US2461806A - Chromatic harmonicon - Google Patents

Chromatic harmonicon Download PDF

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Publication number
US2461806A
US2461806A US649226A US64922646A US2461806A US 2461806 A US2461806 A US 2461806A US 649226 A US649226 A US 649226A US 64922646 A US64922646 A US 64922646A US 2461806 A US2461806 A US 2461806A
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Prior art keywords
harmonicon
chromatic
block
reeds
valve
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Expired - Lifetime
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US649226A
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Borel Andre
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Borel Andre
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/12Free-reed wind instruments
    • G10D7/14Mouth-organs
    • G10D7/15Mouth-organs with movable mouthpiece
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/12Free-reed wind instruments
    • G10D7/14Mouth-organs

Description

Feb. 15, 1949.
A. BOREL CHROMATIC HARMONICON 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 21, 1946 INVENTOR: Andre Bqrel His Astenti Feb. 15, 1949. A. BOREL 2,461,806
CHROMATIC HARMONICON Filed Feb. 2]., 1946 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR: Andre Borel His Agent Feb. 15, 1949. BOREL 2,461,806
CHROMATIC HARMONICON Filed Feb. 21, 1946 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR: dre Bore].
His Agent Feb. 15, 1949. A. BOREL 2,461,806
CHROMATIC HARMONICON Filed Feb. 21, 1946 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTGR: Andre Bore His Agent Feb. 15, 1949. BOREL 2,461,806
CHROMATIC HARMONIGON Filed Feb. 21, 1946 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Fig.5
' INVENTOR:
Andre BoI'el His Ageht Patented Feb. 15, 1949 CHROMATIC HARMONICON Andi- Borel, Paris; France Application February 21, 1946, Serial No. 649,226 In France Decemberl'l, 1943 Section 1, Public Law 690, August 8, 194.6 Patent expires December 17, 1963 2 Claims. 1
The subject matter of this invention is a harmonicon of the known kind wherein small reed pipes are arranged within a generally rectangular casing which is slid on ones lips and sounded by onesbreath like a panpipe.
As known, a chromatic harmonicon most frequently-comprises two rows of parallel holes, one for the whole steps and the other for the half steps; consequently, it is not possible on such an instrument to sound chromatic chords or to play rapid passages, and one must satisfy ones self with playing comparatively simple melodies.
Indeed, it is known to control the passage of the air through thereeds by means of a keyboard acting upon outside valves arranged below the sound-generating reeds in the manner of an accordion. keyboard; such an arrangement makes it possible to sound any desired chord, but the instrument becomes bulky and uneasy to manipulate as a mouth instrument.
This invention is concerned with a harmonicon of usual size although it allows to obtain the same chromatic chords as an accordion and to play the most elaborate variations; the keyboard of this harmonicon can be designed for various fingering systems.
For that purpose, each duct leading to a reed plate is controlled by a valve whose shaft is secured to a push or key actuated by the performer against the action of a return spring. The air exhaled into an air chamber provided with bailies flows through the ducts at every moment, said ducts have been set free by the lifting of the related valves and actuates the vibratory tongues providing the reeds.
The number of reeds, and consequently of valves, may be varied as desired; thus, in a harmonicon of hardly larger size than an ordinary one with two rows or air slits, as many as thirty eight valves can be arranged which will allow to sound the chromatic chords over three octaves.
Since the reeds according to theinvention are locatedat the outlet of-theair ducts, the sound undergoes no throttling whatever and comes out in its whole purity; besides, the provision of two reeds per duct and valve makes it possible to play on this instrument both by exhaling-and by inhaling.
In a conventional harmonicon the breath of the performer will come directly in contact with the reeds, and the latter will soon become soaked with spittle, this leading to a rapid oxidation of the same; on the same account, the lids that close the slits will soon get out of shape. According to this invention, such spittle is retained in theair chamber, which is provided with .a baffle or partition, so that the bulk of it is prevented from reaching the valves; a blow-off valve allows-to empty the air chamber.
A further feature of this harmonicon resides in the possibility, by closing and opening the apertures in the ornamental casings with ones hand, to obtain the same muting efiect as by opening and closing the mouth of such brass instruments as trombones, trumpets and the like.
In the harmonicon according to this invention the said effect is secured by means of a pair of shutters actuated by a mechanism arranged Within easy reach of the player.
A preferredembodiment of the subject-matter of this invention will now be described more specifically, reference being had to the appended drawing in which:
-Figure1-is a perspective view. Figures 2 to 5 inclusively are enlarged views of the musical instrument shown in Figure 1.
Figure 2 is a sectional view taken on line. II-II in Fig. 1.
Figure 3 is asectional viewtaken on line III-J11 in Fig. 1.
Figure 4 is'an end view of the instrument with its end cheek removed, looking as shown in IV-IV in Fig. 1.
Figure 5 is a side elevational view of the instrument with most of its casing broken away.
The harmonicon consists primarily of a blocki,-e.-g.1made of wood, drilled or otherwise formed with a series of verticalcylindrical ducts 2'to receive valve shaftss and in one side of which slits l are milled which correspond to the valves.
