US2458587A - Apparatus for treating hollow bodies - Google Patents

Apparatus for treating hollow bodies Download PDF

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US2458587A
US2458587A US575517A US57551745A US2458587A US 2458587 A US2458587 A US 2458587A US 575517 A US575517 A US 575517A US 57551745 A US57551745 A US 57551745A US 2458587 A US2458587 A US 2458587A
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segments
piston
die
ring
pressure
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US575517A
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Gogan Joseph
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Gogan Joseph
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23POTHER WORKING OF METAL; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P15/00Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass
    • B23P15/10Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass pistons
    • B23P15/105Enlarging pistons

Description

Jan. 11, 1949. J. GQGAN 2,458,587

APPARATUS FOR TREATING HOLLOW BODIES Filed Jan. 31, 1945 3 Sheets-Sheet l IN VEN TOR.

BY J'OSEPH GOG/4N Jan. 1 1949. r GOGAN 2,458,587

APPARATUS FOR TREATING HOLLOW BODIES Filed Jan. 31, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 HTTORNEyJ Jan. 11; 1949. i J. GOGAN 8, 87

APPARATUS FOR TREATING HOLLOW BODIES Filed Jan. 51, 1945 s Sheets-Sheet s Ln; v INVENTOR. Q Jbfi'PH GOG/4N l1 BY firm/21mm Patented Jan. 11, 1949 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE APPARATUS FOR TREATING HOLLOW BODIES This invention relates to apparatus for treating hollow metal bodies for trueing or straightening the same and for cooling or quenching such bodies when they are in a heated condition, and aims to provide improved apparatus for this purpose which is relatively simple and compact in construction and which carries out the desired operation in very eiiective and satisfactory manner.

Another object of the invention is to provide improved apparatus of this character, in which one or more groups of substantially radially movable segments form a die for applying pressure to the body being treated and in which novel means is employed for actuating the segments.

A further object of the present invention is to provide improved apparatus of this kind adapted to operate on a body while it is in a heated condition and in which provision is made for cooling the body by a flow of cooling medium while the body is held by the die.

Still another object of this invention is to provide improved apparatus for straightening or trueing a hol ow body, such as an engine piston, by the use of groups of die segments adapted to apply pressure to the piston wall both internally and externally thereof and in which novel means is employed for actuating the groups of segments.

The invention can be further briefly summarized as consisting in certain novel combinations and arrangements of parts hereinafter described and particularly set out in the claims hereof.

In the accompanying sheets of drawings,

Fig. l is a front elevational view, with portions broken away, showing article treating apparatus embodying the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same apparatus and with portions thereof broken away;

Fig. 3 is a partial plan view of the apparatus with the article therein shown in section;

Fig. 4 is a partial vertical sec ional View of the apparatus taken on line 44 of Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 is a detail sectional view showing the connection between one of the pull rods and the segment actuating ring; and

Fig. 6 is another sectional detail view taken on line 6-45 of Fig. 4 and showing tongue and slot gu ding means for the die segments.

The apparatus of the present invention can be used for the treatment of various hollow bodies but is especially useful in the heat treating and sizing of cylindrical hollow metal bodies such as engine pistons. The present embodiment of the apparatus is illustrated and described as being used for this purpose but it will be understood of course that this is not to be regarded as limiting 2 the scope of this invention to this particular use.

Before proceeding with the detailed description of the apparatus I will describe briefly the article or body being treated and which is here shown as an engine piston H1. The piston comprises a hollow body which includes the usual head H and cylindrical wall or sleeve l2. A wrist pin connection is provided internally of the piston in the form of an integral structure [3 depending from the head H and having a counterbore M to which further reference will later be made. The wall 12 is provided at axially spaced points with annular thickened portions I5 and IE to which further reference will also be made hereinafter.

The embodiment of the apparatus shown in the drawings includes an upright frame or stand l8 having a substantially horizontal base plate or table l9 at the upper end thereof. The upper surface of this plate supports a die mechanism 20 which receives and operates upon individual pistons ID as will be explained in detail hereinafter. The apparatus also includes a stationary upright hollow frame member or guide ring 2| in which the die mechanism 2!! is located. The lower end of the ring 2! is provided with a lateral flange 22 which seats on the plate 19 and is attached thereto by means of the screws 23.

