US2403829A - Magazine feed stove - Google Patents

Magazine feed stove Download PDF

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US2403829A
US2403829A US2403829DA US2403829A US 2403829 A US2403829 A US 2403829A US 2403829D A US2403829D A US 2403829DA US 2403829 A US2403829 A US 2403829A
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magazine
air
combustion
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B2700/00Combustion apparatus for solid fuel
    • F23B2700/011Combustion apparatus for solid fuel with fuel shaft for steam boilers

Description

' July 1946- v' H. w. NFoRD ET AL 2,403,829
MAGAZINE FEED' STOVE Filed Nov. 29, 1941 -4 Sheets-Sheet 1' o v o. we
- Y 1946- H. w. SANFORD ETAL 2,403,329
, MAGAZINE. FEED STOVE Filed Nov. 29, 194 j 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 y 9 H. w. SANFORD ETAL:
MAGAZINE FEED STOVE Filed Nov. 29, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 July 9 1946- H. w. SAN-FORD ET AL, 2,403,829 I MAGAZINE FEED STOVE Filed Nov. 29, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented July 9, 1946 UNITED STATE Hugh w. Sanford Knoxville, Tenn. Sanford V ApplicationNove'mber 2 This invention-relates to an improvement inmagazine feed stovesof the characterdesigned for the burning of coal, particularly soft coal, either in small sizes or in lumps.
Several magazine feed stoves have been proposed heretofore, but difficulty has been encountered with these designs in more than one respect. In the first place, when soft coal is, used, the
coal in the magazine hopper, when. fresh-fire is' started, is soon penetrated by the heatof the fire, with the result that all the volatile matter in the coal-is discharged quite'rapidly. With a'hundred pound charge of fuelin the magazine, the volatile matter is completely. out of the fuel within probably an hour to one and one-half, hours from the time the fire starts, burning. This rapid discharge of the volatile matter has the result of making the operation; ofthe stove exceedingly smoky during'this initial period- Second, it is almost impossible to burn this excess volatile matter at one time efii ciently, and a large part of the heat is wasted up the chimney,
In the third place, during the coking of the fuel by discharging the volatile matter .in this way, an expansion of the fuel bed takes place to such extent that the mass of coked fuel is bound tightly to the side walls of the magazine, with the .result that the mass of unburned coke is held against falling as the fire burns'outunderneath. This has the efiect of leaving this mass of unburned coke considerably above the lower combustion zone, and the fire eats into :this mass of suspended fuel from the bottom in such fash- 1011 that it is very difficult to control the rate of combustion. Experiments with more than one conventional prior design have indicated that the suspended coke will not fall down'into the combustion zone until it is about two-thirds consumed, unless it is poked down by an operator, which is not an easy thing to do.
One of the primaryobjects of this invention is to provide a magazine feed stove, for bituminous coal particularly, that avoids the quick driving off of the volatile matter in away that is inefficient and also creates an excess of smoke. This invention permits the main body of the fuel in the magazine'to remain unvolatiliz ed fora long period of [time with'a gradual discharge of volatile gases from this'main body of fuel, whereby the, heat value of this volatile matter can be obtained by the normal processes of combustion, and, finally, it provides means 'by Whichg'the fuel in the hopper issufficiently freed from'the side walls of the magaZinetQfall'downVon the; fuel bed as fast as the lower parts 9, 1 941, SerialNo. 421,066 28 Claims. (01. 110-29) 1 time of the fueTi' tEE hopper are consumed.
In the preliminary stages wherein heat normally reaches to the fuel in the magazine to some extent, the; bituminous 'coal forms a sticky tar compound which causes it to adhere to the sidewalls of the magazine, but this in time will burnaway; and at this latter stage the sticking of the fuel to the sidewalls is due principally, to the. pressure exerted by the expansion of the fuelduring the coking process.
"The objects of this invention are accomplished by admitting primary air to the sides of the; magazine throughout the major portion of the height thereof to produce heating of the peripheral portion ,of thecolumn of fuel, liberating the volatile gases therefrom, and also supporting combustion of the peripheral portionof the fuel,
which keeps the column of fuel burned away from the side walls as combustion progresses, thus preventing sticking to the walls, andcausing the fuel to settle :down gradually during the combustion process.