Said block i is flankedby a pair of end plates or-cheeks-i5, E'braced by cover plates 7 that can be curved and decorated as desired. For instance, said cover plates 1 fit at either end thereof-in slots'cutin' said'cheeks 5, 5 or are held by lugs ;8-on'the latter; said checks are secured to the block 1 by screws removable.
Milled inv the top sidezof block! areuslits 16 designed to house springs 22; an ornamental cover in is held by lugs on cover plates 1.
Secured to the block at the bottom side thereof by screws I2 is an air chamber I3 provided with an inside baflie l4 and with a blow-off orifice 37; a mouthpiece I5 is secured to one side of said chamber.
Square apertures I 8 are punched in plate [0 in alignment with sockets 20 provided in the block I and designed to receive shaft heads l9 '9 which make same easily of similarly shaped section by which they are prevented from rotating. Keys H are screwed on the shaft heads :9. A felt or rubber cushion 33 is laid on the bottom of each socket 213 which provides the extension of a corresponding duct 2 for the purpose of absorbing the shock of the head [9 on said bottom, and a notch 2! is cut in each head to receive one end of a spring strip or the like 22 secured within the slit l6 and by which the related valve is returned instantaneously to its closed position.
Secured to the under side of block I is a plate v23 punched with holes 26 for the passage of the "valve shafts 3 and of the air in the open position of said valves; felt or like cushions 24 absorb the shock of the valve discs 25 and provide for air-tightness of the joint.
Communicating with the said holes 26 are side ducts t which open at the sides of block 1 adjacent to the reed plates 2'1; vertical elongated apertures 23 are cut in the latter, which are closed by vibratory tongues 29, 29a providing the sound reeds; each duct leads to two tongues, of which the one 29 is designed to be sounded by inhaling and the other 29a by exhaling; each aperture 28 is provided at the correct side thereof with a thin leather packing 39 by which the joint is made fluid-tight. As a result, each valve 3 is related with one duct 4 and two reeds 29, 2911, so that the player can sound the same sound by either exhaling or inhaling.
Each reed plate 21 has a flap 3| hinged at 32 arranged in front thereof which can be closed completely against the load of return springs 33 by the action of push pieces 34 cammed away by a slide plate 35 shifted by means of an arm 36 projecting from one end of the instrument.
The flaps lay themselves upon the ornamental cover plates and constitute the so-called wawah device.
It will be appreciated that the arrangement described above allows to provide the block I with as many ducts 2 for the operation of valves 3 and as many side slits 4 as keys H are to be availed of; as many as thirty-eight keys can easily be arranged on a harmonicon of usual dimensions, which amounts to seventy-six reeds arranged at the outlets of thirty-eight slits 4 leading from the thirty-eight holes 26 to be opened or closed by as many valve discs 25 in response to the actuation. of the keys by the player. The latter consequently avails of an instrument enabling him to obtain all the chromatic chords just as from an accordion, which was not possible with known harmonica and which involves no such bulkiness in design as a harmonicon with outside valves.
- Moreover, the arrangement of the valves ahead of the reeds, and of the latter at the outvlets, warrants sound purity and allows the instru- 1. A chromatic mouth organ of the reed type comprising a substantially trapezoidal elongated block provided with three series of parallel perforations and with a corresponding number of grooves along one of the sides and the lower part ofsaid block and communicating with the corresponding perforations, valves including stems guided in said perforations, control keys for said stems on the ends thereof projecting in a given direction and valve heads at the opposite ends of stems, a plate secured to the; face of the block corresponding to the location of the valve heads and provided with perforations registering with the block perforations, resilient cushions inserted between the outside of the plate and the valve heads, an air chamber fitted on the outside of the plate over the valve heads, sound plates applied laterally on the block to either side thereof and couples of reeds carried thereby and registering with the corresponding slots.
2. A chromatic mouth organ of the reed type comprising a substantially trapezoidal elongated block provided with three series of parallel perforations and with a corresponding number of grooves along one of the sides and the lower part of said block and communicating with the corresponding perforations, valves including stems guided in, said perforations, control keys for said stems on the ends thereof projecting in a given direction and valve heads at the opposite ends of stems, a plate secured to the face of the block corresponding to the location of the valve heads and provided with perforations registering with the block perforations, resilient cushions inserted between the outside of the plate and the valve heads, an air chamber fitted on the outside of the plate over the valve heads, sound plates applied laterally on the block to either side thereof and couples of reeds carried thereby and registering with the corresponding slots flaps arranged to either side of the block in front of the location of the reeds, springs urg-- ing said flaps outwardly into organ closing posi tion and means operated by the player for controlling said flaps against the action of the springs and including sliders guided over one end of the block and earns inserted between said sliders and the corresponding flaps,
ANDRE BOREL.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Great Britain June 21, 1892 Number Number
US649226A 1943-12-17 1946-02-21 Chromatic harmonicon Expired - Lifetime US2461806A (en)

