US2410801A - Igniting composition - Google Patents

Igniting composition Download PDF

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US2410801A
US2410801A US58247845A US2410801A US 2410801 A US2410801 A US 2410801A US 58247845 A US58247845 A US 58247845A US 2410801 A US2410801 A US 2410801A
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thiocyanogen
polymeric
compositions
composition
mixtures
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Ludwig F Audrieth
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Ludwig F Audrieth
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C06EXPLOSIVES; MATCHES
    • C06BEXPLOSIVES OR THERMIC COMPOSITIONS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS EXPLOSIVES
    • C06B29/00Compositions containing an inorganic oxygen-halogen salt, e.g. chlorate, perchlorate
    • C06B29/02Compositions containing an inorganic oxygen-halogen salt, e.g. chlorate, perchlorate of an alkali metal
    • C06B29/04Compositions containing an inorganic oxygen-halogen salt, e.g. chlorate, perchlorate of an alkali metal with an inorganic non-explosive or an inorganic non-thermic component
    • C06B29/06Compositions containing an inorganic oxygen-halogen salt, e.g. chlorate, perchlorate of an alkali metal with an inorganic non-explosive or an inorganic non-thermic component the component being a cyanide; the component being an oxide of iron, chromium or manganese
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C06EXPLOSIVES; MATCHES
    • C06BEXPLOSIVES OR THERMIC COMPOSITIONS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS EXPLOSIVES
    • C06B35/00Compositions containing a metal azide
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C06EXPLOSIVES; MATCHES
    • C06BEXPLOSIVES OR THERMIC COMPOSITIONS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS EXPLOSIVES
    • C06B45/00Compositions or products which are defined by structure or arrangement of component of product
    • C06B45/04Compositions or products which are defined by structure or arrangement of component of product comprising solid particles dispersed in solid solution or matrix not used for explosives where the matrix consists essentially of nitrated carbohydrates or a low molecular organic explosive

Description

Patented Nov. 12, 1946 ENT OFFICE IGNITING, COMPOSITION Ludwig Audrieth, Dover, N. J.

No Drawing. Application March 13, 1945, Serial No. 582,478

(Granted undenthe act of March 3, 1883, as

4 Claims.

The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.

This invention deals with new and improved igniting compositions which are characterized (a) by the fact that they contain polymeric thiocyanogen and (b) by the superior functioning characteristics of such mixtures due to the incorporation-of polymeric thiocyanogen which serves as a more efiicient fuel and reducing agent and in certain instances as a sensitizer.

While igniting compositions are being used for a wide variety of purposes, such as for example in'primers, delay elements, fuzes and the like, it is significant that all of them consist essentially of an oxidizing agent or oxygen rich material in combination with a reducing agent or fuel.

oxidizing agents which are used include, for example, such materials as the alkali and alkaline earth perchlorates, chlorates, chlorites, nitrates, oxides, peroxides, chromates, permanganates, brornates, iodates and periodates. Fuels and reducingagents maybe chosen from among the following types of chemical substances: (a) metals, such as magnesium, aluminum, boron, silicon, zirconium, (b) non-metals such as sulfur, selenium, tellurium, carbon, alloys such as magnesium-aluminum, calcium-silicon and (d) compounds such as lead and copper thiocyanate, metallic sulfides, selenides and tellurides. Other agents are also added to the oxidizing agent-fuel combination to achieve specific effects for particular uses and purposes. Thus, sensitizer-s and high explosives are added to priming compositions in order to increase both friction and stab sensitivity, as well as flame volume. Binders consisting of natural or synthetic resins, waxes, and phaltum are often added to delay and igniter compositions to make such mixtures more readily pelletable and more easily ignitable. However, in spite of the aforementioned modifying agents it is still the oxidizing agent fuel combination which serves as the basis for these compositions of matter.

The particular combination of oxidizing agent plus fuel determines largely whether the mixture under consideration will be (a) friction or stab sensitive in which event such a product will serve as a primer, (1)) will ignite readily with the evolution of considerable heat which characteristics amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757) trains of fuzes or as the delay components of fuzes. From a practical point of View many other factors must also beconsidered in the developmentof such compositions as for example: (a) stability on magazine storage and also at the high and low temperatures and the extremely dry and very humid conditions met with under present conditions of warfare; (b) ease of blending of the ingredients to insure homogeneity and uniformity in chemical composition; and (0) safety in the manufacture, loading and handling of these mixtures.

