US2416283A - Ultra high frequency electronic device - Google Patents

Ultra high frequency electronic device Download PDF

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US2416283A
US2416283A US449581A US44958142A US2416283A US 2416283 A US2416283 A US 2416283A US 449581 A US449581 A US 449581A US 44958142 A US44958142 A US 44958142A US 2416283 A US2416283 A US 2416283A
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resonator
resonators
gap
electron
stream
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US449581A
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Arnold E Bowen
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AT&T Corp
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Bell Telephone Laboratories Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J25/00Transit-time tubes, e.g. klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons
    • H01J25/02Tubes with electron stream modulated in velocity or density in a modulator zone and thereafter giving up energy in an inducing zone, the zones being associated with one or more resonators
    • H01J25/10Klystrons, i.e. tubes having two or more resonators, without reflection of the electron stream, and in which the stream is modulated mainly by velocity in the zone of the input resonator
    • H01J25/12Klystrons, i.e. tubes having two or more resonators, without reflection of the electron stream, and in which the stream is modulated mainly by velocity in the zone of the input resonator with pencil-like electron stream in the axis of the resonators

Description

ATTOPNEY A; E. BOWEN ULTRA-HIGH FREQUNCY ELECTRONIC DEVICE Filed July 3, 1942.
' Feb. 25, 1947.
Patented Feb. 25, 1947 ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTRONIC DEVICE Arnold E. Bowen, Red Bank, N. J., assignor to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application July 3, 1942, Serial No. 449,581
Claims. (01. 315-6) This invention relates to systems employing resonators and resonant cavities so shaped and constructed as to be suitable for reaction with an electron stream to enable an electromagnetic field which may be set up in the resonator or resonant cavity to induce a variation in some characteristic property of the electron stream,'or, to permit an interchange of energy between the resonator and the electron stream.
In particular the resonator may be in the shape of a short section of an elliptical cylinder, hollow inside and closed oil by parallel plane sheets. A wave guide may be connected to the resonator at a focal point or elsewhere according to the amount of impedance to be provided at the junction point.
The invention is applicable generally toamplifiers, oscillators, modulators, detectors and the like particularly at ultra-high frequencies, wherever it is desired to effect direct interaction between an electromagnetic field and an electron stream.
This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending application Serial No. 387,432, filed April 8, 1941, Patent 2,408,409, granted October 1, 1946.
The combination of two elliptical cavity resonators with electronic coupling between one pair of respective focal points in the resonators and with a two-directional coupling means connected between another pair of corresponding points in the two resonators, not necessarily focal points, disclosed herein, is claimed in my copending application Serial No. 621,365 filed October 9, 1945, assigned to the sameassignee as the present application.
An oscillator and harmonic generator formed by an elliptical cavity resonator and a circular number of illustrative examples, while its scope is indicated by the appended claims.
In the drawing: Figs. 1 and 2 show a sectional view and a plan or elevational view, respectively, of an oscillator employing elliptical resonators and a stream of electrons;
Figs. 3 and 4 show similar views of another-embodiment, employing elliptical resonators and a pair of electron streams, one stream through each of the foci of the ellipse; and
Figs. 5 and 6 show similar views of an amplifier or a frequency multiplying arrangement employ ing an elliptical resonator and a circular resonator.
In Figs. 1 and 2 there are shown two substantially elliptical resonators 31 and 38 with focal points indicated at 39 and 40. The resonators may be built with walls of copper or other suitable material, the inner surfaces, at least, being pref-' erabfy highly conductive. Each resonator may be viewed as comprising a short section of elliptical cylinder closed off by parallel, plane end walls. Aperturesare cut through the plane walls of each ellipse at focus 39 and the resonators are joined by a cylindrical conductive tube 4| covering the apertures. Additionalapertures are cut through the resonator walls preferably near the periphery at a point remote from focus 39 and the resonators are joined at this point by a cylindrical conductive. tube 42. Coaxially with tube 42 is placed a rod of conductive material 43 which is held in place by insulating'hermetic seals at 44 and 45. A hollow conductive cylinder 6 is fastened over an aperture 5 in the left-hand end wall of the resonator 31 as viewed in Fig. 1. The tube 6 is joined by means of a suitable hermetic seal 1 to an insulating envelope 8 of glass or other suitable material. Within the envelope 8 are provided the usual ele: ments of an electron gun or beam projector 46 of any suitable type comprising, for example, a cathode 9, and an accelerating