Since it is diflicult to furnish an adequate supply of primary air to reach all of the volatiles and coke, in the. fuel column, provision is made for admitting a secondary air supply to the combustion zone. Thus any volatiles or gases which reachthis point: in the bottom flue in an unburned state, due to a lack of the necessary oxygen, are thereby supplied with secondary air for complete consumption thereof, causing com plete combustion of the fuel. I 4
Both primary and secondary air are preheated when 'admitted to the stove, thereby aiding combustion, and both may be controlled so as to regulate the burning of the volatiles, reducing these as much as required to obtain complete combustion. 'Since free gases are not thereby given off, but aresubstantially consumed, this results in the discharge of substantially no smoke. Therefore, it is substantially a smokeless stove. A; preferred embodiment of the invention is shown in the accompanying drawings, together with modificationsthereof, in which:
Fig. l is a vertical sectional view through the stove; ,7 f v r Fig.2 is a, horizontal sectional'view therethrough on the line 2-'-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig.3'is' a similar'view on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1;
I Fig.4 is a diagrammatic view showing the magazine fill Fig. 5 is a. similar thepartialcombustion of the fuel;
diagrammatic view during and William PrBiddle, In, said Biddle assignor. tosaid Fig. 6 is a detail vertical section showing a modified form of primary air supply;
Fig. '7 is a vertical section through a stove having a modified form of magazine; and
Fig. 8 is a, horizontal section therethrough.
The invention is shown as applied to a magazine heating stove constructed with a fuel magazine designatedgenerally by the numeral I adapted to receive a quantity of fuel, such as coal, therein necessary to support combustion. The
magazine I is formed and enclosed by members 23, hereinafter described. A heating'and combustion chamber 2, is disposed beside the fuel magazine, as shown particularly in Figs. 2 and 3.
The fuel magazine I is constructed with a'surrounding drum 3, shown as of sheet metal, and having a heating drum 4, attachedtdbpposite sides thereof by seams 5. The heating. drum 4 has a partition 6, extending transversely thereof between the heating chamber 2 and the fuel magazine I. A cover I extends over the drums 3- and 4 and forms the top of the stove. The top I has a feed opening therein over the magazine I Which is provided with a lid 8 for closing the same.
Supporting the drum 3 thatencloses the fuelmagazine I, and the heating drum 4, is a base 9, within which is mounted a base casting III which extends transversely beneath the fuel magazine and the heating chamber, and is supported on' the periphery of the base 9 intermediat the latter and the drums 3 and 4, as shown in Fig. 1.
Mounted within the base casting I beneath the fuel magazine I, is a rotary ash grate II; beneath which is supported a draw-center ash dump-I2 within an ash pit I3; The rotary ash grate Hand ash dump I2are of conventional construction, designed for turning movement in shaking down the ashes into the ash pit I3, while the ash dump I2 is adapted to be withdrawn for dumping the entire contents of the fuelmagazine. The ash pit I3' has a door I4 in air-tight sealing relation therewith at the periphery of the base 9 adapted for opening movement for access to the ash pit I3. 7
The base casting III" has a transverse support-' ing bar I5 extending thereover in bridging relation, one side of which is in sealing relation with the lower edge of the. partition 3. The opposite edge of? the bar I5 isiin sealing relation withsthe loweriedge of; the drum 3 forming an air space I6 therebetween which partially surrounds the fuel magazine I, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, and within which air space the primary air may be preheated. Air isadmitted, to theair space I6 through openings I! in one side of the drum 4, which openings are controlled by a slide damper I8 (Fig. 3).
The upper end of the' air space I6 is in open communication with adistributing duct I9 that surrounds a dome 20. The dome 20 extends downwardly from the fuel opening in the top I into the upper end of the drum 3, and has a laterally extending flange 2| thereon, extending outwardly to the drum 3 and secured thereto for supporting the dome 20-h The flange 2| on the bottom edge of the dome 20, is provided with a, plurality of notches 22 in the periphery thereof at spaced intervals around the drum 3, each of whichnotches has a channel member 23 extending downwardly thereth-roug-h. A seriesof channelmembers 23 is. thus provided surrounding and enclosing the fuel magazine-I and forming the surrounding wall thereof, as shown in Fig. 2'. Each of. these channel members is constructed preferably of a channel bar, and
4 is slidably received in the notch 22 for expansive action under heat, or for ready removal and replacement when desired. The channel shape of each bar 23 forms a passageway therethrough, which is adapted to have communication with the fuel magazine I through orifices 24 formed at intervals in the inner wall of said channel and through orifices 25 in one of the lateral flanges thereof. The orifices 24 and 25 are arranged at intervals along the length of ach channel 23, as shown in Fig. 1, to admit air from the passageway through the channel into the fuel magazine I at the periphery of the latter.
The channel bars 23 are spaced relativel close together, as shown in Fig. 2, so that lumps of coal will not get into the space therebetween and thereby the orifices 25 will be effective to supply air totheperiphery of the column of fuel, even if the orifices 24 should be closed by the lodging of fuel therein. However, ribs 26 extend lengthwise on each channel bar 23 on opposite sides of the row of orifices 24 therein to keep the coal from lodging in the orifices plugging them up, or from lying flat thereagainst. Any fine coal that should pass through the air orifices 24 will fall downward through the channel bars 23 into the ash pit at the bottom, thus keeping these air passageways clear.
