US2429952A - Underwater foundation and method of erecting the same - Google Patents

Underwater foundation and method of erecting the same Download PDF

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US2429952A
US2429952A US700296A US70029646A US2429952A US 2429952 A US2429952 A US 2429952A US 700296 A US700296 A US 700296A US 70029646 A US70029646 A US 70029646A US 2429952 A US2429952 A US 2429952A
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piling
foundation
columns
piles
pipes
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US700296A
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Marney B Willey
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J Ray McDermott and Co Inc
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J Ray McDermott and Co Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D27/00Foundations as substructures
    • E02D27/32Foundations for special purposes
    • E02D27/52Submerged foundations, i.e. submerged in open water

Description

0a, 2a, 194:7.v M5. WILLEY 2,429,952
UNDERWATER FOUNDATION AND METHOD OF ERECTING THE SAIE Filed Sept. 30, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 MARNEY B. WILLEY INVENTOR.
ATTORNEYS Oct. 28, 1947. M; B. WILLEY UNDERWATER FOUNDATION AND METHOD OF ERBC'IING THE SAKS v I 3 Shuts-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. so, 1946 Oct. 28,1947. M. B. WlLLEY 4 2,429,952
AND METHOD OF ERECTING THE SAME El-Eli Z :7: 2e
" MARNEY B. WILLEY INVENTQRF sixteen feet in depth,
. whereby the time and tion is reduced to a minimum and whereby said Patented on. 23,1941
UNDERWATER FOUNDATION METHOD.
. OF EBEGTING THE SAME Marney Willey,
J. Ray McDermott & 00., a corporation of Delaware New rleans, La., assignor to Inc., Houston, Tex,
Application September 30, 1946, Serial No. 700,296
6 Claims.
This invention relates to new and useful improvements .in underwater foundations and methods of erecting the same.
Heretofore, underwater foundations for oil well drilling rigs and the like have consisted of piling in the form of wooden timbers or metallic pipes. This piling has been reinforced by braces only above the surface of the water, thereby leaving the underwater portion of said piling unbraced and subject to the action of waves. It is extremely difficult and expensive to drive piling in the desired position and relation to other piling and very often the roughness of the water prevents the driving of piling for prolonged periods of time. Although piling has been driven and used in relatively shallow water, approximately it has been considered unsafe to use unbraced piling in water of greater depth, especially when the water is fifty to seventy feet deep, and it has been virtually impossible to brace the piling beneath the surface of the water. Due to the great length of unbraced piling, the same is flexible and subject to whipping orb'ending. This condition is accentuated in ocean locations having rough water, such as immediately offshore, storm seasons.
Therefore, one object of the invention is to provide improved foundation means of such construction as to be adaptable for underwater use in conjunction with piling for positioning and maintaining the piling in predetermined relation to one another.
A very important object of the invention is to provide an improved marine foundation for use in drilling and producing wells as well as other uses, the foundation including a prefabricated framework having hollow columns interconnected by transverse, reinforcing braces, being adapted to be constructed on shore and transported to the desired location for lowering into position upon the bottom of a body of water with the columns upright for the reception of piling adapted to be forced therethrough and anchored in supporting engagement with said bottom,
cost of erecting the foundafoundation may be salvaged after use with a minimum amount of destruction.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved underwater foundation having means making possible the accurate placement and alinement of piling and being reinforced so.
as to permit the use of the foundation in deep water.
and during ing a base for an oil well drilling 2 A further object of the invention is to provide an improved underwater foundation having substantially upright means for receiving piling to be driven and reinforcing means connecting the piling receiving means, whereby said piling may be driven and maintained in position under adverse weather conditions in deep water and whereby the unsupported or unbraced length of said piling is reduced to a minimum. v
Still another object of the invention is to provide an underwater foundation, of the character described, having bearing means adjacent its lower end for resting upon the ocean bed and thereby provide a firm footing for the foundation.
A still further object of the invention is to provide an underwater foundation, of the character described, which is adapted to form a substantially unitary structure with the piling received and maintained in position by the same; v the foundation being initially fixed against movement by certain of said piling so 'as to permit the use of novel hammer means in driving the remainder of said piling.
A particular object of the invention is'to provide an improved method of erecting underwater foundations wherein a reinforced foundation member is preconstructed and. placed in position upon the ocean bed for the reception of piling, the latter being driven through the foundation member and maintained in position by said member whereby a unitary structure is had.
An important object of. the invention is to provide an improved method of erecting underwater foundations wherein the desired spacing and alining of piling is obtained by means of a preconstructed foundation member resting upon the floor of the ocean, the foundation member reinforcing the piling so as to provide a rigid structure capable of withstanding adverse weather in deep water many miles from land.
A construction designed to carry out the invention will be hereinafter described together with other features of the invention.
The'invention will be more readily understood from a reading of the following specification and by reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein an example of the invention is shown, and wherein:
