. lens
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q19/00Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic
    • H01Q19/06Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic using refracting or diffracting devices, e.g. lens
    • H01Q19/08Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic using refracting or diffracting devices, e.g. lens for modifying the radiation pattern of a radiating horn in which it is located

Description

H. B. DEVORE DIRECTIONAL MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM HAVING DIELECTRIC LENS Aug. 23, 1949.

2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 20, 1945 HTTO/P/VZY Aug. 23, 1949.

Filed Aug. 20, 1945 H. B. DEVORE DIRECTIONAL MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM HAVING DIELECTRIC LENS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 MEOW/IVE SOURCE ZSnventor HenryBDeI bre C(ttorneg Patented Aug. 23, 1949 DIRECTIGNAL MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM HAVING DIELECTRIC LENS Henry B. De Vore, Cranbury, N. 3., assignor to Radio Corporation of America, a

of Delaware corporation Application August 20, 1945, Serial No. 611,649

This invention relates generally to microwave transmission and more particularly to a method of and means for proportioning a dielectric element disposed between conductive elements to minimize reflections of microwaves propagated be tween said conductive elements.

Frequently radiating systems for microwave electromagnetic radiation utilize solid dielectric elements disposed between metallic conductive elements. For example, the dielectric element may be in the form of a lens between parallel metal sheets employed to focus the microwave radiation, or the dielectric element may comprise a mechanical support for the metallic conducting members. It is often desirable that the microwave transmission characteristic be substantially uniform throughout the region occupied by the dielectric element.

In wave guides or microwave transmission systems containing parallel disposed conductive plates, non-uniform microwave transmission characteristics are produced by the existence of an air gap of varying thickness between the surface of the dielectric and the adjacent metal surface.

to the dielectric surface, such bonds are difficult to obtain and are not always feasible in the particular mechanical structure desired. However, it is customary to apply to the surface of the dielectric element facing the metal surface a thin metallic coating which provides for uniform transmission of the radiation in the region adjacent to the dielectric. A small portion of the incident radiant energy will be propagated through the air gap between the coated dielectric element and the surface of the metallic element. Microwave transmission through this air gap may cause interference with the microwaves propagated through the dielectric element, thereby pro:- viding undesirable reflections in the transmission system. Also it is essential that the dielectric element be so proportioned that internal reflections of incident microwaves therein substantially cancel external surface reflections therefrom.

Among the objects of the instant invention are to provide an improved method of and means for minimizing wave reflections in a microwave transmission system which. includes a solid dielectric element. proved method of and means for proportioning a solid dielectric element in a microwave guide for minimizing wave reflections and wave interference due to the presence of said dielectric element in said guide. An additional object of While this difficulty, in some instances, may be avoided by bonding the metal surface Another object is to provide an im- 2 Claims. (Cl. 178-44) the invention is to provide an improved microwave focusing element in a wave transmission system. Another object is to provide a substantially reflectionless solid dielectric element disposed within a microwave transmission guide. A further object is to provide an improved method of and means for proportioning a dielectric element in a'microwave guide system to minimize surface reflections from said dielectric element as well as wave interference between Waves propagated through said element and waves propagated around said element.

The invention will be described in greater detail by referring to the accompanying drawing of which Figure 1 is an elevational cross-sectional view of a first embodiment of the invention, Figure 2 is a plan cross-sectional view taken along the section line II-II of a second embodiment of the invention, Figure 3 is an elevational crosssectional View taken along the section line III-III of said second embodiment of the invention and Fig. 4 is a perspective view thereof. similar reference characters are applied to similar elements throughout the drawing.

Referring to the drawing, Figure 1 shows a wave guide I having microwaves propagated therethrough in the direction indicated by the arrow 3. A dielectric element 5, having metallic surface coatings l and 9 disposed on the surfaces thereof adjacent to the inner walls of the wave guide I, is proportioned to have a length L of.

a critical value for minimizing surface reflections of incident microwaves and interference between microwaves transmitted through the dielectric element and microwaves transmitted through the gap between the wave guide I and the conductive coatings I and 9.

It is known that the wave energy reflected by a dielectric element will be minimized if the thickness of the element in the direction of wave propagation is an integral number of half wavelengths of the electromagnetic radiation, as measured in the particular dielectric material. For a dielectric element of such length, the internal microwave radiation reflected by the back face I l re-emerges from the front face I3 in exactly opposite phase to the external radiation reflected by the front face l3. Thus the two wave reflection components produce destructive wave interference and tend to cancel, with the result that minimum radiation is reflected back toward the source of wave radiation.