The lower ends of the channel bars 23 are supported on the upper edge of a fire-brick ring 21, which is'seated in turn upon the base casting I0,'0r carried thereby. Thefire-brick 21 hasa series of grooves 28 extending lengthwise thereof,
,. forming air passageways in alignment and open communication with the passageways through the. channel bars 23. The lower ends of the passageways 28 are turned inward to the inner surface of the fire-brick 21, forming air jets 29 around the periphery of the column of fuel in the fuel magazine I.
The fuel magazine is adapted to .contain a column of fuel therein, rising from the ash grate I I, with the primary. burning..zone located at the lower portion of said column of fuel. Extending laterally therefrom in the base casting I0 is a bottom flu 30 entirely above the ash grate II, the outer end of which flue 30 is in open communication with the heating and combustion chamber 2. Said heating'and combustion chamber 2 has transversely overlapped baffles 31 therein, as shown in Fig. 1, with a fl'ue outlet 32 at one side of the upper end thereof.
Provision is made for admitting secondary air to the burning zone at the bottom flue for complete combustion of any volatiles, gas or fuel at this point, aiding particularly in the combustion of the volatile matter that remains in the fuel. when the latter has reached the' combustion zone andthere discharges the volatile gases. For this purpose, a preheating chamber 33' is provided 'betweenthe partition 6 and an auxiliary partition 34, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The preheating chamber 33 has air inlets 35 at one end thereofcontrolled by aregister 36 of the slide valve type (Fig. 2)
The auxiliary partition 34 is provided with a ledge 31 at the lower edge thereof for supporting a fire-brick .baflle 38 thereon, which fire-brick 38 has a shoulder 39 along. oneedge thereof in position to seat upon the ledge-31. The opposite side of the fire-brick 38 has aplurality of ribs 40 seated upon a shoulder formed by the connecting bar I5.- This holds the fire-brick baffle 38 \With the side wall thereof spaced from the adjacent edge of the transverse supporting bar'I5, with secondary air outlet openings 4| therebetween for admitting secondary air from within the preheating chamber 33 into the top of the flue 30 substantially at the burning zone. This mounting for the fire-brick baffle 38 permits it to be lifted up-.
ward in the chamber 33 and turned laterally on the ledge 31, swinging its lower edge to the left in Fig. 1, thus releasing the ribs 40 from their,
supported positions on the adjacent edge of the bar l5, which permits thelfire-brick baille38 to be withdrawn. Replacement of'this fire-brick may be necessary at intervals, and this may be tend from the grate H upwardly substantially to the upper portion of the fire-brick 21, as shown generally by the fine dotted lines at the bottom in Fig. 5. Primary air to support combustion in this zone is drawn inward through the jets 29 from the passageways in the channels 23.
With the shutters or slide valves I8 and 36 open, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, air will be drawn into the preheating chambers 16 and 33. From the chamber 16, this air will passaround through the primary air distributing duct l9, thence into the channels 23 and downwardly therethrough, discharging in thejets 29 at the lower ends thereof. A part of this primary air is admitted also through theorifices 24 and 25 in the surrounding .wall of the fuel magazine to the periphery of the column of fuel.
As these channels direct heat upward from the primary burning zone to heat the peripheral'portion of the column of fuel, this peripheral portion will volatilize gases, the burning of which will be supported by the air admitted thereto through the orifices 24 and 25. This burns away the column of fuel at its peripher from the inner portions of the channels 23, as indicated in Fig. 5, and prevents the column of fuel from sticking to the periphery of the fuel magazine I. This peripheral burning of the volatiles occurs while the.
center portion of the column of fuel is substane tially .cool, below 900 F., so that it does not volatilize its gases appreciably.
This makes it possible for the fuel column to settle downward as it is consumed at thebottom, making it unnecessary for the fuel to be broken down with'a poker, because it is not held in bridging relation against the side walls of the fuel magazine by sticking thereto, as in prior magazine feed stoves. This combustion of the fuel at the sides of the fuel magazine automatically compensates for the swelling action when the coal is coked, and its settling down gradually maintains a solid burning zone at the bottom of the column.