I have found that polymeric thiocyanogen is an exceptionally eflicient fuel in combination with a wide variety of oxidizing agents yielding primer, delay, fuze and igniter compositions which possess marked advantages over materials now used in the military arts; both with respect to stability and functioning characteristics. Insofar as can be discerned from atho-rougli examination of the pertinent literature and of the priorart no compositionscontaining polymeric thiocyanogen have ever been suggested or used for the purpose outlined lierein.

Lest there be some confusion concerning polymeric thiocyanogen and its properties, I shall present herewith a, short description of this newand superior ingredient of primer, delay, fuze and igniter' compositions. Polymeric thiocyanogen is also designated in the literature as polythiocyan ogen and as parathiocyanogen and is represented by the formula (SCNM. Actually its composition does not conform exactly with this empirical formula since it contains chemically combined both o ygen and hydrogen with the result that an elementary analysis gives values varying from 45-55% sulfur. It is significant, however, that irrespective of the mode of preparation, all products' produce essentially similar X-ray diffraction patterns demonstratingthat such materials while not identical with respect to exact chemical composition nevertheless do possess the same molecular structure. It thus makes little diiference whether polymeric thiocyanogen is prepared (a) by anodicoxiclation or (b) by chemical interaction of oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide, the halogens and the like with thiocyanic acid and/or thiocyanates, in aqueous or non- In presenting the examples'given herein I do not wish to limit myself to the exact proportions of the various ingredients nor to the particular oxidizing agent cited for purposes of illustration. Thi is especially true in the case of delay and fuze powders where changes in proportions will make it possible to change the burning times to adapt such compositions for use in a particular component. That changes in the ratios of polymeric thiocyanogen to other ingredients makes it possible to vary the burning time may be looked upon as one of the advantages to be derived in the practical use of such mixtures. In all of the examples noted herein manufacture of the com- Example I As examples where polymeric thiocyanogen is employed, in non-fulminate containing primer mixtures, there may be cited the following compositions:

I II

Potassium chlorate; 51 64 Antimony sulfide 21 Polythiocyanogen Lead azide 5 Both compositions function with the rapid and even ignition of the entire charge and with the production of a hot flame which will insure transmittal to the remainder of the explosive train. Composition I is somewhat oxygen deficient in that a ratio of 60:40 parts of potassium chlorate to antimony sulfide is employed. In this instance polymeric thiocyanogen serves both as an auxiliary fuel as well' as a sensitizer, for without this agent much greater force is needed to effect functioning of the mixture. Composition II contains sufficient chlorate to take care of the oxygen demand of both the antimony sulfide and the polymeric thiocyanogen. These examples are given inorder to indicate that the proportions of .the oxidizing agent to fuel may be varied appreciably without affecting the functioning characteristics of such mixtures. It is also pertinent in this connection to refer to the advantage of polymeric thiocyanogen over metallic thiocyanates, such as lead thiocyanate, which are widely used as constituents of priming compositions.

Whereas only approximately ten percent by weight of polymeric thiocyanogen is required to obtain maximum effectiveness and sensitivity to stab action of compositions such as those given above, twenty to twenty-five percent of lead thiocyanate is required in order to even approach the very superior results obtained by incorporation of my new and improved fuel and reducing agent. It is furthermore significant that polymeric thiocyanogen is superior to sulfur as a sensitizer since it is non-volatile and insoluble.

Example II 4 solvents, serving under these conditions as a primer mixture for chemical fuzes.

Example III Fuze powders used in time trains are commonly modifications of black powder consisting of potassium nitrate, carbon and sulfur in the proportions 75:10:15. The manufacture of such-powders must be carefully controlled and incorporation of the ingredients to insure homogeneity must be effected so that the proper burning time can be obtained. It is obvious that such homogeneity is much more readily obtainable when only two ingredients are to be mixed. Thus a mixture of potassium nitrate and polymeric thiocyanogen, in equal parts by weight, produces a slow burning fuze powder which is all the more exceptional in that it burns progressively yet uniformly, even if at a slow rate, and is also readily and easily ignitable. Replacement of the non-volatile polymeric thiocyanogen for sulfur is another advantage of this composition over black powder.

Polymeric thiocyanogen contains the necessary carbon and sulfur in chemical combination and, as pointed out under Example I, is non-volatile and in this respect preferable over the sulfur ordinarily employed in black powder compositions. The addition of potassium perchlorate or other oxidizing agent in percentages up to ten percent will markedly speed up the burning time if a faster powder is desired.