electrode 10 cooperating with the cylinder 6 to direct an electron beam through the apertures in the resonators 31 and 38 aligned with the axis of tube 4|. A pair of gaps 41 and 4,8 are constituted, as indicated, in the path of the beam. The gap 48 is defined by the edges of the aperture 5 and the edges of an aperture in the right-hand end wall of the resonator 31 at the entrance to the tube 4|. The gap 4! is defined by'the edges of an aperture in the I left-hand end wall of the resonator 38 and the right-hand end wall of that-resonator. Batteries H, H and I3 or other suitable sources may be provided, respectively, for heating the cathode 9, energizing the-accelerating electrode HI and applying an accelerating potential to the conductive system comprising the resonators 31 and 38, and the tubes 4|, 42 and 6. The tube 4| serves not only as a passage for the electron stream but also as an electromagnetic shield defining a drift'space within which the electron bunching action hereinafter described may be effectuated free from fluctuating electromagnetic fields.
In the operation of the arrangement of Figs. 1 and -2, the electrons comprising the electron j the system in oscillation.
stream from the gun 48 are subjectedat the gap 48 to interaction with any electromagnetic field which may exist in the resonator 31 and at the gap 41 with any such field that may exist in the resonator 38. An accidental irregularity in the.
a charge density of the electron stream will suflice I to set up an electromagnetic wave in the resonaftor 38 as the irregularity passes across the gap cavity of the resonator 38 and converges again at The wave thus set up spreads through the 1 the focus 40, inducing current in the conductor I F 43 where the latter crosses the cavity. An induced wave travels over the coaxial transmission f line comprising the tube 42 and the conductor 43 into the resonator 31. A wave is induced in the latter resonator which wave in the course of propagation converges upon the gap 48. Each elec- 1 tron in its passage across the gap 48 either takes energy from or gives energy to the electromagnetic field in the resonator 31, depending upon the phase of the field during its transit of the gap. The velocities of the electrons are varied in accordance with this energy interchange. After leaving the gap 48, the velocity-varied electrons pass through the tube 4| where a grouping or bunching effect takes place, those electrons which have lost energy and have; as a conse- 1 quence, been slowed down being overtaken by other electrons which entering later, have gained 1 energy and have speetled up. Consequently, at a point some distance to the right of the gap 48, I the electrons are traveling inmore or less welldefined groups. Upon reaching the gap 41 the bunches of electrons may, if the length of the 1 tube 4| and the initial speed of the electrons have I been adjusted correctly, cross the gap 41 in opposition to the high frequency electromagnetic field, I thus contributing energy to the field, and in greater amounts than are absorbed by the thinly 1 distributed electrons which may cross the gap 41 during the unfavorable phase of-the high frequency field- The net energy contributed by the 1 electron stream to the field tends to sustain and build up the original wave and thus to maintain It may be further noted 1 described, upon first arriving at the ap 48 and there initiating an electron group in the electron j stream, is, in effect, reflected back through the resonator 31 and coaxial line 42, 43 into the resonator 3'8 and to -gap 41. ,Ifthe velocity of the electrons in the beam -is adjusted so that the electron bunch reaches the gap 4'!- at the same time the reflected wave arrives there, or an integral 1 number of cycles later, a fresh supply of energy is given to the wave and the oscillation is maintained. The adjustment in this case will also satisfy the condition for oscillation specified in the preceding paragraph.
insulating seal I92. I lected at the right-hand end wall of the resonator 38 and returned to the battery l3.
- The type of construction shown in Figs. 1 and 2 I accommodates a magnetizing coil .49 which may 1 be wound around the cylinder 4| and used to im- 1 prove the collimation and focusing of the electron stream. Energy may be extracted from the system by any suitable means, such as a coupling loop I98 connected .across a coaxial transmission line |9|. The vacuum chamber will include the envelope 8, the resonators 31, 38 and the tubes 6,
that the wave above tubes 4|, 42. In order to secure the proper phase relations for the waves, the electron streams are oppositely directed. The resonators .31 and '38 are shown as in Fi 1. An electron gun represented schematically by a cathode 50 is arranged to direct a stream of electrons across the gap 48, down the interior of the tube 4| and across the gap 41 to a collector plate 5|. A second electron gun represented by a cathode 52 is located at the focal point 48 and arranged to direct an electron beamacross a velocity-varying gap 54, through the interior of the tube 42 and across an energy extracting gap 55 to a collector -53. The axial rod 43 and. the seals 44 and 45 are not used in this embodiment. A second magnetizing coil 58 may be placedaround the outside of the tube 42.