Since it'is not possible'for an adequate supply of air to reach all of the volatiles and coke in the fuel column, a secondar air supply is provided The hot products'ofcombustion pass.
up through the heating chamber 2, around the. baflle's'3l' and out through the flue opening 32, giving up their heat to the side walls of the heating chamber 2, in passing therethrough. Due to the consumption of-substantially all of the vola-' tiles or gases, substantially no smoke results from the operationof the stove, after it is started. Therefore, it is truly a smokeless heater in which maximum efficiency is obtained by reason of the consumption of all of the gases, even though soft coal is used. a l
Where lump coal is used as the fuel bein burned in the fuel magazine, this does'not cake in the fuel bed to the extent that is encountered in using smaller sizes of coal. For that reason,
the orifices 24 and may be-omitted, if 'de-' sired, as shown in Fig. 6, the primary air passing through channel passageways 23' and passageways '28 in the fire-'brick 21', being disbustion in the burning zone; v
Where relatively 'fine fuel is used, to prevent the suspension of the unburned fuel in'the'magazine with rigidside' walls, it is found necessary to provide primary'air which tends to burn away the fuel that is in contactwith the side walls of the magazine and leave an open spacebetween the'main'bulkof the fuel in the: magazine'and the'side walls in such fashion that this unburned.
fuel will settle down into the combustion zone at a rate that corresponds with the combustion of -the"fuel*in the regular combustion zone.
. when ho'wever, a large amount of lump coalis' used;it found that contacts between the partioles of coal are ins'ufiicient to cause the fuel massto stick together and heatinsuch fashion as to prevent the settling down of unburned fuel, provided that the intake of primary air takes place only 'a relatively few inches above the fuel actuallybeing consumed; 7
It is also difiicult to maintain a smokeless com}- bustlon while providing for two different combustion rates; For example, if the air supplyto the stove is sufficient to consume six pounds of coal 7 perhour at maximum burning capacity, then to reduce the' air sufiiciently to burn only one and one-half pounds per hour, the heatof the fuel bed will be proportionately less, being then below 1300 the temperature needed for com plete burning of gas and volatile bituminous coal.
This is accomplished in the present invention by the manner of admitting air to the column of fuel in the magazine and the way in which the combustion is accomplished. The bottom of the column of fuel in the magazine is coked as a repoints about the circumference thereof,'e1fect-- ing a burning away of the fuel at the periphery of the fuel column. l
The'low points where the primary air is admitted on reduced draft, are the outlets designated 29, and when the draft is increased, the air will be admitted successively at ,higher points I is admitted to the column of fuel about the lie matter of inost riphery of, the latter and. passes down, the side of this column penetrating. into it only slightly, and in such fashion as to burn the part. of the column of fuel immediately at the surrounding wall which would otherwise stick to the wall and prevent the automatic lowering of the-column as combustion takes place.
The entire column of fuel does not burn because the primary air is drawn down about the periphery thereof without substantial penetration, not being passed directly through the center of the column, and no primary air being drawn in fromthe bottom up into and through the column of fuel. Thus the fuel column will burn only at the points where primary air is admitted to substantial extent, namely, at the bottom of the column and immediately surrounding the periphery thereof, and the primary air'will pass out through the flue 30 at the bottom, drawing offthe liberated combustible gases from the fuel. Sufiicient secondary air is admitted at the point 4| to support combustion in said .flue and in the combustion chamber 2; for complete consumption of these gases before they are discharged from the stove. This results in a completely smokeless stove since substantially no combustible particles are discharged through the flue thereof.
Inadmitting the primary air at this low point in the stove, while the ash pit is sealed at ['4 as described above, there is substantially no tendency forany of the gases of combustion to escape when the main top 8 is substantially removed because there is no upward draft through the mass of fuel in the magazine. there is substantially no escape of gases of combustion when the ash pit door I4 is opened because of the manner in which the air is drawn in at the side and the low point of admission.
The air chambers l6 and 33 allow the pre-heating of the primary and secondary air supplies before the air is admitted to the stove, and these air chambers serve also to insulate the combustion and heating chamber 2 from the fuel magazine. The relatively narrow passageway through which the secondary air is admitted to the flue 30 at 3| provides a very simple and effective manner of admitting secondary air behind the baffle formed by the fire brick 38 which will cause the secondary air to mingle withrthe gases of combustion so as to complete the combustion of such gases and thus avoid smoking by the stove. The downward projection of the fire brick baffle or arch 38 into the fiue 30 also tends to prevent the fuel from working its wayinto the combustion chamber 2, and increases the velocity of the gases passing through the flue by reducing the cross sectional area of the latter, whereby no flyash lodges on the arch in a way that would be detrimental through accumulative effect.
Two different designs are described herein where the magazine has rigid side walls, one being illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5, and the other in Fig. 6. In actual practice with this invention, using ordinary nut and slack bituminous coal, it has been found that in the design shown in Figs. 4 and of the drawings, we can fill up the magazine with bituminous coal, after having started'a fresh fire, and we'will have smoke for about fifteen to twenty minutes, but the percentage of smoke is very small, and it will pass the tests of the usual smoke ordinances in cities that are trying to eliminate smoke from the air. Furthermore, this original firing, since it takes place usually only once .or twice during, the. winter months, is rela- Furthermore,
tivelyfinconsequential. We have proved that when the fire is burning continuously and the magazine is filled up with bituminous coal that after the fire has burned down close to the combustion chamber, the original smoke from the fresh fuel supply lasts only about four or five minutes and is in a negligible quantity, and there after the operation is substantially smokeless.
