US2405308A - Dry firing cartridge - Google Patents

Dry firing cartridge Download PDF

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Publication number
US2405308A
US2405308A US526159A US52615944A US2405308A US 2405308 A US2405308 A US 2405308A US 526159 A US526159 A US 526159A US 52615944 A US52615944 A US 52615944A US 2405308 A US2405308 A US 2405308A
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Prior art keywords
cartridge
firing
shell
pin
firearm
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Expired - Lifetime
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US526159A
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Joe F Jack
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Joe F Jack
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B8/00Practice or training ammunition
    • F42B8/02Cartridges
    • F42B8/08Dummy cartridges, i.e. inert cartridges containing neither primer nor explosive or combustible powder charge
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B8/00Practice or training ammunition
    • F42B8/02Cartridges

Description

J. F. JACK DRY FIRING CARTRIDGE Aug 6,1946.

Filed March 13, 1944 JICK INVENTOR.

ATTORNEY.

Patented Aug. 6, 1946 UNITED STATES T'ET QE'FEQE 8 Claims.

The present invention relates generally to firearms and'more particularly to cartridges for use in'practicing with firearms to improve the aiming and shooting of them by persons such as policemen, sportsmen, and members of the armed forces. As is well known, it usually requires much practice in, aiming a rifle or pistol and also in actually pulling the-trigger of the same while the sights. are held on the target to make one expert inthe use of firearms. To use actual or live cartridgesin practicing with such a firearm disturbsthe sight alignment and prevents the shooter *from determining the cause of failure to hit his object.- When fired dry the shooter knows by the movement of the sighting plane whether or nothe pulled off, high, or iow or to either side.

As it is well known, it is always helpful inbecoming'proficient in the use of firearms to cook the firearm, aim it at a target with no cartridge in the barrel or with the shell of a discharged or exploded cartridge in the barrel, and pull the trigger while the firearm is sighted at the target. There are some objections to thisway of practicing or simulating the firing of pistols, etc., commonly called dry firing. For one thing, the lack of the weight of live cartridges in the firearm makes the user get somewhat accustomed to the feel, i. e. the lighter weight, of the firearm with the blank cartridges or empty shells in it and when several heavier live cartridges are in the firearm it tends to make the quick and accurate shooting of the firearm less certain due to recoil. This may be a serious matter if it is a case of a policemans pistol while he is dealing with desperate criminals, or in warfare. are also other objections to the use of empty shells or noshells at all in the firearm. The accurately made firingpin is-damaged' and often broken by being driven farther through the recoil plate than is usual, causing the shoulders of the firing pinor hammer to be damaged by striking some unyielding metal parts of a revolver such as a recoil'shoulder.

It is an important object of my invention to provide a cartridge device with which dry firing can be practiced without causing any damage to the firearm.

Another object of my invention is the provision of a cartridge for practicing dry firing which has the. same weight as a live cartridge of the same caliber which is made up with the usual shell, powder charge, and lead or steel bullet.

Still another object is the provision of a cartridge for practicing dry firing which provides a yielding resistance to the firing pin approximately There I equivalent to that provided by the explosion of the primer of a live cartridge of the same caliber.

An additional object is to provide a cartridge suitable for practicing dry firing that is satisfactorily durable in service and economical to manufacture.

A further object of my invention is to provide a cartridge of afixed caliber for practicin dry firing which can-be used satisfactorily in two or more firearms that fire diiferent caliber bullets.

Other objects and advantageous features of my invention will appear as the description proceeds.

In the drawing:

Figure 1 .is'a side view, broken away in part, of a revolver shown with a dry firing cartridge that embodies my invention in firing position in the revolver.

Figure 2 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of the cartridge shown in Figure 1.

Figure 3 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of a so-called rimless cartridge with a simulated bullet element shown in position in the cartridge (side view).

Figure 4 is an enlarged longitudinal section through a simulated rifle cartridge constructed according to my invention for practicing dry firing.

Figure 5 is a partial longitudinal sectional view through a simulated rifle cartridge constructed according to my invention, a bullet element being shown in side view.