The die mechanism 2!) comprises inner and outer annular groups of elongated axially extending die segments 24 and 25 which receive therebetween the cylindrical sleeve 12 of the piston I II. The segments 24 and 25 are provided in suitable number, and in this instance; each group comprises six segments. The segments 24 of the inner group form an expansible die means which acts on the piston wall l2 interiorly thereof and the segments 25 of the outer group form a contractab e d e means which acts on the piston wall externally thereof.

The internal segments 24 engage the piston wall l2 at the thickened axially spaced annular portions l5 and I6 thereof and; for this purpose,

each of the segments 24 is provided with corre sponding axially spaced arcuate external portions 2'! and 28. The arcuate portions 2! in aggregate form an annular pressure-app ying means which is engageable with the inner periphery of the thickened portion if: of the piston wall. Likewise, the arcuate portions 28 in aggregate form an annular pressure-applying means which is engageable with the inner periphery of the thickened portion E6. The inner segments 24 also engage the piston ID at a third point represented by the end and side faces of the counterbore M. The upper ends of the segments 24 extend into this counterbore so as to form a. means for locating and centering the piston in the die mechanism with the lower end of the piston wall I2 engaging or adjacent to the surface of the plate IS.

The outer segments 25 have arcuate work engaging surfaces 35 of a transverse curvature corresponding with the true curvature desired for the outer surface of tthepistonwall I23 The arcuate v surfaces 3B-of the -outer segments in: aggregate form a pressure-applying sleeve or cylinder which is engageable with the external surface or periph t cry of the wall I2 throughout the-major. portion of the length of the piston.

The piston IB is placed in the die mechanism 15 by lowering the same into the sleeve or hollow-diemember defined by the outer group ofisegments. and with the open lower end of the piston telescoping over and around the die member formed by the inner group of segments 24. The head ofi-th'episton: Ill mayabeaprovidedwith a suitable :lifting ring-or eye '31: for facilitating the operation iof moving the pistonarintoor outof the dieamechanism.

The innereandxouter :die segments 24 ancLZE are 25 supported bywthe platatl91-and-ihave their lower ends in;sliding,-engagement, with a :flat bearing 32: which-isrecessed: into: the upper .surf ace ofthis plate;, During their ,expandingandcontracting movements the die. segments z l-and 25-are held in: the desired annulan arrangement and are guided for substantially -radial: movement by-* means of cooperating interfittingtongue andslot: elements 33-and .34 --provided respectively on the lower ends oflthersegments. andon the; flatbearingi32 Thednner group: ofsegments 24 is expanded by meansy of an axially movable plunger 36 located inside'of: this groupof segments and carried by aniaotuatingn'od 37 which. is guided inlabushin 38oflthe-platel 9;. The :plunger 36 :carries axially 40 spaced supper and ilowerannularcgroupsr of-1sub stantially -flat bearing facesfiil-and- 39==whioh are tapered-or;'inciined'relative-to the axis: of the die mechanism; These-upper-and lowergroupscofu fiat bearinggfaces-38andi 39*slidingly and wedge. ingly cooperate with corresponding spaced upper t' and lower-annular groupssof substantially, flat bearing-faces-MLand-Al provided on.the segments 24 andwhich are also tapered orinclined .relative to the:-axis -of--the:die mechanism. Therbearing :1, faces and 4 L are preferably;not formedldirectly on-the:segments 24- but on-hardenedbinserts 42 and 43. which= .are=mountedon the-segments-ataxially spaced-Hpoints-and are attached to the segments .byv means. :ofsuitable screws 44.-

As. shownrinriEign fl "the. tapers oruinclinations. provided for-"the substantially flat =bearingiaces 38 and'39; of the-plunger 36 =andthabearing .-faces 40 and 4| of the segments 24 are-such that= when during the application of pressure to the piston wall. The upper ends of the segments 24 apply expansive pressure to the annular side wall of the counterbore M which likewise assists in maintaining the segments in substantially parallel relation to each other.