Example IV Thecombination of barium peroxide and polymeric thiocyanogen in proportions of 95 to 5 or to 10 gives mixtures which are easily ignitable, evolve little gas and undergo reaction at an extremely rapid rate with the evolution of considerable heat. For the purposes of prepelleting in order to facilitate loading operations in tracer components the addition of 1 to 2% of some binder, such as asphaltum, wax, natural or synthetic resins is desirable although not necessary. Such mixtures serve admirably as igniter compositions for tracer components. Increase in the percentage of polymeric thiocyanogen gives compositions which burn more slowly and may therefore serve as delay compositions.

I have cited above typical cases to indicate that polymeric thiocyanogen in combination with various oxidizing agents will give mixtures which will serve a variety of useful purposes. I do not wish to be limited in the scope of my invention to the specific examples given herein since it is indicated by laboratory tests that compositions containing polymeric thiocyanogen in combination with a wide variety of oxidizing agents will function quite as satisfactorily as those described above.

I claim:

1. An igniting composition consisting essentially of polymeric thiocyanogen and an oxidizing agent.

2. An igniting composition comprising potassium chlorate, polymeric thiocyanogen, antimony sulfide and lead azide.

3. An igniting composition consisting essentially of potassium nitrate and polymeric thiocyanogen.

4. An igniting composition consisting essen tially of polymeric thiocyanogen and barium peroxide.

LUDWIG F. AUDRIETH.

US2410801A 1945-03-13 1945-03-13 Igniting composition Expired - Lifetime US2410801A (en)

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Cited By (53)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2451864A (en) * 1945-05-15 1948-10-19 Daniel P O'brien Explosives
US2509943A (en) * 1947-03-10 1950-05-30 Us Navy Marker flare
US2513391A (en) * 1943-10-06 1950-07-04 Ici Ltd Waterproof fuse
US2586959A (en) * 1949-09-16 1952-02-26 Canadian Ind Delay electric blasting cap
US2619035A (en) * 1947-12-31 1952-11-25 Ici Ltd Production of ventless delay initiators for explosive or other charges capable of exothermic reaction
US2709129A (en) * 1952-12-31 1955-05-24 Remington Arms Co Inc Igniter compositions
US2714061A (en) * 1948-06-29 1955-07-26 Raymond H Heiskell Nonluminous pyrotechnic mixture for a projectile
US2717204A (en) * 1952-05-02 1955-09-06 Du Pont Blasting initiator composition
US2771033A (en) * 1951-11-22 1956-11-20 Ici Ltd Ventless delay electric initiators
US2792294A (en) * 1945-03-07 1957-05-14 Joseph H Mclain Ignition mixture
US2796339A (en) * 1952-05-27 1957-06-18 Leonard D Jackson Pyrotechnic composition
US2882819A (en) * 1957-01-28 1959-04-21 Du Pont Blasting initiator
US2899291A (en) * 1948-06-29 1959-08-11 heiskell
US2908559A (en) * 1956-03-30 1959-10-13 Hercules Powder Co Ltd Ignition mixtures and electric initiators
US2939779A (en) * 1958-04-09 1960-06-07 Olin Mathieson Pyrotechnic compositions
US2953447A (en) * 1957-08-08 1960-09-20 Du Pont Ignition compositions
US2955535A (en) * 1958-05-28 1960-10-11 Olin Mathieson Ignition assembly for perforated cylindrical charge
US2958288A (en) * 1960-11-01 campbell
