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Lubricating oil

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US2414257A
US2414257A US49985043A US2414257A US 2414257 A US2414257 A US 2414257A US 49985043 A US49985043 A US 49985043A US 2414257 A US2414257 A US 2414257A
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sulphur
copper
oil
containing
compounds
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Evans Elliott Alfred
Elliott John Scotchford
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C C Wakefield & Co Ltd
Wakefield & Co Ltd C C
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Wakefield & Co Ltd C C
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M1/00Liquid compositions essentially based on mineral lubricating oils or fatty oils; Their use as lubricants
    • C10M1/08Liquid compositions essentially based on mineral lubricating oils or fatty oils; Their use as lubricants with additives
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2201/00Inorganic compounds or elements as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2201/04Elements
    • C10M2201/043Sulfur; Selenenium; Tellurium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2211/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing halogen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2211/08Halogenated waxes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2215/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing nitrogen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2215/20Containing nitrogen-to-oxygen bonds
    • C10M2215/202Containing nitrogen-to-oxygen bonds containing nitro groups
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/02Sulfur-containing compounds obtained by sulfurisation with sulfur or sulfur-containing compounds
    • C10M2219/024Sulfur-containing compounds obtained by sulfurisation with sulfur or sulfur-containing compounds of esters, e.g. fats
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/06Thio-acids; Thiocyanates; Derivatives thereof
    • C10M2219/062Thio-acids; Thiocyanates; Derivatives thereof having carbon-to-sulfur double bonds
    • C10M2219/066Thiocarbamic type compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/08Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals
    • C10M2219/082Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals containing sulfur atoms bound to acyclic or cycloaliphatic carbon atoms
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/08Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals
    • C10M2219/082Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals containing sulfur atoms bound to acyclic or cycloaliphatic carbon atoms
    • C10M2219/085Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals containing sulfur atoms bound to acyclic or cycloaliphatic carbon atoms containing carboxyl groups; Derivatives thereof
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/08Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals
    • C10M2219/082Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals containing sulfur atoms bound to acyclic or cycloaliphatic carbon atoms
    • C10M2219/087Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals containing sulfur atoms bound to acyclic or cycloaliphatic carbon atoms containing hydroxy groups; Derivatives thereof, e.g. sulfurised phenols
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/08Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals
    • C10M2219/082Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals containing sulfur atoms bound to acyclic or cycloaliphatic carbon atoms
    • C10M2219/087Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals containing sulfur atoms bound to acyclic or cycloaliphatic carbon atoms containing hydroxy groups; Derivatives thereof, e.g. sulfurised phenols
    • C10M2219/088Neutral salts
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/08Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals
    • C10M2219/082Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals containing sulfur atoms bound to acyclic or cycloaliphatic carbon atoms
    • C10M2219/087Thiols; Sulfides; Polysulfides; Mercaptals containing sulfur atoms bound to acyclic or cycloaliphatic carbon atoms containing hydroxy groups; Derivatives thereof, e.g. sulfurised phenols
    • C10M2219/089Overbased salts
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/10Heterocyclic compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium compounds in the ring
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/10Heterocyclic compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium compounds in the ring
    • C10M2219/102Heterocyclic compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium compounds in the ring containing sulfur and carbon only in the ring
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/10Heterocyclic compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium compounds in the ring
    • C10M2219/104Heterocyclic compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium compounds in the ring containing sulfur and carbon with nitrogen or oxygen in the ring
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/10Heterocyclic compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium compounds in the ring
    • C10M2219/104Heterocyclic compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium compounds in the ring containing sulfur and carbon with nitrogen or oxygen in the ring
    • C10M2219/106Thiadiazoles
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2240/00Specified uses or applications of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2240/40Metal working
    • C10N2240/401Metal working with removal of material, e.g. cutting, grinding, drilling

Description

Patented Jan. 14, 1 947 LUBRICATING 01L Elliott Alfred Evans and John Scotchford Elliott,

Beaconsfield, England, assignors to C. C. Wakefield & Company Limited, Beaconsfield, England, a British company No Drawing. Application August 24, 1943, Serial N0. 499,350. In Great Britain July 29, 1942 This invention consists of improvements in or relating to lubricating oils and the general object is to produce lubricating oils containing minor proportions of addition agents which improve the qualities of the lubricating oils under various con ditions (such for example as conditions of extreme pressure) and which also-prevent undesirable attack on metal surfaces such as bearing surfaces.

Addition agents previously proposed for use with lubricating oils (including mineral oils) include organic polysulphides having a carboxyl or ester substituent, sulphured fatty bases, mixtures of halogenated organic compounds and sulphur compounds, thioethers (with or Without compounds containing active sulphur or halogens or both), and organic compounds containing at least two halogen atoms and at least one nitro group in the molecule.