The pressure which is applied internally to the wall l2 of the piston by the segments 24 in the mannenjust described opposes and cooperates with the pressure applied-externally by the outer segments 25 and result in the piston being made toassume a true cylindrical shape. The pressure appliedto the side wall of the counterbore H! by; the segments 24 acts to properly locate the structure l3 with respect to the axis of the piston. If the piston has been subjected to a previous heat.,treatment,, as.is usually the case, more or less warping or distortion may be present in the wall I2 and internal structure l3 and which distortion is removed by the straightening pressure applied'by'the seg-ments 24-and-25.- Ifthe piston is placed:in-the-die-mechanism Zfiwhile still in a-heatedzcondition, the pressure of the inner and outer segments: Blend 25 can be. maintained.

during the cooling-of the piston so that when it hasbeen fullycooledit-will have a true and accurate shape-by reason of. the fact that it. has been'held to the true shape by the applied pressure during the -coolingioperation- Theoutersegments 25 are located in the stationanyuprightrringdI but are spaced therefrom by aniaxi-allymovable actuating ring or sleeve 48 w-hichlis disposed between this group of segments and anrannular guide surface 47 formed by the innen wall-or facemof thestationary ring. The actuating ring;46--,is provided at axially spaced pointswith. upper anddower. annulangroups of substantially flat bearingsurfaces 48and which. are tapered orinclined'relativeto the axis of thedie mechanism. The outer segments 25 are provided at corresponding-axially spaced points with upperandlowerannular groupsof substantially flat bearingsurfaces 5ll \and..5|v which. are also tapered or inclined relative: to. the axisof the die mechanism. andrwith whichv the .bearingsuizfaces, 48 and. 49- of-the movable ring 146 islidingly andwedgingly cooperates The-bearing surfaces 48 ,ands49 .are preferably formed on hardened inserts.52 and 53 .,whichfare secured to-the ring 46 by means. of.appropriate.screws 54-. Likewise, the bearingsurfaces. Sif and 5! of. the segments 25 are formedonhardenediinserts, 55 and 56 which are securedto thesegmentsby means of appropriate screws. 57L

The tapers of the. annular groups of cooperating flatbearing surfaces48 and .49, of the ring 46 and 50 and 5! of the segments 25 are suchthatdownwardmovement of the. ring will cause the segments 25'.tolbe...wedged inwardly or contracted the-plunger; is. moved downwardly thegroup of sothattheir arcuate inner surfaces 30 will .apply bear-ingifaces 38.and 39 thereof|.will exert'anwouta ward .wedging. actiomagainst the bearing. faces. 40 and of, the.segments,-24 tending toexpand. the latter. inthehhollow body..of the, pistonrlflfl. This expansionof the segments 24-by the plunger; 3&.causes.the.portions .21. and ZBAtoEapply .expana sive pressure .to the innerperipheriesofthe thick.- ened;.annular portions l5l-andelfi of the piston wall...

Since thethickenedportions. I Bland. .l 6 of. the pistonare spaced apart axially of thedie. mechanism it .wilLbe seenthattengagement of the.seg.- ments 24=wi-th.--the-;work at theseaxiallyspacedi points will cause-the segments .to be maintained in substantiallyvparallel relatiomwith each other-% inward pressureto-the .outer periphery of the wall I 2 ,of the..piston.. As indicated above, this pressure applied by the segments 25 opposes and co operates with the pressure applied by the inner segments. andresults in the wall of the piston being .shapedandheld to a true and accurate cylindrical form.

For ,actuatingthe inner and outer groups of segmentsh24 and25 by the plunger 36 and the ringi45 respectively in the manner above de scribed, .the apparatus is provided witha suitable power device which. is operably connected with.

the plunger and ring, In this instance. the power device is-in the formlofl a double-acting cylinder 60 which isslocated intheestand: l 8 land is con nected with the underside of the plate ill by means of the open bracket 6!. A piston 63 slidable in the cylinder is carried by an actuating rod 64 which projects from the lower end of the cylinder and is connected with a lower yoke 65. This lower yoke is connected, by means of a pair of spaced rods 66, with an upper yoke which extends through the bracket 6|.