After starting a fresh fire with a magizine full of soft coal, we have found out that only about twenty to twenty-five per cent of the volatile matter is discharged from the fuel, even when the combustion rate is high, during the first hour. The rest of the volatile in the unburned fuel substantially remains until the fuel has reached the fire zone, where the volatile matter remaining is consumed along with the solid fuel. With this invention it has been proven that the central volume of the fuel in the magazine remains relatively cool and below the temperature that would cause the volatile to be discharged.
Therefore, this invention provides a magazine stove that is substantially smokeless with ordinary grades of bituminous coal of the size of nut and slack, ordinary stoker sizes, or larger; that is exceedingly efficient; in which the volatile matter is burned mostly along with the solid fuel itself; and a design in which the combustion rate of the fuel can be controlled readily. It has been found that the stove will idle and keep the fire alive for as long as seventy-two hours with one hundred pounds of nut and slack originally putintothe magazine, and that at any time during this period the fire can be made to supply its maximum heat very shortly after damper regulation giving .the required amount of primary air for full combustion.
If desired, a hot water heater maybe utilized in connection with this stove, b providing a water back around the air passageways, or in place of the fire-brick 21, in a manner that will be obvious.
Provision may be made in the stove forrelieving the side pressure on the magazine walls mechanically, so as to let the coke bed settle down as fuel is consumed in the combustion zone, as shown in Figs. 7 and 8. In this form, the magazine drum 5| is constructed with a combustion zone 52 in the lower portion thereof, having the usual grate at the bottom, and surrounded by a fire-brick ring 53 at the lower end of the fuel magazine. A filling opening is formed within a dome 54, having a removable cover 55.
The side walls of the magazine are formed of a plurality of metal plates 56, preferably of cast iron, which extend downward in truncated conical form, within the drum 5|. The upper ends of the plates 56 are formed with hooks 51'- which engage over a surrounding ring 58 carried by brackets attached to the dome 54, thus pivotally supporting the plates thereon in downwardly inclined directions, with the lower ends of the plates 56 bearing upon the upper edge of the fire-brick ring 53. The angle of the plates 56 to the vertical axis should be such that the plates will hold the side pressure of fresh fuel supply, but will swing outward in a laterally expanding action when the heat of combustion in the stove causes a swelling action of the coal.
The plates 55 are (provided with ribs 59 extending vertically along edges thereof, and these edges are arranged in overlapping relation, as shown in Fig. 8. The edgeof one plate 56 is beveled at 60, forming a feathered edge thereon, in position to overlap an angular corner 6| on the 9.5 adjacent section, which rrangement effectively seals the joint therebetween, substantially pre- Venting fine coal from passing through thejoint, but if any coal should work through, it would drop into the combustion zone. The shape of this joint between the sections will tend to prevent the'collection of any fine coal therein, as well as any undue leakage resulting from the lateral expansion of the plates 56, due to the swelling action of the heated coal inthe-magazine. r
The plates 56 are shown as formed with holesBZ therethrough for admitting primary air around the outerportion of the fuelmagazine', as 'well as at the bottom edge of the fire-brick ring 53, if desired, to keep the fuel bed burned away from the plates as described above. However, it may not be necessary to provide such air holes throughoutt-he major \portion of the height of the fuel magazine,-especially where the expanding walls of the fuel magazine are used as shown in Figs. 7 and 8, which will allow the'fuel bedto set- 10 combustion of the products ingtherethrough.
3. A magazine feed stove comprising a fuel magazine structure adapted tocontain a column of'fuel therein with a zone of primary combusof combustion passtiori at the bottom thereof, a bottom structure tle down in the combustionzone as the coaliis burnedtherein, Nevertheless, it is desirable'to admit the primary air to the fuel bed above the combustion zone, in order to obtain a substantially smokeless stove, in addition to the admission of some primary air through the fuel being consumed in' the combustion zone. Such 'an arrangement causes burning of the volatiles, as they are released by the heated coal in the fuel bed, and yet the volatiles are not expelled too rapidly, but pass through the combustion zone gradually. p imi l. A process of burning bituminous coal in a stove having a fuel magazine with surrounding walls, comprising supplying, acolumn of fuel in the fuel magazine, producing a layer of incandescence by primary combustion of the fuel'in a zone adjacent the lowerend portion, of the fuelmagazine, introducing the primary air into the magazine only above the lower end of the,
fuel column at the periphery thereof with a portion of said primary air introduced adjacent the zone of primary combustion, and the remainder of the primary air introduced at the periphery of the fuel column along a substantial portionof the height thereof to supply oxygen to support combustion at the periphery of the fuel column with substantially no ombustion in the center of the said column of fuel atthe same level, whereby beforecombustion takes place in the center of the fuel column the periphery of the column at, this same level is burned away from the surrounding walls in a fashion that permits the fuel column as a whole to settle down into the combustion zone as'the fuel therein is consumed.