4|, 42 and the closure may be completed with an The spent electrons are col- Figs. 3 and 4 show an arrangement similar to j that shown in Figs. 1 and 2 except that two electron streams are employed, one in each of the In the operation of the system shown in Figs. 3 and 4, an electromagnetic disturbance occurring in the ga 41 serves to set up a wave which is focused upon the gap 54 and there effects a velocity variation of the electron stream from the cathode 52. 52 in crossing the gap 55 a brief time later sets up a wave which is focused upon the modulating gap 48 and produces a velocity variation .of the electron stream from the cathode 50. This velocity-varied stream a. short time later arrives at the gap 4'! and sets up a new disturbance. If-the transit times of the two electron streams through the tubes 4| and 42, respectively, are properly adjusted, the waves originating at the gaps 41 and 55, respectively, will be in proper phase to, maintain the oscillations. Viewed as a feedback means,
either electron stream constitutes an electronic feedback as distinguished fromthe coaxial line feedback of the system of Figs. 1 and 2.
The construction shown in Figs. 1 and 3 will be observed to require a minimum of insulating material and practically none in the space containing the high frequency field.
Figs. 5 and 6 show an application of the invention to an amplifier or a frequency multiplier and also combinethe use of elliptical and circular resonators. An input coaxial line with inner conductor 8| and outer conductor 82 intersect-s an elliptical resonator 83. The right-hand portion of the coaxial line beyond'the resonator 83 is adjustable for tuning purposes by means of a piston 84 slidable ever the conductor 8|. An electron gun represented schematically at 85 is arranged to send an electron stream across a gap 86 in the resonator 83, through a drift tube 81 and across a gap 88 to-a collectorfl89. The gap 88 is situated at the center of a circular resonator 90. The plan view is shown in Fig. 6.
' In the operation of the system of Figs. 5 and 6 a wave to be amplified or to have its frequency multiplied is brought into the system through the coaxial line 8|, 82. The incoming wave sets up waves in the elliptical resonator 83 which waves are focused upon the gap 86 where velocity variation of the electron stream from the electron gun 85 is effected. After passing through the drift .tube 81, the electron stream ,with its electrons The velocity-varied stream from the cathode auaaas tage of frequency multiplication, the resonator 90 may be designed with sufllciently small dimensions to resonate a desired harmonic of the input wave. If amplification alone is desired the resonator is preferably designed to resonate at the frequency of the wave impressed upon the system by the coaxial line ll. 32.
The impedance presented to the line the resonator 83 is dependent upon the point of connection of the line to the resonator. By proper selection of this point an impedance match may usually be secured. The point may be found by calculation or trial and will not, in general, be at the focus of the ellipse.
What is claimed is:
1. An oscillator comprising two spaced-hollow elliptical resonators, means adjacent focal points of said resonators to project an electron stream successively through one of said resonators at a focal point thereof and into the other resonator at a focal point thereof, a shield surrounding the portion of the path of said electron stream between said resonators for shielding said electron stream from fluctuating electromagnetic fields in the space between said resonators, and feedback coupling means extending between the interiors of said resonators at another pair of respective focal points.
2. An electronic oscillator comprising a Pair elliptical resonators and means connecting corresponding focal points of each resonator togetherand including means for producing a p ir of electron streams, each of the respective streams when in operation forming a substantially unidirectional coupling between a focal point in one of said resonators and a focal point in the second of said resonators..
3. An electronic oscillator comprising a pair of spaced elliptical cylindrical resonators and means connecting corresponding focal points of each resonator together and including means for producing a pair of electron streams, each of the respective streams when in operation forming a substantially unidirectional coupling between a focal point in one of said resonators and a focal point in the second of said resonators.
4. An oscillator comprising two spaced fiat, hollow, elliptical resonators, means adjacent focal points of said resonators to project an electron stream successively through one of said resoject an electron stream successively through one of said resonators at a focal point thereof into the other resonator at a focal point thereof, said projecting mean-s being oppositely directed with respect to the order in which the electron stream enters the respective resonators.
ARNOLD E. BOWEN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PA Number Name .Date
2,281,935 Hansen et a1. May 5, 1942 2,304,186 Litton .Dec. 8, 1942 2,318,106 Ryan May 4, 1943 2,317,140 Gibson Apr. 20, 1943 2,338,237 Fremlin Jan. 4, 1944 2,281,550 Barrow May 5, 1942 2,241,119 Dallenbach .4 May 6, 1941 2,284,405 McArthur May 26, 19-42
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US621366A US2428780A (en) 1942-07-03 1945-10-09 Ultra high frequency electronic device
US62136545 US2428779A (en) 1942-07-03 1945-10-09 Ultra high frequency electronic device