It is also desirable to eliminate, insofar as possible, the disturbing effects caused by wave radiation which travels through the small wave gaps between the coated surfaces 1 and 9 of the dielectrio and the inner surface of the wave guide I. If the radiation travelling'through these air gaps does not emerge therefrom in phase with the wave radiation which travels directly through the dielectric element '5, destructive interference between the fields: of; said. radiation will occur, with the result; that thewaveradiation propagated beyond the dielectric element will be reduced in intensity and part of such radiation will be re fiected back toward the source. of, wage. energy In order to reduce such Ie'fieCtlI0lE-1S,'lhe; length, L of the dielectric element 5 is selected effectively to cancel internal and externaliwave reflections in the dielectric element as wel l 'as to provide a minimum of wave interference between waves propagated through the dielectric: element. and; waves propagated through the air gap between said element and the inner surface of the wave guide. If the dielectric element has a dielectric constan la. and the wave.- length; at the radiation 5 he: wa length; in the dielectric will be In ordeig to: satisfy the; condition. for minimum waverreilection from thedielectric' faces I l and tit, the leng'th. oi; the dielectric element shouldibe periods. In order to. avoid.v destructirze interference b ween radiation. travelling through: the air gaps. and. that travelling, through the dielectric: el ment, the difieren'cei in. propagation time should be an. integral. number of. periods, such that Ila/t L x T' "I where in is an integer.

The optimum condition. to, satisiy both Equations. (lyand (2). is realized combining. the

eqhatid s whereby where n. an m both are, integers. and. where. It also is. the. ratio: of. the. dielectric. constants or the two dielectrics, since the. dielectric constantofi is substantially unity. For. most. dielectric mate the, quantity.

, W i not. be accurately expressed as the ratio of two reasonably small integers, and hence both types, oi reflection phenomenamay not be: completelyeliminatedby utilizing dielectric elements. having reasonably short lengths; Howener, in:

'4 general, the radiation reflections from the dielectric faces are large compared with the reflections due to phase interference of waves propagated through the air gaps, providing the air gaps are held to reasonably small dimensions. Therefore, it is desirable to choose a length for the dielectric element. such; that. the condition represented by the. Equation (1).: is accurately satisfied and the condition represented by the Equation (2) is approximately satisfied.

As. an. illustration, the following calculations indicate the; shortest length L of a polystyrene dielectric element which will provide minimum reflection for radiation of 0.5 in wave length. Forth is radiation the dielectric constant of polystyrene is 2.56. Hence substituting in Equation (1.),

Hence it. is seen. that the optimum length for the polystyrene element. are those multiples of where.- M is the. wavelength in. air (or vacuum). In. g rder that. reflections fromv frontand back bloc}; surfaces cancel, since: there is a phase reuersal at one reflective'su-riace and not at the other; the. bloclg length must. be an integral number oil halt wavelengths of the radiation in the block),-. Hence:

2L /E 5; T \r z? )\o.

the gate, the number of periods required to propagatea distance L; is.

Y P. 7&1

where in is the wavelength in the, fluid; medium and lc gits dielectric constant. The number of periods requiredlto propagate through the blockis In order to have no interference, the difference of theseltwo' numbers of periods must be an, integer:

L. L. L T y 5 Ti, Vic-Film combining, both conditions: are satisfied:

auaova where k is the ratio of the dielectric constants.

Referring to Figures 2 and 3, the principles of the instant invention are applied to the design of a corrective dielectric lens employed in cooperation with a microwave reflector whereby undesirable reflections from the lens surfaces are minimized. While the thickness of the lens varies throughout its width, there is a comparatively wide region near the center of the lens throughout which the thickness is relatively constant. Since a proportionally large fraction of the radiation is directed through the central region of the lens, proportioning the lens thickness in the central region to values which approximately satisfy Equations (1) and (2) eliminates a large proportion of the undesirable wave reflections from the lens surfaces.