The plunger 36 and the actuatin ring 46 are both connected with the upperyoke 61. The lower end of the actuating ring 46 can be connected with the yoke 61 by means of, spacedpairs of pull rods 68 whose upper ends extend through guide bushings 69 located in the plate l9 and are connected with the actuating ring as shown in Fig. 5. The actuating rod 31 of the plunger 36 has a shou der 10 thereon which engages the upper side of the yoke 61 and a reduced stem H which extends through the yoke and carries a compression spring 12. The stem H and the spring 12 provide a yieldable actuatin connection for the plunger 36 so that some relative actuating movement can take place between the plunger and the ring 46 during the straightening or sizing operation being performed on the piston ill. The spring 12 also provides means by which the pressures being applied by the inner and outer groups of segments 2:3 and 25 will be substantially equalized thus enabling both groups of segments to exert the full amount of pressure which they are intended to apply to the piston.

The cylindertll. is. provided with connections M and 15 adjacent its opposite ends and through which compressed air, or other suitable motive fluid, can be supplied. During the downward power stroke of the piston 63 the plunger 36 and actuating ring 46 are moved downwardly to thereby expand and contract the inner and outer groups of segments 24 and 25 respectively. During the upward power stroke of the piston the plunger and actuating ring are lifted so as to permit retraction of the inner and outer groups of segments relative to the workpiece Ill. The segments 24 of the inner group are retracted by being moved toward each other as by means of the annular springs 16, H and 18 extending around these segments. The segments 25 of the outer group are retracted by being moved away from each other and outwardly relative to the workpiece In.

For retracting the segments 25 of the outer group each segment is provided with a stud 80 which projects substantially radially outwardly therefrom so as to slidably extend through an opening ill of the guide ring 2! and carries a compression spring 82. At points corresponding with the location of the studs 80 the actuating ring 46 is provided with axial slots 83 through which the studs extend and which permit axial shifting of the actuating ring. The springs 82 acting against nuts 84 provided on the outer ends of the studs 80 cause the segments 25 to be shifted outwardly or retracted when the actuating ring 46 is lifted.

As mentioned above, the piston Ill may be in a heated condition when it is placed in the die mechanism 20 and, as a part of the treatment given to the piston, it may be desirable to cool or quench the same while it is being subjected to the trueing or straightening pressure. To permit the circulation of cooling medium in or through the die mechanism, the outer segments are preferab y of a hollow construction so as to provide a cooling chamber 86 therein to which water or other appropriate cooling medium can be supplied. The cooling medium can be supplied to the segments 25 through tubes or pipes 81 which are connected with the upper ends of the segments and communicate with the chamber 85. The lower ends of the segments 25 have openings or passages 88 therein which lead from the cooling chambers and register with delivery openings 89 extending through the flat bearing 32 and the plate it, The cooling medium supplied by the tubes 87 passes downwardly through the segments 25 and is discharged therefrom through the openings 89.

-The cooling medium is also supplied to the piston ill internally thereof and for this purpose the plunger 35 and the actuating rod 31 have an axial passage 90 therein and through which the cooling medium is supplied so as to be discharged or sprayed upwardly against the underside of the head of thepiston. This sprayed cooling medium is spread or distributed laterally onto substantially all portions of the structure l3 and the inner surface of the wall l2. The cooling medium is supplied to the lower end of the passage 80 at a suitable point below the plate E9, as by means of the pipe connection 9!. To permit the escape of the cooling medium from the interior of the piston, the annular portions 2 and 28 of the segments 24 are provided respectively with axially extending passages 92 and 93. Discharge openings 9.4 extending through the flat bearing 32 and the pate l9 receive the cooling medium from the passages 93 and permit it to flow freely out of the die mechanism.

As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, a suitable tank or hood 96 may be provided for collecting the cooling medium which is discharged from the die mechanism through the openings 89 and 94. The tank 96 is here shown as being of a size such that the apparatus can be located therein with the lower end of the stand 18 resting on the bottom of the tank.

From the foregoing description and the accompanying drawings it will now be readily understood that the present invention provides improved treating apparatus by which engine pistons, or various other hollow bodies, can be effectively subjected to trueing and straightening pressures and can also be cooled or quenched while such pressures are being maintained. It will be seen, moreover, that the present apparatus is simple and compact and acts in a positive and direct manner on the article being treated. It will be seen, moveover, that the die mechanism utilizes inner and outer groups of seg ments and is of a construction such that the pis tons can be easily and qu ckly inserted into or removed from the mechanism.