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FR931838T 1943-12-17

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2701498A (en) * 1949-12-21 1955-02-08 Koch Siegfried Keyboard for musical instruments
US2827818A (en) * 1947-11-05 1958-03-25 Bibus Hans Chromatic mouthorgan
US3015980A (en) * 1959-09-04 1962-01-09 Hohner Inc M Wind instrument
US4083287A (en) * 1975-05-01 1978-04-11 Yoshiro Suzuki Wind instrument
FR2869148A1 (en) * 2004-04-19 2005-10-21 Marcel Dreux Wind musical instrument, has wind chest with, on respective longitudinal sides, lateral walls of wind box and another wall serving as support and stop to keys of keyboard, and having cavities to be closed by reeds on other two sides

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR3017980B1 (en) * 2014-02-24 2016-02-12 Gino Boccabella WIND MUSIC INSTRUMENT WITH FREE REEDS AND KEYS
FR3068167B1 (en) * 2017-06-26 2022-01-28 Philippe Tchumak WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENT WITH FREE REEDS

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US708805A (en) * 1902-02-24 1902-09-09 Robert Field Mouth-organ.
US894778A (en) * 1908-02-18 1908-07-28 Hans Hohner Mouth-accordion.
US894437A (en) * 1908-02-18 1908-07-28 Hans Hohner Mouth-accordion.
US1698958A (en) * 1927-12-12 1929-01-15 Miessner William Otto Musical instrument

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US708805A (en) * 1902-02-24 1902-09-09 Robert Field Mouth-organ.
US894778A (en) * 1908-02-18 1908-07-28 Hans Hohner Mouth-accordion.
US894437A (en) * 1908-02-18 1908-07-28 Hans Hohner Mouth-accordion.
US1698958A (en) * 1927-12-12 1929-01-15 Miessner William Otto Musical instrument

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2827818A (en) * 1947-11-05 1958-03-25 Bibus Hans Chromatic mouthorgan
US2701498A (en) * 1949-12-21 1955-02-08 Koch Siegfried Keyboard for musical instruments
US3015980A (en) * 1959-09-04 1962-01-09 Hohner Inc M Wind instrument
US4083287A (en) * 1975-05-01 1978-04-11 Yoshiro Suzuki Wind instrument
FR2869148A1 (en) * 2004-04-19 2005-10-21 Marcel Dreux Wind musical instrument, has wind chest with, on respective longitudinal sides, lateral walls of wind box and another wall serving as support and stop to keys of keyboard, and having cavities to be closed by reeds on other two sides

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FR931838A (en) 1948-03-04
BE462545A (en) 1946-02-28
CH253032A (en) 1948-02-15

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