In Figures 2 and 3 a microwave generator 2| is coupled through a wave guide 23 to a point 25 at the focus of a toroidal wave reflector 21. The waves radiated by the wave guide 23 are guided to the reflector 21 between parallel disposed conductive plates 29 and 3|. The incident waves from the wave guide 23 pass through a dielectric corrective lens 33, are reflected by the metallic reflector 21 and pass to the output wave path 35, which is in a plane displaced with respect to the plane of the waveguide 23 and corrective lens 33. Preferably, the corrective lens 33 has conductive coatings 31 and 39 on the upper and lower surfaces thereof in close proximity to the inner surfaces to the conductive plates 29 and 3|, respectively, thereby providing air gaps 4| and 43 of the same type as described heretofore with respect to the device of Figure 1. Side conductive elements 45 and 41 are optional and are employed merely to prevent wave leakage between the edges of the conductive plates 29 and 3|, and to provide supporting elements for said plates.

It should be understood that the use of the conductive coatings on the surface on the dielectric element adjacent to the inner surface of the wave guiding means is optional. However, in general, the use of such conductive coatings on the dielectric element provides a more uniform leakage path through the air gap between the dielectric element and the inner surface of the wave guiding means, the reflection effects of which may be more effectively neutralized by proper proportioning of the length of the dielectric element.

Thus the invention disclosed comprises an improved method of and means for reducing reflections in a wave guiding system due to the presence of a, solid dielectric element by suitably proportioning the length of said dielectric element to neutralize surface reflections therefrom and efiectively to minimize wave interference between waves propagated through said element and waves propagated through the spaces surrounding said element.

I claim as my invention:

1. In a microwav dielectric guide having a first dielectric with a dielectric constant 701, a substantially reflectionless second dielectric lens element having a dielectric constant k2 disposed transversely within said guide, said element having a length 1m mk WE SW1; along the axis of wave propagation, where A0 is the wavelength in air or vacuum, and n and m are integers.

2. A device according to claim 1 including conductive means on the surfaces of said element adjacent to the inner surfaces of said guide.

HENRY B, DE VORE.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,129,669 Bowen Sept. 13, 1938 2,407,911 Tonks Sept. 17, 1946 2,408,271 Rigrod Sept. 24, 1946

US611649A 1945-08-20 1945-08-20 Directional microwave transmission system having dielectric lens Expired - Lifetime US2479673A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US611649A US2479673A (en) 1945-08-20 1945-08-20 Directional microwave transmission system having dielectric lens

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US611649A US2479673A (en) 1945-08-20 1945-08-20 Directional microwave transmission system having dielectric lens

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2479673A true US2479673A (en) 1949-08-23

Family

ID=24449870

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US611649A Expired - Lifetime US2479673A (en) 1945-08-20 1945-08-20 Directional microwave transmission system having dielectric lens

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2479673A (en)

Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2576463A (en) * 1947-12-30 1951-11-27 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Metallic lens antenna
US2585562A (en) * 1947-12-04 1952-02-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Directive antenna system
US2588249A (en) * 1946-01-22 1952-03-04 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Wave polarization shifter systems
US2595078A (en) * 1948-05-28 1952-04-29 Rca Corp Dielectric wave guide
US2638546A (en) * 1946-03-14 1953-05-12 Us Navy Pillbox antenna
US2669657A (en) * 1949-11-19 1954-02-16 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Electromagnetic lens
US2692336A (en) * 1949-11-26 1954-10-19 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Aperture antenna
US2703842A (en) * 1950-03-08 1955-03-08 Willard D Lewis Radar reflector
US2705753A (en) * 1952-08-16 1955-04-05 Hughes Aircraft Co Delay reflector antenna
US2712067A (en) * 1946-04-08 1955-06-28 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Metallic lens directive antenna systems
US2728912A (en) * 1951-06-05 1955-12-27 Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co Radio beam scanners
DE963250C (en) * 1951-05-17 1957-05-02 Western Electric Co System for suppression of spurious vibration modes in waveguides
US2791770A (en) * 1946-04-08 1957-05-07 Jacob R Risser Tapered electromagnetic horn
DE1036950B (en) * 1952-05-08 1958-08-21 Int Standard Electric Corp Arrangement for the compensation of joint locations on a microwave strip line by means of a reactance
US3071768A (en) * 1953-12-30 1963-01-01 Allen S Dunbar Rapid scan antenna with lens for correction of aberration
US3209029A (en) * 1963-02-11 1965-09-28 Monsanto Co Aminoalkyl-aromatic-ethylamines
US3787872A (en) * 1971-08-10 1974-01-22 Corning Glass Works Microwave lens antenna and method of producing
EP1562260A1 (en) * 2004-02-04 2005-08-10 EMS Technologies Canada, Limited Membrane for controlling the aperture illumination of a reflector antenna
US20090302239A1 (en) * 2004-08-19 2009-12-10 Lenstar Co., Ltd. Device using dielectric lens