2. A magazine feed stove of fuel therein with a zone of primary combustion at the bottom thereof, a bottom structure for supporting the column of fuel in the magazine, a bottom flue extending laterally from the fuel magazine and having an intake endconnected with the magazine at the zone of primary; combustion for discharge of the products of com-v bustion through the bottom flue, means for ad-'- mitting primary air into the fuel magazine at I comprising a fuel, magazine structure adapted to contain a columncombustion for discharge of the products of combustion through the bottom flue,-means for supplying secondary air'to the bottom flue to support secondary combustion of the products of combustion passing therethrough, means for admitting primary airtt'o the-fuel magazine at the periphery thereof adjacent the zone ofprimary combustion to support said primarycombustion,
and additional means spaced above said primary air admitting means for supplying air to the periphery of the fuel magazine above the zone of primary combustion to supply oxygen to sup port combustion at th periphery-of the fuel column with substantially no combustion at the center of said column of fuel at thesame level, whereby before combustion takes place in the center of the fuel columnthe peripheryof'the column at; thissa'me; level is burned away from the surrounding walls in a fashion that permits the fuel column as a whole'to settle. down into the combustion zone as'the fuel therein is consumed. I l V a i 4. A magazine heating stove comprisin a fuel magazine having surrounding walls adapted to contain-a fuelcolumn in the magazine, a fuelsupporting bottom structure beneath" the magazine for supporting the fuel column for primary combustion of the fuel in a zone above the fuelsupporting means, means for supplying primary air to the periphery of the fuel column adjacent the zone of primarycombustion from a space externally of the fuel column to support the primary combustion, and means for introducing primary air into the fuel magazine substantially throughout the periphery thereof and along the height of the fuel column, said primary air admitting means being arranged to supply the primary air to the fuel magazine directly from externally of the fuel magazin without passing through the fuel'magazine to support combustion at the periphery of the fuel column causing the fuel to be burned away from the surrounding walls and to .settle down as fuel is consumed therebelow in the zone of primary combustion.
5. In a magazine-feed stove, the combination of a ,fuel magazine for containin a column of fuel, means for: supporting the column of fuel in the magazine and. arranged. to provide a zone of primary combustion at the lower end of the fuelmagazine, meansforming a continuous substantially 'imperforate wall, about the periphery of the fuel magazine adjacent the lower end thereof and havingconstricted orifices at the ,lower end thereof for admitting air into the zone of primary combustion, means formingopenings at the periphery of the fuel-magazine substantially throughout the height thereof for admitting air spaces about the .fuel magazine, in communication with the openings and orifices for supplying air to said openings and orifices, said orifices being of appreciably smaller. air capacity than the air space or' air spaces in communication therewith,,1 neans for directing the products Of 1 l combustion laterally frornsaidzone of primary combustion, and means for admitting secondary air to said last-mentioned means to support secondary combustion therein. a i
6. A magazine-feed stove comprising a fuel magazine structure adapted to contain a columnof fuel therein withan incandescent layer at the bottom thereof, a grate structure for supporting the column of fuel in th magazine with the incandescent layer directly above the grate, a bottom fiueextending laterally from the fuel magazine and having an intake end connected with the magazine entirely above the grate in position for discharge of thegaseous products of combustion through the flue above the grate, means for admitting primary air to the periphery of the fuel magazine through constricted priflces directly above the intake end of the flue in close proximity therewith, means for supplying air to the periphery of the fuel magazine along the height of the column of fuel therein and including openings disposed substantially throughout the periphery of the fuel magazine, means externally of the fuel magazine for supplyin air directly to the orifices and openings without passage through said magazine and means for supplying secondary air to the bottom flue to support secondary combustion of the products of combustion passin therethrough.
'7. A magazine-feedstove comprising a fuel magazine structure adapted to contain a column of fuel therein, said magazine structure having a surrounding wall adapted, to enclose the fuel column, a bottom fuel-supp rting structure at the lower end f said wall adapted to confine a combustion zone therein adjacent, the bottom end of the magazine structure, said wall having vertical air passages therein with slots connected therewithand extending upwardly in the fuel magazine substantially throughout a major portion of the height of said magazine, said air passages being closed externally and extending downwardly directly to the combustion zone and having air inlets into the magazine at the combustion zone of appreciably smaller capacity than said air passages, and means for supplying air into the upper ends of said passages independently and externally of the fuel magazin without passing through said magazine for flow through said passages directly to the inlets at the combustion zone and for flow through said slots for admitting air therefrom into the periphery of the fuel magazine.