Fig. l is a side of underwater foundations, constructed in accordance with the invention, andshown as form- Fig. 2 is a side elevational view, taken at a right elevational view of a plurality 2and3).
angle to Fig. 1, of one of the foundation members,
Fig. 3 is an enlarged, horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2,
Fig. 4 is a side elevational view of a portion of a foundation member embedded in the ocean floor with shoes resting upon the floor above the reinforced lower portion of said member,
Fig. 5 is an enlarged, detailed view, showing the relation of a pile to one of the receiving and supporting pipes of the foundation member,
Fig. 6 is a side elevational view of a pile-driving hammer, and
Fig. fl is an enlarged, detailed view,.illustrating the method of attaching a pile to its receiving and supporting pipe.
In the drawings, the letter A designates the mean level or surface of a'body of water, such as an ocean, having a depth of fifty to seventy feet and a relatively flat bed or floor B. Underwater foundation members or frames H), II and I2 rest upon the bed B and preferably project above the water level A for reinforcing piling l3 which is driven into said bed, as will be hereinafter more fully explained.- The upper ends of the piling l3 are connected by suitable crossbraces I 4 and have platforms l5 mounted thereon for supporting an oil well drilling rig I 8, or similar structure, It is pointed out that the quantity and size of the foundation frames vary in accordance with the use of the platforms l5 and the weight imposed thereupon, In addition to a derrick i 1, the drilling rig I6 includes a drawworks I8, engines IS, a pipe rack 20, suitable tanks 2| and 22, and other equipment (not shown). Substructures 23 and 24 support the derrick l1 and engines I9, respectively, while the drawworks I8 is mounted upon both substructures, thereby permitting movement of said derrick, engines and drawworks for the purpose of off-set or directional drilling operations. As shown in Fig. 3, the foundation frame ln'has an enlarged, unobstructed medial space or opening 25 for accommodating a plurality of well connections (not shown).
Although the size, shape and construction of the foundation frames are subject to variation, the same are similar and are so shaped that when viewed from above they outline a geometrical figure of closed perimeter, preferably a rectangle or a square. A plurality of substantially upright, hollow, cylindrical members or pipes 26 of large diameter extend preferably throughout the length of each frame in spaced rows. Certain of the outermost of the pipes 26 have an outward and downward inclination or batter and the remainder of said pipes are substantially vertical (Figs. It is essential to connect and reinforce the pipes substantially throughout their lengths by means of suitable cross-braces z'L'which may be in the form of tubular rods or small pipes (Fig, 5). A pair of spaced, parallel shoes or bearing members 28 are suitably secured to the lower end of the pipes 26 and are disposed horizontally for engaging the ocean bed or floor B. The shoes 28 are preferably rectangular and extend transversely of the frame at opposite margins thereof, being formed of any suitable material, such as metallic plates or wooden planks.
Cit is pointed out that this position of the shoes is desirable when the ocean bed is relatively firm. However, when the bed is soft, such as in the case of a mud or silt bottom, it is preferable to position the shoes or hearing members above the lower end .of the frame. A frame 29, similar to the frame i0, is shown 'lar pipes 30 which in Fig. 5 and includes simiare reinforced by two sets of cross-braces 3| and 32 adjacent their upper and lower ends. Shoes or hearing members 33, similar to the shoes 28, are carried by the intermediate portion of the pipes 30 for resting upon the bed or floor, whereby the lower portions of said pipes and their cross braces-32 are embedded in the 'mud or slit of said bed. Although not illustrated, the frame 29 is preferably of greater length than the frame In so as to permit the upper ends of the pipes 29 to project above the water level A when the lower ends of said pipes are embedded in the mud or silt bottom.
As is most clearly shown in Fig. 5, each pile I3 is preferably formed of pipe of less diameter than the pipe 26 whereby an annular space 26' is provided therebetween upon said pile i3 engaging within said pipe 26. It is pointed out that the piling i3 is of considerable length so as to have their upper ends projecting above the upper end of the frame I0 while their lower ends extend into the ocean bed an extent sufiicient to engage a re'latively firm earth formation. This penetration of the piling will be in the neighborhood of sixty to one hundred feet with the result that it will be necessary to form each pile of several.
sections which are preferably welded together. After driving the piling, the upper ends thereof are reinforced by the cross braces M and the platforms 15 and other structures, such as the derrick H, are supported thereupon. In order to prevent movement of the piling relative to the pipes of the frame, it is desirable to fill each annular space 26' with sand or other suitable material (Fig. 5).
Due to the provision of the foundation frame for reinforcing the piling, said piling may be driven without the necessity of employing the usual pile driver which is mounted upon a barge and which cannot be used successfully under adverse weather conditions, such as rough water. Since the pipes 26 serve as guides for the piling, novel pile driving means may be used. and the usual guides therefor may be eliminated. As shown in Fig. 6, the pile driving means may be in the form of a double-acting steam hammer 34 which is suspended from a boom (not shown) by means of a suitable cable or load line 35. An annular guide or skirt 3G depends from the lower end of the hammer 34 for engaging upon the upper end of a pile so as to support said hammerthereupon. If desired, the skirt 36 maybeformed of a plurality of longitudinal elements or-bars 31, having their intermediate portions connected as shown at 38, with theirlower endsbeing bevelled as shown at 39 to facilitate engaging of said skirt upon the piling. Thehammer 34 includes a suitable plunger or rain: (not shown) which is adapted to be reciprocated bysteam pressure for driving the piling, Manifestly, this arrangement permits the hammer to be maintained in alinement and supported by a pile during driving of the same without being dependent upon he load line 35 for its support.