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2539985A (en) * 1944-09-15 1951-01-30 Csf Velocity modulation electron discharge device of high power
US2586816A (en) * 1945-03-24 1952-02-26 Sperry Corp High-frequency modulating system
US2652513A (en) * 1948-12-11 1953-09-15 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Microwave amplifier
US2695373A (en) * 1944-11-16 1954-11-23 Rca Corp Cavity resonator high-frequency apparatus
US2801362A (en) * 1948-07-15 1957-07-30 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Amplification of microwaves
US2810854A (en) * 1951-10-06 1957-10-22 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Serpentine traveling wave tube

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2241119A (en) * 1936-09-15 1941-05-06 Pintsch Julius Kg Ultra-short-wave apparatus
US2281935A (en) * 1938-04-14 1942-05-05 Univ Leland Stanford Junior Modulation system
US2281550A (en) * 1937-08-14 1942-05-05 Research Corp Electric-circuit element
US2284405A (en) * 1940-08-17 1942-05-26 Gen Electric High frequency apparatus
US2304186A (en) * 1939-12-14 1942-12-08 Int Standard Electric Corp Velocity modulated tube
US2317140A (en) * 1940-05-28 1943-04-20 Int Standard Electric Corp Electron discharge apparatus
US2318106A (en) * 1940-08-13 1943-05-04 Westinghouse Electric & Mfg Co High-frequency apparatus
US2338237A (en) * 1939-12-22 1944-01-04 Standard Telephon & Radio Ag High-frequency electron discharge apparatus

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2241119A (en) * 1936-09-15 1941-05-06 Pintsch Julius Kg Ultra-short-wave apparatus
US2281550A (en) * 1937-08-14 1942-05-05 Research Corp Electric-circuit element
US2281935A (en) * 1938-04-14 1942-05-05 Univ Leland Stanford Junior Modulation system
US2304186A (en) * 1939-12-14 1942-12-08 Int Standard Electric Corp Velocity modulated tube
US2338237A (en) * 1939-12-22 1944-01-04 Standard Telephon & Radio Ag High-frequency electron discharge apparatus
US2317140A (en) * 1940-05-28 1943-04-20 Int Standard Electric Corp Electron discharge apparatus
US2318106A (en) * 1940-08-13 1943-05-04 Westinghouse Electric & Mfg Co High-frequency apparatus
US2284405A (en) * 1940-08-17 1942-05-26 Gen Electric High frequency apparatus

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2539985A (en) * 1944-09-15 1951-01-30 Csf Velocity modulation electron discharge device of high power
US2695373A (en) * 1944-11-16 1954-11-23 Rca Corp Cavity resonator high-frequency apparatus
US2586816A (en) * 1945-03-24 1952-02-26 Sperry Corp High-frequency modulating system
US2801362A (en) * 1948-07-15 1957-07-30 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Amplification of microwaves
US2652513A (en) * 1948-12-11 1953-09-15 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Microwave amplifier
US2810854A (en) * 1951-10-06 1957-10-22 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Serpentine traveling wave tube

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