8. A stove comprising a magazine structure having a grate for supportinga column of fuel therein, conduit means for supplyingprimary air to said fuel column, includin means for supplying air to one end thereof, and said conduit means having constricted orifices capable of discharging therefrom a portion of the totalitarimary air of the stove when the draft through said conduit means is fully open, and a flue having unrestricted communication with the magazine structure for directing products of combustion therefrom, said constricted orifices being arranged for introducing the constricted supply,
of primary air to the vertical outside wall of'the fuel column adjacent to the unrestricted flue leading therefrom, whereby when the draft is reduced appreciably from the full draft of normal combustion the said'primary air supply introduced through the orifices to the periphery of the fuel column will enter the magazine structure and produce combustion of theperiphery'of the fuel column with sufficient temperature to consume the gaseous products of combustion producing a smokeless operation at such a reduced rate of combustion.
9. A stove comprising a fuel magazine structure, a bottom structure for supporting the fuel in the magazine structure, conduit means having damper control means therefor and constructed for supplying downwardly moving primary air substantially to the entire perimeter of the fuel column in the magazine structure, a flue connected with the magazine structure adjacent the bottom structure for drawing the gaseous products of combustion laterally from a substantially uninterrupted portion of the perimeter of the fuel column, said flue having the intake thereof extending circumferentially of the fuel column less than one-half of the total perimeter thereof, said conduit means having one or more constricted ports in the magazine structure above the lower end thereof for directing the flow of primary air against the perimeter of the fuel column and having one or more additional ports thereto in position to be adjacent the fire zone, said port or ports being so located and constricted that upon full opening of the damper means for maximum capacity a major portion of the primary air is directed to the perimeter of the fuel column above the fire zone and when the stove is being operated at a low heating capacity the major part of the primary air passes through the conduit means 'to "the constricted port or-ports at the bottom of the magazine structure and directly above the entrance to said flue, whereby the perimeter of the burning fuel column adjacent thereto is supplied with sufficient 'primary air'topromotefullconsumption of the fuel at this point.
10. A down-draft magazine-feed heating stove comprising a fuel magazine structure for containing a column of fuel therein, said structure having an opening at'the topthereof for supplying fresh fuel by gravity to the-magazinestructure, a closure for saidopening and constructed for sealing said opening against the entrance of air therethr'ough when the closure is in place over the opening, a bottomstructure including a grate for supporting -the-fue1 in the magazine structure and including de-ashingmeans for separating ashes'from the column of fuel, and an ash pit below said fuel-supporting means, means for gaining access into the ash pit to remove the ashes therefrom and including an opening and a co'vertherefor constructed for-sealin the opening substantially against the entrance of air thereto when the cover is -in place,' said closure and cover'being constructedto prevent the admission of air'to the fuel magazine and ash-pit during operation except when fuel is being 'supplied to the magazine or ashes are being'taken out, means for introducing primary air into the magazine structure "at points wholly above the level of the bottom strueture,-and a'flue extending laterally from the fuel magazine "in communication therewith above 'thegrate for conveying the gaseous products of combustion laterally away from th burning fuel, the air supply and air introducing means being constructed for introducing at least a major portion of the primary air to'the perimeter of the-fuel column at points substantially above "the level of the horizontal'plane'of the top of the flue-adjacent the fuel column, means for introducing-secondary air into said flue, and separate-meansfor controlling the primaryand secondary air-introduced by the respective means.
is; a
11-. LA 7 magazineefeed; stove 7. comprising a, fueli magazine structure adapted to contain a column of, fuel therein with an incandescentlayer at the, bottom thereof, ar;bottom fuel-supporting;
structure for supporting thefuel in the magazine structure with the incandescent layer directly above said bottom ;struoture, a fiueforconveying off the gaseous products of combustion and havinganintake endconnected with the, magazine. structure wholly at a point above the bottom structure intposition for the discharge of gaseous products ofico'mbustion entirely above the bottom structure, and. meansifor supplyingipri mary air to; the magazine, structure and opening.
into. the magazine structure directly above-and in close proximity with the. intake end: of, the flue,-v said air supplyingmeans having anrintake magazine :structure and spaced; laterally therefrom, meansfor insulatingthe combustion chamberefrom the magazinestructure; a bottom flue 1 1515. In a magazine heatingrstove-the combinae tionbfa'fuel magazine adapted tocontainga column of'fuel therein, a combustion chamber spaced laterally from the fuel magazine,'a line tomiflue extending betweenthe lower endpora tions 'of the fuelmagazine and the. combustionv chamber and, in openicommunication therewith for. directing combustiblev gases from said magazine to said chamber, an air chamberrhaving means-for admittingrair thereto on;.a horizontal level at the lower portion of the fuel magazine andabove the bottom'flue, means for circulating primary air from'said air chamber downwardly.