While I have illustrated and described the improved article treating apparatus of this invention in considerable detail, it will be understood of course that the invention is not to be regarded as being correspondingly limited in scope but in.- cludes all changes and modifications coming within the spirit of the invention and the scope of the claims hereof.

Having thus described my invention, I claim:

1. In apparatus of the character described, a base plate, a guide ring fixed to said base plate on one side thereof with its axis extending substantially normal thereto, an annular group of segments defining a contractible hollow die located within and extending substantially coaxially of said guide ring, said segments being movable substantially radially of said guide ring and being slidably supported on said base plate, an ac tuatingiring disposed'between said segments and guide ring and being axially slidablefin the latter, said'actuating ring'and segments having cooperating tapered thrust portions-for causing-contraction of'the die in response to axial-movem'ent-of the actuating ring, a power device located on the other side of said base plate, means extending through said-base plate and operably connectingthe power device with said actuating ring for transmitting thrust'to the latter, the tapered thrustjpor'tions of said segments being spaced apart axially of the hollow die and being located adjacent the ends of the segments, and 'spring actuated "die expanding'meansengaging said segments at a point betweenthe tapered'thrustportions thereof and'acting on the segmentsto constantly hold their'tapered thrust portions in engagement with the tapered thrust portions of'sai-d actuating ring.

2. In apparatus of thec'haracter described, a base plate, a guide ring fixed to said base plate on one side thereof with "its axis extending substantially normal thereto, an annular group of segments defining a contractible hollow 'die located within and extending substantially -coaxially of said guide ring, said segments being movable substantially radially of said guide'ring and being slidably supported on 'sai'dibase plate, an actuating ring disposed between said segments and guide ring and being axially slidable in the latter, said actuating ring "and segments having cooperating tapered thrust portions for causing contraction 0f the die in response to axial movement of the actuating ring, a power'deviceloc'ated on the other side of said base plate, rmeans extending through said base plate'and-operably con- 8 necting'thepow'ier device withsaid actuating ring for transmitting thrust to the latter, said actuating ring having axial slots therein adjacent the respective diesegments, rods connected with said segments and extending outwardly through said slots and through said guide ring, and segment retracting springs acting on said rods.

JOSEPH GOGAN.

R-EFERENCES CITED The "following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date '789;0 1'3 Einfeldt May 2, 1905 12144949 Perry Feb. 6, 1917 1,327,443 Olson Jan. 6, 1920 1,444,258 Lothrop Feb. 6, 1923 1,748,290 Hildorf Feb. 25, 1930 1,851,397 Matthews Mar. 29, 1932 1;904,986 Scott et a1. Apr. 18, 1933 "1,920,302 Grotnes Aug. 1, 1933 948,480 Schicht Feb. 20, 1934 230101703 Slade et a1. Aug. 6, 1935 2,101,888 Ambrosius Dec. 14, 1937 12,198,873 Hinsdale Apr. 30, 1940 $225,345 Lamoreaux "Dec. 1'7, 1940 $333,344 Smith et al. Nov. 2, 1943 2,394;84'1 Bugg Feb. 12, 1946 .2,-3'78;04'4 Sorensen'et a1. June 12, 1945 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 3,939 Great Britain 1903

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2955556A (en) * 1957-05-31 1960-10-11 Wallace Expanding Machine Inc Hydraulic expander
US3154978A (en) * 1962-07-09 1964-11-03 United Wire & Supply Corp Tube pointer
US3205691A (en) * 1959-12-15 1965-09-14 Republic Aviat Corp Method of and apparatus for fabricating hollow articles
US3259964A (en) * 1963-06-28 1966-07-12 Kahle Eng Co Pipe clamp
US4726214A (en) * 1986-04-17 1988-02-23 Ni Industries, Inc. Shrink forming apparatus
US9956604B1 (en) 2016-02-08 2018-05-01 Blockwise Engineering Llc Radical compression apparatus and method of incrementally compressing an article using same