In carrying out the improved method of erecting underwater foundations, the foundation frames I 0, II and I2, all of lattice formationas aboveset forth, are constructed on shore and transported by barges to the desired location. Each frame is then lowered into position with its shoes 28 resting upon the ocean bed and its length is such that the upper ends of the pipes 26 project above the .water level A. The piling I3 is next engaged within the pipe and driven into aid ocean bed. It is desirable, especially under dverse weather conditions, to drive certain of he piling at spaced points and to secure the same their respective pipes, by welding or other suitble means, as shown at 40 in Fig. '7. Of course, 't is not always necessary to perform this step.
he steam hammer 34 is used in driving the piling and is supported upon each pile during the drivng of the same as shown in Fig. 5. After partial erection of the foundation, it is possible and frequently desirable to support the boom upon said erected portion so as to eliminate the necessity for a barge. This arrangement is particularly advantageous under adverse weather conditions. After driving the piling, the space 26' between each pile and its pipe is filled with sand or other suitable material. Then, the upper ends of the piling are reinforced by the cross braces I4 to provide a substantially unitary construction for receiving the platform l5 and the other structures. It is pointed out that when the ocean has a soft bed, such as mud or silt, the foundation frame 29 is-preferably used in place of the frames l0, II and I2. As has been hereinbefore pointed out, the lower reinforced portion of the frame 29 is embedded in the ocean bed or floor with the shoes 33 resting upon said floor as shown in'Fig. 4.
From the foregoing, it is believed to be manifest that novel underwater foundations and method.
of erecting the same have been provided. The foundations are adapted to be used primarily in deep water, in theneighborhood of fifty to seventy feet, tively shallow water having a depth of only twenty feet. The foundation frames not only reinforce the driven piling but also'guide said piling during the driving thereof and permit the use of a freely suspended steam hammer. Obviously, a rigid, more durable and safe construction is made possible and the erection of the foundation is simplified, thereby saving both time and expense. v
The foregoing description of the invention is explanatory thereof and various changes in the size, shape and materials, as well as in the details of the illustrated construction maybe made, within the scope of the appended claims, without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A foundation structure comprising a prefabricated framework made up of hollow vertical columns, which are all disposed in locations outlining a geometrical figure with a, closed perimeter, cross brace members aflixed to said columns and rigidly connecting said columns together, said framework thus being lattice-shaped, the \framework being supported by the bottom of a body of water, piles driven through said columns and encased thereby and penetrating said bottom at their lower ends, to anchor said structure in position, and a horizontal platform over said but may be used successfully in rela- 6 piles and said framework, to support a load on said piles.
2. A foundation structure comprising a prefabricatedframework made up of hollow vertical columns, which are all disposed in locations outlining a geometrical figure with a closed perimeter, cross brace members affixed to said columns and rigidly connecting said columns together, said framework thus being lattice-shaped, the framework being supported on the bottom of a body of water, piles driven through said columns and encased thereby and penetrating said bottom at their lower ends to anchor said structure in position and a horizontal platform over said piles and said framework, to support a load on said piles, the lower ends of said columns having horizontally extendedmembers to engage said bottom.
3. The method of constructing a foundation structure consisting in assembling tubular columns, open at both ends, connecting said columns at points intermediate the ends thereof by means of braces to form a rigid lattice-shaped framework, lowering "said framework upon the bottom of a body of water, with said columns in upright position on said bottom, inserting piles into said columns through the open tops and forcing said piles into said bottom, and constructing 'a platform over said piles and said columns for supporting a load on said piles.
'4. The foundation structure according to claim 1, wherein said hollow columns also have means for rigidly engaging the piles therein.
5. The foundation structure according to claim 2, wherein said hollow columns have means for rigidly engaging the piles within said columns.
6. The method .of constructing a foundation structure consisting in assembling tubular c01-.
umns, open at both ends, connecting said columns at points intermediate the ends thereof by means of braces to form a rigid lattice-shaped framework, lowering said framework upon the bottom of a body of water, with said columns in upright position on said bottom, inserting piles into said columns through the open tops and forcing said piles into said bottoms, making said piles rigid in said columns, and constructing a platform over said piles and said columns for supporting a load on said piles.
MARNEY B. WILLEY.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 360,273 Borneman Mar. 29, 1887 2,405,295 Disney Aug. 6, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 768,943 France 1934
US700296A 1946-09-30 1946-09-30 Underwater foundation and method of erecting the same Expired - Lifetime US2429952A (en)