US2974592A (en) * 1956-03-15 1961-03-14 Olin Mathieson Cartridge
US2974596A (en) * 1957-06-14 1961-03-14 Du Pont Propellant grain igniter
US2981616A (en) * 1956-10-01 1961-04-25 North American Aviation Inc Gas generator grain
US2984558A (en) * 1957-06-10 1961-05-16 Rolle Edward Plastic pyrotechnic compound
US2995086A (en) * 1957-03-20 1961-08-08 Ici Ltd Fuseheads
US2996007A (en) * 1958-08-25 1961-08-15 Philip J Franklin Explosive train
US2997376A (en) * 1946-12-05 1961-08-22 California Inst Res Found Solid composite propellant containing polysulfide rubber fuel binder
US3005693A (en) * 1957-10-29 1961-10-24 Sun Oil Co Process for preparing rocket fuel containing polymerized olefins and boron
US3009418A (en) * 1959-04-24 1961-11-21 Hercules Powder Co Ltd Firing device
US3012866A (en) * 1945-12-22 1961-12-12 Aerojet General Co Propellant for rocket motors
US3017301A (en) * 1959-03-27 1962-01-16 Du Pont Propellant compositions containing a polycyano fuel component
US3025795A (en) * 1958-02-12 1962-03-20 Thiokol Chemical Corp Time delay fuse element
US3030243A (en) * 1958-02-24 1962-04-17 Hart David First fire and igniter composition
US3053708A (en) * 1959-02-12 1962-09-11 Phillips Petroleum Co High impulse solid propellant composition
US3053710A (en) * 1957-12-12 1962-09-11 Dow Chemical Co Magnesium hydride explosive compositions
US3056255A (en) * 1958-11-28 1962-10-02 Alfred M Thomsen Missile propulsion
US3088857A (en) * 1958-11-26 1963-05-07 Nicholas M Matusewicz Tracer mechanism
US3090713A (en) * 1958-06-19 1963-05-21 Glenn Cook Composition of matter in the nature of an explosive
US3090714A (en) * 1958-06-19 1963-05-21 Glenn Cook Explosive
US3121394A (en) * 1960-06-21 1964-02-18 Alfred M Anzalone Explosive-resin mixture for nonmetallic detonator
US3132585A (en) * 1961-01-03 1964-05-12 Asahi Chemical Ind Detonator having a priming sponge
US3156186A (en) * 1961-03-17 1964-11-10 Gen Precision Inc Ammonium nitrate-aluminum explosive
US3160097A (en) * 1961-07-17 1964-12-08 Gen Precision Inc Molybdenum trioxide-aluminum explosive and exploding bridgewire detonator therefor
US3162127A (en) * 1955-06-21 1964-12-22 Bertram A Breslow Delay train for fuze
US3174936A (en) * 1961-05-03 1965-03-23 Paul R Gustafson Lithium perchlorate oxygen candle
US3256056A (en) * 1961-12-12 1966-06-14 Du Pont (cs2b10h10)2 cs2cr2o7 product and process for preparing same
US3293187A (en) * 1963-10-23 1966-12-20 Foote Mineral Co Oxygen-generating product
US3471345A (en) * 1968-07-01 1969-10-07 Dow Chemical Co Smoke-producing composition containing lithium perchlorate and a silicon-containing fuel
US3480489A (en) * 1967-09-20 1969-11-25 Explosive Tech Pyrotechnic composition
US3519505A (en) * 1967-03-01 1970-07-07 Space Ordnance Systems Inc Ignition material containing tellurium dioxide,boron and fluoropolymeric binder
US3521564A (en) * 1965-10-22 1970-07-21 Mb Assoc Miniature rocket
EP0660812A4 (en) * 1991-11-04 1994-10-20 Olin Corp Nontoxic priming mix.
US5567252A (en) * 1992-01-09 1996-10-22 Olin Corporation Nontoxic priming mix
US6591752B2 (en) * 2001-02-12 2003-07-15 Trw Inc. Ignition material for an igniter
DE10083908B4 (en) * 1999-02-02 2006-04-27 Autoliv Development Ab Igniter composition for igniting a gas generating material