Figure 6 is a fragmentary longitudinal section through an automatic pistol which illustrates another form offiring pin with which my dry firing cartridge may be advantageously used.

For purposes of illustration, in Figure 1, one of my dry firing cartridges I0 is shown in a chamber :ll of a usual cylinderlZ of a revolver l3. In a handle it, a main spring I 5 may be mounted to swing a hammer l6 when a trigger H is pulled. All of "these parts may be of usual construction as is found in a well known make of revolver It will be understood as the description proceeds that my invention can be carried out with other makes of revolvers.

On the hammer 16, may be mounted a firing pin member 20 integral with the hammer or'made separately and fastened to the hammer in a well known way for replacement purposes.

The pin 25 may have a shoulder element 2 l and in firing a live cartridge in the revolver the pin is projected forcibly through a firing pin hole 22 ina recoil plate 23 which usually forms an integral part of a frame member 25 in which the cylinder H is rotatably'mounted. Thepin 25 usually 3 fills the hole 2| rather closely when the revolver is fired with a live cartridge. When the revolver is snapped, i. e., the hammer is operated, and there is no cartridge in the chamber in firing position the pin 20 may be driven in so far that the hole 22 is spread slightly or the shoulder 2| may strike the metal rim around the hole. These objectionable results are cumulative and after repeated use of a revolver or rifle in this way the consequences may be serious and require some expensive repairs. Or they may cause a firearm to fail to function properly at a time when such a failure is a very serious matter, The above noted undesirable consequences will often result from the repeated use of exploded cartridge shells in a firearm since the firing pin will soon punch a hole deep into or entirely through an exploded cap element in the cartridge shell. Also there is no recoil force from the already exploded cap which helps to cushion the impact shock on the small firing pin and the hammer caused by the pin striking the cap.

A cartridge generally designated as H! and constructed according to my invention will permit dry firing to be practiced without causing the objectionable consequences to a firearm explained above. Its total weight may be substantially the same as the weight of a corresponding live cartridge. This cartridge includes a shell 3| the outside dimensions of which are preferably substantially the same as those of a shell of a live cartridge of the same caliber and length. The shell 3! has a rim 32 and a forward end portion of solid metal, except for a small round hole 34 instead of being hollow as in a live cartridge.

The solid portion 33 helps to give the dry firing cartridge the same weight as that of a live cartridge of the same size having a usual lead bullet. The extra thickness of the solid portion provides another-advantage in that a satisfactorily long bearing or guiding means is provided for the body of a rod or plunger 35 slidably mounted with a snug fit in the hole 34 which is concentric with the axis of the shell 3|. This plunger is preferably made of soft metal such as copper, brass or aluminum, and its outer end terminates a very short distance back or inwardly from the face of the rim portion 32 of the shell, approximately positioned as is the face in a primer of a live cartridge of the same diameter or the end may be flush with the face of the shell and slightly rounded. On the rear end of the rod is provided an integral flange-like piston member 35 which has a loose Working fit in the hollow space of the shell 3|. To provide a yielding resistance of an amount to appear hereinafter a coil spring 31 is positioned in the shell 3| and a tight-fitting plug 38 is pressed into the open end of the shell 3| and fastened securely in place by friction or threading, or other suitable well known devices. The size of the wire in the spring 31, its diameter and length are designed to provide a pressure on the piston member 36 which considerably exceeds the pressure on the end of the plunger 35 caused by the firing pin 2!! striking the latter under action of the hammer l6 and main spring I5. I have found after much research and testing that the spring 31 should be approximately ten pounds stronger than the main spring IE to have the plunger 35 satisfactorily absorb or cushion the blow of the firing pin which should not push the plunger into the shell 2| materially more than.

the usual travel of the firing pin. The main springs of various kinds of commonly used firearms vary in strength (rating in pounds) from 3 to 25 pounds. Therefore the spring 31 used in one of my dry firing cartridges should be designed for use with a firearm after determining accurately the strength of its main spring.