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Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2574140A (en) * 1947-07-18 1951-11-06 Raymond Concrete Pile Co Marine oil well derrick foundation
US2586966A (en) * 1949-08-08 1952-02-26 Theodore M Kuss Deep water oil well drilling system
US2589146A (en) * 1949-10-06 1952-03-11 Charles T Samuelson Submersible deepwater drilling apparatus
US2592448A (en) * 1948-06-02 1952-04-08 Raymond Concrete Pile Co Spud method of installing oil well drilling bases
US2598329A (en) * 1948-06-23 1952-05-27 Harvey A Wilson Offshore drilling platform and method of constructing same
US2612024A (en) * 1948-12-18 1952-09-30 William A Hunsucker Submarine foundation and method of erecting
US2612025A (en) * 1949-07-07 1952-09-30 William A Hunsucker Prefabricated marine structure
US2652693A (en) * 1949-05-16 1953-09-22 Goldman Submersible support for machinery
US2653451A (en) * 1948-07-02 1953-09-29 Brown And Root Inc Pedestal
US2657540A (en) * 1948-06-14 1953-11-03 John B Templeton Method of erecting and positioning marine structures
US2688848A (en) * 1949-09-26 1954-09-14 Signal Oil & Gas Co Portable drilling equipment
US2699321A (en) * 1949-06-21 1955-01-11 Fred N Nelson Deepwater oil drilling and storage craft
US2740261A (en) * 1950-11-06 1956-04-03 Alexander D Stark Floating hulls for off shore oil well drilling
US2927435A (en) * 1955-09-23 1960-03-08 Raymond Int Inc Offshore platforms
US2933898A (en) * 1955-11-16 1960-04-26 Raymond Int Inc Offshore platform structures
US2940265A (en) * 1956-01-30 1960-06-14 Shell Oil Co Offshore platform and method of erecting the same
US2959016A (en) * 1957-10-21 1960-11-08 Jersey Prod Res Co Offshore apparatus and method of installing same
US3107495A (en) * 1959-04-29 1963-10-22 Raymond Int Inc Method of erecting an offshore structure
US3512811A (en) * 1968-01-22 1970-05-19 Exxon Production Research Co Pile-to-jacket connector
US3516259A (en) * 1966-09-12 1970-06-23 Kaiser Steel Corp Offshore structure method and apparatus
EP0008567A2 (en) * 1978-08-28 1980-03-05 Torbjörn Rodahl Method for the construction and anchorage of a building structure to a foundation
US4273474A (en) * 1979-05-11 1981-06-16 Brown & Root, Inc. Grouting of offshore jackets to distribute forces among the anchoring piles