Citations (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB190303939A (en) * 1903-02-19 1904-02-19 Alfred George Brookes Improvements in and relating to Fixture Studs for Electric Lamps and other Electrical Appliances
US789013A (en) * 1904-05-11 1905-05-02 Bettendorf Metal Wheel Co Machine for upsetting tires.
US1214949A (en) * 1913-05-16 1917-02-06 William J Perry Machine for hardening articles.
US1327443A (en) * 1919-01-31 1920-01-06 Illinois Tool Works Quenching apparatus
US1444258A (en) * 1920-03-22 1923-02-06 Timken Roller Bearing Co Apparatus for sizing and quenching cups and cones
US1748290A (en) * 1928-10-15 1930-02-25 Reo Motor Car Co Apparatus for hardening articles
US1851397A (en) * 1931-01-07 1932-03-29 Int Motor Co Gear shaping mechanism
US1904986A (en) * 1930-02-06 1933-04-18 Ncr Co Quenching machine
US1920302A (en) * 1930-07-30 1933-08-01 Carl C Grotnes Metal working machine
US1948480A (en) * 1929-12-21 1934-02-20 Firm W Ferd Klingelnberg Sohne Automatic machine for hardening gears
US2010703A (en) * 1932-11-01 1935-08-06 Gleason Works Quenching press
US2101888A (en) * 1936-05-25 1937-12-14 Standard Oil Co Sheet metal piston manufacture
US2198873A (en) * 1937-04-13 1940-04-30 Mullins Mfg Corp Forming bulged receptacles
US2225345A (en) * 1938-09-17 1940-12-17 Bendix Aviat Corp Banding press
US2333344A (en) * 1941-06-07 1943-11-02 Burnside Steel Foundry Company Heat treating means
US2378044A (en) * 1943-05-17 1945-06-12 Ford Motor Co Armor plate quenching
US2394841A (en) * 1943-06-16 1946-02-12 Kenly C Bugg Flanging device

Patent Citations (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB190303939A (en) * 1903-02-19 1904-02-19 Alfred George Brookes Improvements in and relating to Fixture Studs for Electric Lamps and other Electrical Appliances
US789013A (en) * 1904-05-11 1905-05-02 Bettendorf Metal Wheel Co Machine for upsetting tires.
US1214949A (en) * 1913-05-16 1917-02-06 William J Perry Machine for hardening articles.
US1327443A (en) * 1919-01-31 1920-01-06 Illinois Tool Works Quenching apparatus
US1444258A (en) * 1920-03-22 1923-02-06 Timken Roller Bearing Co Apparatus for sizing and quenching cups and cones
US1748290A (en) * 1928-10-15 1930-02-25 Reo Motor Car Co Apparatus for hardening articles
US1948480A (en) * 1929-12-21 1934-02-20 Firm W Ferd Klingelnberg Sohne Automatic machine for hardening gears
US1904986A (en) * 1930-02-06 1933-04-18 Ncr Co Quenching machine
US1920302A (en) * 1930-07-30 1933-08-01 Carl C Grotnes Metal working machine
US1851397A (en) * 1931-01-07 1932-03-29 Int Motor Co Gear shaping mechanism
US2010703A (en) * 1932-11-01 1935-08-06 Gleason Works Quenching press
US2101888A (en) * 1936-05-25 1937-12-14 Standard Oil Co Sheet metal piston manufacture
US2198873A (en) * 1937-04-13 1940-04-30 Mullins Mfg Corp Forming bulged receptacles
US2225345A (en) * 1938-09-17 1940-12-17 Bendix Aviat Corp Banding press
US2333344A (en) * 1941-06-07 1943-11-02 Burnside Steel Foundry Company Heat treating means
US2378044A (en) * 1943-05-17 1945-06-12 Ford Motor Co Armor plate quenching
US2394841A (en) * 1943-06-16 1946-02-12 Kenly C Bugg Flanging device

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2955556A (en) * 1957-05-31 1960-10-11 Wallace Expanding Machine Inc Hydraulic expander
US3205691A (en) * 1959-12-15 1965-09-14 Republic Aviat Corp Method of and apparatus for fabricating hollow articles
US3154978A (en) * 1962-07-09 1964-11-03 United Wire & Supply Corp Tube pointer
US3259964A (en) * 1963-06-28 1966-07-12 Kahle Eng Co Pipe clamp
US4726214A (en) * 1986-04-17 1988-02-23 Ni Industries, Inc. Shrink forming apparatus
US9956604B1 (en) 2016-02-08 2018-05-01 Blockwise Engineering Llc Radical compression apparatus and method of incrementally compressing an article using same

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