My dry firing cartridges can be inserted in the cylinder of a revolver one at a time by hand as is done with live cartridges. I

For loading my dry firing cartridges conveniently into an automatic'p-istol and into some automatic rifles it is necessaryto first load them into a usual clip (not shown) which is an essential element of those kinds of firearms. For any cartridge to be handled by such clips satisfactorily it must have substantially the same complete form outwardly as that of a live cartridge.

' To meet this condition, I provide a dry firing cartridge 40 illustrated in Figure 3. In this form of my invention, the parts 4|, 45, 45 and 41 of the Figure 3 structure have the same functions as the parts 3|, 35, 36 and 31, respectively, of the Figure 2 structure, and a further explanation of these parts of the Figure 3 structure is deemed unnecessary for an understanding of my invention. So that the cartridge 40 may be handled by a usual spring clip (not shown) or used in a firearm such as is shown in Figure 6, a simulated :bullet 40b has a reduced neck portion 48 which will fit tightly in the open en'd of the shell part 4| and. may be fastened securely in such position by means as described above for the plug 38. It will be understood by those familiar with the use of automatic pistols that the cartridge illustrated in Figure 3 is these-called rimless kind, and they will understand the reason for the different construction of the shell 4| at Ithe end adjacent the plunger 45 from the rim 3 In Figure 4 is illustrated how my invention may be'embodied in a so-called rimless rifle cartridge 5|), which includes parts 5|, 53, 55, 56, 51 and 58 that correspond to and function like the parts 3|, 33 35, 36, 31, and 38, respectively, of the Figure 2 cartridge.

It will be readily understood by those familiar with modern rifle construction that the shell 5| may be of the same size and shape outwardly as that of several shells of several different live cartridges each of which has a bullet of different caliber and weight but all have the same size of shell. Such different live cartridges will have to be fired in different rifles each ofwhich has a bore beyond the usual shell receiving chamber to fit the diameter of the bullet to be fired from it. One size of the shell 5| will fit in any of several shell receiving chambers. is preferably made at least ten pounds stronger than the strongest main spring of the rifle the cartridge 50 is to be used in.

In Figure 5 is illustrateda dry firing Cartridge 60 embodying my invention and constructed to be loaded into a clip (not shown) preparatory to being brought to a firing relation with the firing pin of a rifle (not shown). The cartridge 60 includes parts SI, 63, 65, B6, and 61 which are similar in construction and function to the parts 5|, 53, 55, 56, and 51, respectively. The dry firing cartridge 6|] is shown with a simulated bullet element 6% of a certain caliber and length. It will be understood from the foregoing description that bullet elements of different calibers from that indicated in Figure 5 can be assembled with shell members 5|].

In Figure 6 there is illustrated another form of firing pin which is often used in automatic pistols and rifies and which is well suited for use The spring 51 with my dry firing cartridge. A firing pin Ill is propelled through a hole H in a plate member 12 to strike a plunger 13 of a dry firing cartridge 14 which may be constructed substantially as is illustrated in Figure 3. A shoulder 15 on the pin in is provided and if the pin should be driven too far through the hole II, when the cartridge 14 or a live cartridge is not in firing relation to the pin, the shoulder would strike the plate 12 which is objectionable in that the shock caused by the hammer or shoulder hitting the recoil shoulder causes the firing pin to break.

Although I have herein shown and described my invention in what I have conceived to be the most practical and preferred embodiment, it is recognized that departures may be madetherefrom within the scope of my invention, which is not to be limited to the details disclosed herein but is to be accorded the full scope of the claims so as to embrace any and all equivalent devices.

Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. The combination with a firearm having a cylinder or chamber and a firing pin; of a cartridge-like device fitting in said cylinder or chamber and having a resiliently mounted member for receiving and cushioning blows of said pin, the weight of said cartridge-like device being approximately equal to that of a live cartridge of the same caliber.

2. The combination with a firearm having a cylinder or chamber, a main spring, a firing pin, and a recoil plate device constructed with an aperture through which said pin may be moved; of a cartridge-like device in said chamber, said cartridge device including a metallic shell element, a plunger member positioned in said shell to be struck by said firing pin and a spring in said shell pressing against said plunger to cause it to resist being moved by action of said firing pin.