Cited By (55)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2958288A (en) * 1960-11-01 campbell
US2513391A (en) * 1943-10-06 1950-07-04 Ici Ltd Waterproof fuse
US2792294A (en) * 1945-03-07 1957-05-14 Joseph H Mclain Ignition mixture
US2451864A (en) * 1945-05-15 1948-10-19 Daniel P O'brien Explosives
US3012866A (en) * 1945-12-22 1961-12-12 Aerojet General Co Propellant for rocket motors
US2997376A (en) * 1946-12-05 1961-08-22 California Inst Res Found Solid composite propellant containing polysulfide rubber fuel binder
US2509943A (en) * 1947-03-10 1950-05-30 Us Navy Marker flare
US2619035A (en) * 1947-12-31 1952-11-25 Ici Ltd Production of ventless delay initiators for explosive or other charges capable of exothermic reaction
US2976136A (en) * 1948-06-29 1961-03-21 Raymond H Heiskell Composition for tracer unit
US2714061A (en) * 1948-06-29 1955-07-26 Raymond H Heiskell Nonluminous pyrotechnic mixture for a projectile
US2899291A (en) * 1948-06-29 1959-08-11 heiskell
US2586959A (en) * 1949-09-16 1952-02-26 Canadian Ind Delay electric blasting cap
US2771033A (en) * 1951-11-22 1956-11-20 Ici Ltd Ventless delay electric initiators
US2717204A (en) * 1952-05-02 1955-09-06 Du Pont Blasting initiator composition
US2796339A (en) * 1952-05-27 1957-06-18 Leonard D Jackson Pyrotechnic composition
US2709129A (en) * 1952-12-31 1955-05-24 Remington Arms Co Inc Igniter compositions
US3162127A (en) * 1955-06-21 1964-12-22 Bertram A Breslow Delay train for fuze
US2974592A (en) * 1956-03-15 1961-03-14 Olin Mathieson Cartridge
US2908559A (en) * 1956-03-30 1959-10-13 Hercules Powder Co Ltd Ignition mixtures and electric initiators
US2981616A (en) * 1956-10-01 1961-04-25 North American Aviation Inc Gas generator grain
US2882819A (en) * 1957-01-28 1959-04-21 Du Pont Blasting initiator
US2995086A (en) * 1957-03-20 1961-08-08 Ici Ltd Fuseheads
US2984558A (en) * 1957-06-10 1961-05-16 Rolle Edward Plastic pyrotechnic compound
US2974596A (en) * 1957-06-14 1961-03-14 Du Pont Propellant grain igniter
US2953447A (en) * 1957-08-08 1960-09-20 Du Pont Ignition compositions
US3005693A (en) * 1957-10-29 1961-10-24 Sun Oil Co Process for preparing rocket fuel containing polymerized olefins and boron
US3053710A (en) * 1957-12-12 1962-09-11 Dow Chemical Co Magnesium hydride explosive compositions
US3025795A (en) * 1958-02-12 1962-03-20 Thiokol Chemical Corp Time delay fuse element
US3030243A (en) * 1958-02-24 1962-04-17 Hart David First fire and igniter composition
US2939779A (en) * 1958-04-09 1960-06-07 Olin Mathieson Pyrotechnic compositions
US2955535A (en) * 1958-05-28 1960-10-11 Olin Mathieson Ignition assembly for perforated cylindrical charge
US3090714A (en) * 1958-06-19 1963-05-21 Glenn Cook Explosive
US3090713A (en) * 1958-06-19 1963-05-21 Glenn Cook Composition of matter in the nature of an explosive
US2996007A (en) * 1958-08-25 1961-08-15 Philip J Franklin Explosive train
US3088857A (en) * 1958-11-26 1963-05-07 Nicholas M Matusewicz Tracer mechanism
US3056255A (en) * 1958-11-28 1962-10-02 Alfred M Thomsen Missile propulsion
US3053708A (en) * 1959-02-12 1962-09-11 Phillips Petroleum Co High impulse solid propellant composition
US3017301A (en) * 1959-03-27 1962-01-16 Du Pont Propellant compositions containing a polycyano fuel component
US3009418A (en) * 1959-04-24 1961-11-21 Hercules Powder Co Ltd Firing device
US3121394A (en) * 1960-06-21 1964-02-18 Alfred M Anzalone Explosive-resin mixture for nonmetallic detonator
US3132585A (en) * 1961-01-03 1964-05-12 Asahi Chemical Ind Detonator having a priming sponge
US3156186A (en) * 1961-03-17 1964-11-10 Gen Precision Inc Ammonium nitrate-aluminum explosive
US3174936A (en) * 1961-05-03 1965-03-23 Paul R Gustafson Lithium perchlorate oxygen candle
US3160097A (en) * 1961-07-17 1964-12-08 Gen Precision Inc Molybdenum trioxide-aluminum explosive and exploding bridgewire detonator therefor
US3256056A (en) * 1961-12-12 1966-06-14 Du Pont (cs2b10h10)2 cs2cr2o7 product and process for preparing same
US3293187A (en) * 1963-10-23 1966-12-20 Foote Mineral Co Oxygen-generating product
US3521564A (en) * 1965-10-22 1970-07-21 Mb Assoc Miniature rocket
US3519505A (en) * 1967-03-01 1970-07-07 Space Ordnance Systems Inc Ignition material containing tellurium dioxide,boron and fluoropolymeric binder
US3480489A (en) * 1967-09-20 1969-11-25 Explosive Tech Pyrotechnic composition
US3471345A (en) * 1968-07-01 1969-10-07 Dow Chemical Co Smoke-producing composition containing lithium perchlorate and a silicon-containing fuel
EP0660812A4 (en) * 1991-11-04 1994-10-20 Olin Corp Nontoxic priming mix.
EP0660812A1 (en) * 1991-11-04 1995-07-05 Olin Corporation Nontoxic priming mix
US5567252A (en) * 1992-01-09 1996-10-22 Olin Corporation Nontoxic priming mix
DE10083908B4 (en) * 1999-02-02 2006-04-27 Autoliv Development Ab Igniter composition for igniting a gas generating material
US6591752B2 (en) * 2001-02-12 2003-07-15 Trw Inc. Ignition material for an igniter

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