The majority of extreme pressure lubricants and cutting lubricant contain either sulphur (which may be present as elementary sulphur or as sulphur chemically combined in a number of Ways e. g. as sulphured fatty oils or acids or as organic polysulphides) or halogens which may also be introduced in a variety of derivatives, or both.

Some of these compositions are liabl under certain conditions to cause corrosion of metal surfaces with which they come into contact. Thus it is well known, for example, that free sulphur produces at elevated temperatures a black stain 01 copper sulphide on metallic copper, whereas halogenated compounds are particularly liable to pro duce corrosion on steel and other ferrous alloys By the selection of suitable halogen compounds in which the halogen is moderately firmly attached to the molecule of which it forms a part, this corrosion of ferrous alloys can be to a large extent prevented.

On the other hand, it is often desirable to employ lubricants containing active sulphur, especially for cutting purposes or in hypoid gears where very high pressures are encountered, so that the elimination or reduction of undesirable corrosion of copper and cuprous alloys is a matter of considerable importance. Moreover the corrosion produced by active sulphur i often increased by the additional presence of halogenated compounds.

It is the specific object of this invention to provide protection against such corrosion of copper or cuprous alloys by lubricating oils containing active sulphur with or without additional halogen compounds.

3 Claims. (01. 25347.5)

The term active sulphur is employed to designate sulphur which will react with metallic copper,

It ha now been found that when a lubricating oil-has additons of the types above referred to which might giveasulphur attack to metal surfaces, protection against such attacks may be provided by the further addition of a compound of the group consisting of a mercapto-arylenethiazole, or a derivative thereof such as an arylthiazyl-di-sulphide or an aryl-thiazyl-hyd'roxyalkyl sulphide, or an alkyl thiuram monoor disulphide. Examples of suitable further additions are mercap-tobenzo-thiazole, benzothiazole disulphide or benzothiazole-hydroxy-methyl ulphide (which is produced by the action of formaldehyde on mercaptobenzothiazole), or tetramethyl or tetraethyl thiuram disulphide.

According to this invention a lubricant (particularly a lubricant containing hydrocarbon oil) has dispersed therein a minor proportion of an addition agent containing active sulphur such as an organic polysulphide or a sulphured fatty oil with or without a halogenated organic compound, such as a chlorinated parafiin wax or nitro-p'olychloro benzene and also a minor proportion of a mercapto-arylene-thiazole or a derivative thereof, or an alkyl thiuram monoor di-sulphide.

In a preferred form a lubricant according to this invention has dispersed therein a minor proportion of an organic polysulphide comprisin a carboxyl or ester substituent such as a disulphide, trisulphide or tetrasulphide derived from an arcmatic hydroxy ester or mixtures thereof and also a minor proportion of a mercapto compound as referred to in the preceding paragraph. A preferred compound is 2-mercapto-benzothiazole.

The nature of this invention and of subsidiary features thereof will be appreciated from the following examples:

Ezrample 1 An extreme pressure lubricant was prepared by dissolving one part of a mixture of di(3-carbo methoxyl-hydroxyphenyl) polysulphide (containing 13 per cent of active sulphur) and eight parts of a chlorinated parafiin wax (containing about 40% chlorine) in'9l parts of a mineral lubricating oil.

Small pieces of polished pure copper foil were placed in beakers containing grams of this oil and heated (a) at 100 C. for 1 hour, (b) at 100 C. for 16 hours, (0) at C. for 1 hour.

At the conclusion of these tests the appearances of the copper test pieces showed tarnishing 3 which in certain circumstances would be unwanted.

To another sample of this oil was added 0.1 per cent of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and parallel tests were carried out. At the conclusion of these tests the copper test pieces shewed definitely less tarnishing or practically none.

Example 2 Ten grams of a sulphured cutting oil were placed in a petridish and heated with a piece of pure polished copper foil for -16 hours at 100 0.

The copper was badly blackened and large flakes of copper sulphide couldbe wiped off.

To the same oil was added 0.1 per cent of benzothiazole disulphide, and the test repeated.

The copper was uniformly'tarnished but perfectly smooth and free from particles of copper sulphide.

Parallel tests carried out with other sulphur compounds e. g. p-thiocresol, dibenzyl disulphide and di(3-carbomethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) thioether shewed that this property was limited to the compounds of this invention, although in the caseof the last compound a limited degree of protection appeared to be afiorded.

The amounts of these compounds which are to be employed will depend on several factors:

(I) The amount of active sulphur present in the oil to be inhibited.

(II) The condition of this "active sulphur, i. e. whether it is present as elementary sulphur, or loosely combined asin the case of many organic polysulphides; 1

(III) The presence of additional halogen compounds and their nature. Thus an oil containing 0.5 per cent of a mixture of di(3-carbomethoxyl-hydroxyphenyl) polysulphides (containing 13 per cent of active sulphur), was completely inhibited against copper staining at 100 0., by

the addition of as little as 0.02 per cent of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole.