3. The structure described in claim 2 characterized by said spring in said shell being stronger than said mainspring.

4. The combination of a firearm and a dry firing cartridge in said firearm, said cartridge having approximately the same size and weight as a live cartridge suitable for use in said firearm.

5. A dry firing cartridge for use in an automatic firearm having a chamber, a firing pin and a cartridge clip from which live cartridges may be fed into said chamber, said dry firing cartridge having the same size and shape and weight approximately as one of said live cartridges and including a spring pressed, yieldingly mounted member for cushioning the blow of said firing pin on said dry firing cartridge.

6. A non-explosive cartridge for a fire-arm having a chamber, a main spring, a firing pin and a recoil plate provided with a, firing pin aperture, said cartridge comprising a metallic shell element provided with a bore,. a plunger in said bore adapted to be engaged by said firing pin, an abutment in said bore for a shouldered portion of said plunger, a spring in said bore to bias said plunger toward said firing pin, and a plug and nose element for said bore and cartridge adapted to seat said spring, said cartridge having substantially the same size, shape and weight as a live cartridge and said spring adapted to absorb the impact of said firing pin without damage thereto during dry firing of the fire arm.

7. For use in a firearm having a main spring, a firing pin and means for transmitting the operative force of said spring to said pin; a dry firing cartridge of approximately the same weight as a live cartridge of the same calibre, said dry firing cartridge including a shell, a yielding member softer than said pin mounted in said shell for receiving blows of said pin while dry firing is practiced with said firearm and said dry firing cartridge, and a spring in said shell pressing against said yielding member with a force materially greater than the force of aid main spring and in an opposite direction to that of the movement of said firing pin.

8. The structure described in claim 7 characterized by said spring in said shell being approximately ten pounds stronger than said main spring.

JOE F. JACK.

US526159A 1944-03-13 1944-03-13 Dry firing cartridge Expired - Lifetime US2405308A (en)

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Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2486008A (en) * 1946-04-24 1949-10-25 United Shoe Machinery Corp Drill gun
US2598322A (en) * 1945-12-03 1952-05-27 Vokes Ltd Porous filter
US3016832A (en) * 1961-03-28 1962-01-16 Clinton C Carlson Round for testing shotgun condition
US3027840A (en) * 1960-06-09 1962-04-03 Paul V Hannas Dummy ammunition cartridge
US3854331A (en) * 1973-04-03 1974-12-17 Remington Arms Co Inc Vented test barrel assembly for revolver ammunition
US4100693A (en) * 1976-02-03 1978-07-18 Theo Cech Striker cartridge
US4486966A (en) * 1983-12-08 1984-12-11 Seehase Jack C Safety device for firearms
US4501081A (en) * 1982-09-29 1985-02-26 Izumi Michael T Dry fire unit
US4969284A (en) * 1988-07-01 1990-11-13 Healey Christopher T Shotgun disabling device
FR2674324A1 (en) * 1991-04-02 1992-09-25 Eguizabal Echevarria Julian Projectile for simulating laser firing
US5291832A (en) * 1992-07-17 1994-03-08 Plummer Magalene M Dummy round
US5435090A (en) * 1994-03-14 1995-07-25 Darrow; Jeffrey E. Firearm securing snap cap
US5628136A (en) * 1996-04-01 1997-05-13 Wickser, Jr.; Robert L. Firearm cleaning device
US6131326A (en) * 1997-10-31 2000-10-17 Case; Geoffrey Muzzle loaded firearm safety device
US6189454B1 (en) * 1998-12-30 2001-02-20 Gary D. Hunt Inert practice round with solid body
US6223657B1 (en) 1999-01-28 2001-05-01 Andrew R. Proffitt Simulated ammunition
US6393750B1 (en) * 1999-11-16 2002-05-28 Stil Crin Di Rossini P. & C. S.N.C. Device for inhibiting the loading and use of portable guns
US6443069B2 (en) 1999-01-28 2002-09-03 Andrew R. Proffitt Simulated ammunition
US6571500B2 (en) * 2000-11-15 2003-06-03 Terence J. Keenan Dry-fire training pistol
WO2003064959A2 (en) * 2002-01-28 2003-08-07 Avi Legmann Firearm training device
US6698126B2 (en) * 2001-06-05 2004-03-02 F. Michael Worley Safety bullet
US20040211103A1 (en) * 2002-08-05 2004-10-28 Aske Robert Len Safety cartridge
US20070137085A1 (en) * 2005-12-20 2007-06-21 Robert Len Aske Safety cartridge
US20160202030A1 (en) * 2015-01-08 2016-07-14 Rolls-Royce Plc Projectile
US10436540B2 (en) 2016-01-13 2019-10-08 Brian Edward Bascom Auto-loading firearm with selectable live fire and training modes

Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2598322A (en) * 1945-12-03 1952-05-27 Vokes Ltd Porous filter
US2486008A (en) * 1946-04-24 1949-10-25 United Shoe Machinery Corp Drill gun
US3027840A (en) * 1960-06-09 1962-04-03 Paul V Hannas Dummy ammunition cartridge
US3016832A (en) * 1961-03-28 1962-01-16 Clinton C Carlson Round for testing shotgun condition
US3854331A (en) * 1973-04-03 1974-12-17 Remington Arms Co Inc Vented test barrel assembly for revolver ammunition
US4100693A (en) * 1976-02-03 1978-07-18 Theo Cech Striker cartridge
US4501081A (en) * 1982-09-29 1985-02-26 Izumi Michael T Dry fire unit
US4486966A (en) * 1983-12-08 1984-12-11 Seehase Jack C Safety device for firearms
US4969284A (en) * 1988-07-01 1990-11-13 Healey Christopher T Shotgun disabling device
FR2674324A1 (en) * 1991-04-02 1992-09-25 Eguizabal Echevarria Julian Projectile for simulating laser firing
US5291832A (en) * 1992-07-17 1994-03-08 Plummer Magalene M Dummy round
US5435090A (en) * 1994-03-14 1995-07-25 Darrow; Jeffrey E. Firearm securing snap cap
US5628136A (en) * 1996-04-01 1997-05-13 Wickser, Jr.; Robert L. Firearm cleaning device
USRE38247E1 (en) * 1996-04-01 2003-09-16 Wickser Jr Robert L Firearm cleaning device
US6131326A (en) * 1997-10-31 2000-10-17 Case; Geoffrey Muzzle loaded firearm safety device
US6189454B1 (en) * 1998-12-30 2001-02-20 Gary D. Hunt Inert practice round with solid body
US6443069B2 (en) 1999-01-28 2002-09-03 Andrew R. Proffitt Simulated ammunition
US6223657B1 (en) 1999-01-28 2001-05-01 Andrew R. Proffitt Simulated ammunition
US6393750B1 (en) * 1999-11-16 2002-05-28 Stil Crin Di Rossini P. & C. S.N.C. Device for inhibiting the loading and use of portable guns
US6571500B2 (en) * 2000-11-15 2003-06-03 Terence J. Keenan Dry-fire training pistol
US6698126B2 (en) * 2001-06-05 2004-03-02 F. Michael Worley Safety bullet
WO2003064959A2 (en) * 2002-01-28 2003-08-07 Avi Legmann Firearm training device
WO2003064959A3 (en) * 2002-01-28 2003-12-04 Avi Legmann Firearm training device
US20040211103A1 (en) * 2002-08-05 2004-10-28 Aske Robert Len Safety cartridge
US20070137085A1 (en) * 2005-12-20 2007-06-21 Robert Len Aske Safety cartridge
US20160202030A1 (en) * 2015-01-08 2016-07-14 Rolls-Royce Plc Projectile
US10684107B2 (en) * 2015-01-08 2020-06-16 Rolls-Royce Plc Projectile
US10436540B2 (en) 2016-01-13 2019-10-08 Brian Edward Bascom Auto-loading firearm with selectable live fire and training modes

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