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US360273A (en) * 1887-03-29 Composite pier for bridges
FR768943A (en) * 1934-02-22 1934-08-16 Foundation process on sandy or muddy bottoms
US2405295A (en) * 1944-10-20 1946-08-06 Charles P Disney Method of constructing piers

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US360273A (en) * 1887-03-29 Composite pier for bridges
FR768943A (en) * 1934-02-22 1934-08-16 Foundation process on sandy or muddy bottoms
US2405295A (en) * 1944-10-20 1946-08-06 Charles P Disney Method of constructing piers

Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2574140A (en) * 1947-07-18 1951-11-06 Raymond Concrete Pile Co Marine oil well derrick foundation
US2592448A (en) * 1948-06-02 1952-04-08 Raymond Concrete Pile Co Spud method of installing oil well drilling bases
US2657540A (en) * 1948-06-14 1953-11-03 John B Templeton Method of erecting and positioning marine structures
US2598329A (en) * 1948-06-23 1952-05-27 Harvey A Wilson Offshore drilling platform and method of constructing same
US2653451A (en) * 1948-07-02 1953-09-29 Brown And Root Inc Pedestal
US2612024A (en) * 1948-12-18 1952-09-30 William A Hunsucker Submarine foundation and method of erecting
US2652693A (en) * 1949-05-16 1953-09-22 Goldman Submersible support for machinery
US2699321A (en) * 1949-06-21 1955-01-11 Fred N Nelson Deepwater oil drilling and storage craft
US2612025A (en) * 1949-07-07 1952-09-30 William A Hunsucker Prefabricated marine structure
US2586966A (en) * 1949-08-08 1952-02-26 Theodore M Kuss Deep water oil well drilling system
US2688848A (en) * 1949-09-26 1954-09-14 Signal Oil & Gas Co Portable drilling equipment
US2589146A (en) * 1949-10-06 1952-03-11 Charles T Samuelson Submersible deepwater drilling apparatus
US2740261A (en) * 1950-11-06 1956-04-03 Alexander D Stark Floating hulls for off shore oil well drilling
US2927435A (en) * 1955-09-23 1960-03-08 Raymond Int Inc Offshore platforms
US2933898A (en) * 1955-11-16 1960-04-26 Raymond Int Inc Offshore platform structures
US2940265A (en) * 1956-01-30 1960-06-14 Shell Oil Co Offshore platform and method of erecting the same
US2959016A (en) * 1957-10-21 1960-11-08 Jersey Prod Res Co Offshore apparatus and method of installing same
US3107495A (en) * 1959-04-29 1963-10-22 Raymond Int Inc Method of erecting an offshore structure
US3516259A (en) * 1966-09-12 1970-06-23 Kaiser Steel Corp Offshore structure method and apparatus
US3512811A (en) * 1968-01-22 1970-05-19 Exxon Production Research Co Pile-to-jacket connector
EP0008567A2 (en) * 1978-08-28 1980-03-05 Torbjörn Rodahl Method for the construction and anchorage of a building structure to a foundation
EP0008567A3 (en) * 1978-08-28 1980-03-19 Torbjorn Rodahl Method for the construction and anchorage of a building structure to a foundation
US4273474A (en) * 1979-05-11 1981-06-16 Brown & Root, Inc. Grouting of offshore jackets to distribute forces among the anchoring piles

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