In other cases, such as sulphurized oils containing much elementary sulphur, it may be desirable to use as much as 0.3 per cent, or even more of the inhibitor.

It is inadvisable to use more inhibitor than is necessary to reduce the staining to the desired degree, as the E. P. properties of the oil may thereby be impaired.

We claim:

1. An extreme pressur lubricant comprising a major proportion of a hydrocarbon mineral oil, anextreme pressure addition agent consisting of a di(3-carbomethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) polysulphide and an organic corrosion inhibitor selected from the group consisting of Z-mercaptobenzothiazole and benzothiazole disulphide present in amount less than 0.5 per cent and sufiicient to eliminate corrosion of copper and cuprous alloys but insufficient materially to enhance the extreme pressure properties of the composition;

2. An extreme pressure lubricant comprising a major proportion of a hydrocarbon mineral oil, an extreme pressure addition agent consisting of a di(3-carbomethoxyl-hydroxyphenyl1 polysulphide, a chlorinated paraffin wax and an or, ganic corrosion inhibitor selected from the group consisting of Z-mercaptobenzothiazole and benzothiazole disulphide present in amount less than 0.5 per cent and sufiicient to eliminate corrosion of copper and cuprous alloys but insufficient materially to enhance the extreme pressure properties of the composition. 1 1

3. A lubricant according to claim 1 wherein the polysulphide is present in amounts between 0.5 and 2.0 per cent and the organic corrosion inhibitor in amounts not exceeding 0.3 per cent.

ELLIOTT ALFRED EVANS. JOHN SCO-TCHFORD ELLIOTT.

US2414257A 1942-07-29 1943-08-24 Lubricating oil Expired - Lifetime US2414257A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2579038A (en) * 1947-12-09 1951-12-18 Wakefield & Co Ltd C C Lubricant composition
US2607737A (en) * 1949-07-09 1952-08-19 California Research Corp Condensation product of a 2-thiothiazole, formaldehyde, and alkyl phenol to inhibit sulfur corrosive lubricants
US2620303A (en) * 1949-07-09 1952-12-02 California Research Corp Mercaptothiazines as sulfur-corrosion inhibiting agents
US2703784A (en) * 1952-10-31 1955-03-08 Standard Oil Co Corrosion inhibitors and compositions containing the same
US2836561A (en) * 1954-05-17 1958-05-27 Wakefield & Co Ltd C C Lubricating oils
US2963433A (en) * 1957-12-02 1960-12-06 Standard Oil Co Lubricant composition
US20050037931A1 (en) * 2003-08-15 2005-02-17 Rowland Robert G. Reaction products of mercaptobenzothiazoles, mercaptothiazolines, and mercaptobenzimidazoles with epoxides as lubricant additives

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
None *

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2579038A (en) * 1947-12-09 1951-12-18 Wakefield & Co Ltd C C Lubricant composition
US2607737A (en) * 1949-07-09 1952-08-19 California Research Corp Condensation product of a 2-thiothiazole, formaldehyde, and alkyl phenol to inhibit sulfur corrosive lubricants
US2620303A (en) * 1949-07-09 1952-12-02 California Research Corp Mercaptothiazines as sulfur-corrosion inhibiting agents
US2703784A (en) * 1952-10-31 1955-03-08 Standard Oil Co Corrosion inhibitors and compositions containing the same
US2836561A (en) * 1954-05-17 1958-05-27 Wakefield & Co Ltd C C Lubricating oils
US2963433A (en) * 1957-12-02 1960-12-06 Standard Oil Co Lubricant composition
US20050037931A1 (en) * 2003-08-15 2005-02-17 Rowland Robert G. Reaction products of mercaptobenzothiazoles, mercaptothiazolines, and mercaptobenzimidazoles with epoxides as lubricant additives
US7442673B2 (en) * 2003-08-15 2008-10-28 Crompton Corporation Reaction products of mercaptobenzothiazoles, mercaptothiazolines, and mercaptobenzimidazoles with epoxides as lubricant additives
US20090076279A1 (en) * 2003-08-15 2009-03-19 Rowland Robert G Reaction products of mercaptobenzothiazoles, mercaptothiazolines, and mercaptobenzimidazoles with epoxides as lubricant additives
US8097731B2 (en) 2003-08-15 2012-01-17 Crompton Corporation Reaction products of mercaptobenzothiazoles, mercaptothiazolines, and mercaptobenzimidalzoles with epoxides as lubricant additives

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Publication number Publication date Type
GB561941A (en) 1944-06-12 application
FR928921A (en) 1947-12-11 grant

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