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2129669A (en) * 1937-03-30 1938-09-13 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Guided wave transmission
US2407911A (en) * 1942-04-16 1946-09-17 Gen Electric Wave propagation
US2408271A (en) * 1942-08-12 1946-09-24 Westinghouse Electric Corp Coaxial terminal assembly

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2129669A (en) * 1937-03-30 1938-09-13 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Guided wave transmission
US2407911A (en) * 1942-04-16 1946-09-17 Gen Electric Wave propagation
US2408271A (en) * 1942-08-12 1946-09-24 Westinghouse Electric Corp Coaxial terminal assembly

Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2588249A (en) * 1946-01-22 1952-03-04 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Wave polarization shifter systems
US2638546A (en) * 1946-03-14 1953-05-12 Us Navy Pillbox antenna
US2712067A (en) * 1946-04-08 1955-06-28 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Metallic lens directive antenna systems
US2791770A (en) * 1946-04-08 1957-05-07 Jacob R Risser Tapered electromagnetic horn
US2585562A (en) * 1947-12-04 1952-02-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Directive antenna system
US2576463A (en) * 1947-12-30 1951-11-27 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Metallic lens antenna
US2595078A (en) * 1948-05-28 1952-04-29 Rca Corp Dielectric wave guide
US2669657A (en) * 1949-11-19 1954-02-16 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Electromagnetic lens
US2692336A (en) * 1949-11-26 1954-10-19 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Aperture antenna
US2703842A (en) * 1950-03-08 1955-03-08 Willard D Lewis Radar reflector
DE963250C (en) * 1951-05-17 1957-05-02 Western Electric Co System for suppression of spurious vibration modes in waveguides
US2728912A (en) * 1951-06-05 1955-12-27 Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co Radio beam scanners
DE1036950B (en) * 1952-05-08 1958-08-21 Int Standard Electric Corp Arrangement for the compensation of joint locations on a microwave strip line by means of a reactance
US2705753A (en) * 1952-08-16 1955-04-05 Hughes Aircraft Co Delay reflector antenna
US3071768A (en) * 1953-12-30 1963-01-01 Allen S Dunbar Rapid scan antenna with lens for correction of aberration
US3209029A (en) * 1963-02-11 1965-09-28 Monsanto Co Aminoalkyl-aromatic-ethylamines
US3787872A (en) * 1971-08-10 1974-01-22 Corning Glass Works Microwave lens antenna and method of producing
EP1562260A1 (en) * 2004-02-04 2005-08-10 EMS Technologies Canada, Limited Membrane for controlling the aperture illumination of a reflector antenna
US20090302239A1 (en) * 2004-08-19 2009-12-10 Lenstar Co., Ltd. Device using dielectric lens
US8471757B2 (en) * 2004-08-19 2013-06-25 Electronic Navigation Research Institute, An Independent Administrative Institution Device using dielectric lens

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Friedman et al. Low-loss RF transport over long distances
Engheta et al. Modes in chirowaveguides
Clarricoats et al. Corrugated horns for microwave antennas
US3205462A (en) Low-loss waveguide for propagation of h10 wave
Montgomery et al. Principles of microwave circuits
US2422058A (en) Wave guide system
US2806972A (en) Traveling-wave tube
JP4017084B2 (en) Microwave transmission equipment
Marcuse Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide
US3617109A (en) Light guide coupling and scanning arrangement
Harris et al. Theory and design of periodic couplers
Itoh Application of gratings in a dielectric waveguide for leaky-wave antennas and band-reject filters (short papers)
US2761137A (en) Solid dielectric waveguide with metal plating
DE19633078C2 (en) Dielectric waveguide
US3529205A (en) Spatially periodic coupling for modes having differing propagation constants and traveling wave tube utilizing same
US7973616B2 (en) Post-wall waveguide based short slot directional coupler, butler matrix using the same and automotive radar antenna
US2599753A (en) Wave guide phase shifter
US2433368A (en) Wave guide construction
US2106768A (en) Filter system for high frequency electric waves
US5337065A (en) Slot hyperfrequency antenna with a structure of small thickness
US4808950A (en) Electromagnetic dispersive delay line
US2400777A (en) Electrical power absorber
US2794959A (en) Directional coupler for all-dielectric waveguide
US4843353A (en) Dielectric slab transistions and power couplers
Sander et al. Transmission and propagation of electromagnetic waves