externally of thefuel magazine about the periphery thereof and. admitting: said airto the magazine at a plurality of points-along.the height thereof and adjacent the first-mentioned an: ad-;
mitting means .to support .combustion'in. .said
for; convent-1g:the gaseous; products ,oftcombus-q tioni laterally from 5 the magazine structurev en,
tlI'ElYiabOVajhQ bottom fuel-supporting structure to the combustion chamber, and means for supplying to the magazine structure all of the primary air at the peripheral portion of the ,magazine structure at points abovethe bottomfuelno t g structur d a s p m n be constructed with means for admittingair at a' combustion zone adjacent thebottom of the fuel magazine and arranged for passage of air externally of the-fueltma'gazine to said air admitting the upper part of the magazine structureis maintained by said air'suffi'ciently'low to prevent the fuel from expanding andadhering t the side walls of the magazine structure,
13; A down draft magazine-eed heating stove comprising a fuel magazine for'jcontaining a columnofbituminouscoal therein, a de-ashing bot-' tom structure'for supporting the coal in the magazine structurefan ash pit be'lowsaid deashi'ngstructure for receiving the ashes-therethrough, aid ash pit having an access opening thereto, a cover for closing said opening against the "admission of air therethrough; and means for'supplying primary air downwardly in the fuel magazine throughout a sub'stantial' portion of the height thereof andhaving' an'opening into the magazine directly above the bottom structure and including a conduitextending thereto, means forming'an exit flue and'open to the magazine structure at a side thereof entirely above the deashingibottom in such position that none of the gaseousproducts of combustion pass through the I deeashing structure in .moving to' the exit flue, said; airsupply conduit :havingv an -air inlet located adjacent; to a: horizontal plane through the top, of the bottom structure in such position that there will be no tendency for back draft -upward-' ly through the fuel zone of gaseous products of combustion from the magazine-when the ash pit nation of a fuel magazine adaptedto contain a wh mof fuel the ein a lc mhu t im a b aced; late all from bet ueltrna azinaa bot;
t I in open communication therewithfor directing- Y t vto combustible gases from-said magazine to said means, whereby thetemperatureof the fuelin 'thereofai; V i .8; In amagazinelheating stove, the combina--: .',t1on of-anzupright' fuel magazine'adapted to con magazine and around the walls'thereof; -v f extending between the lower end portions of: the fuel magazineand the combustion chamber and in open communication therewith for directing combustible gases from said magazine to said chamber, means for admitting primary air to the fuel magazine about the periphery thereof and means: being constructed of constricted orifices and having downwardly "extendingpassagewayscommunicating with the orifices at a series of.
vertically spaced: points about the magazine.
16. In amagazine heating stove,v the comb'ination ofa. fuel magazine adapted to contain a column of fuel therein, a combustion chamber spaced laterally from the fuel magazine, a flue extending between the lower end portions of the fuel magazine and the combustion chamber and chamber, means foradmitting primary air-to the fuel magazine aboutv the periphery-thereof and at a plurality of points along the height thereof to support combustion in said magazine and .around the walls thereof, said air admitting means being constructedof constricted orifices and having downwardly extending passageways communicating with the orifices at a series of,
Vertically spaced points. about the magazine with the lowermost orifices spacedvabove theflue, and
tion of .a fuel magazineadaptedto contain acolumn of fuel therein; a combustionv chamber spaced laterally from the'fuel 1 magazine, a flue extending between the lower end portions of the fuel magazine and the combustionchamber and in open communication therewith I for directing combustible gases from said magazine to said combustion chamber, an air chamber interposed between thefuel magazine and the :combustion chamber andextending substantially from 'side to side thereof insulating said magazine and combustion chamber from each other, means for admitting 'cold air into said air chamber at a point adjacent the bottom of thefuel magazine, andmeans for circulating air from theto of said air chamber abovei'the magazine downwardly externally ofvtheair chamber about the periphery of point adjacent the bottom the magazine to a circulataina column of fuel therein, a grate at the bot.-
tom of the fuel magazine substantially within. theconfines of. the wall thereof for supportingsaid. column of: fuel, an uprightcombustionchamber. disposed beside the fuel magazine and spaced. bodily therefrom, a flue extending laterally. be. tweenethe lower ends ofthe fuel'magazine and.
combustion chamber andin opencommunication therewith only above the grate arranged for pas.- sage of gaseous products of. combustiontolthe flue entirely above th grate. without passing downward. through the rate, means for admitting primar air to the: fuel magazine. at:a. p.oint, wholly above said fine to. support combustion in.
the bottom .of said magazine and at higher points at the peripheryofthefuel magazine. below. the top thereof for discharging. combustible. gases through said flue and to cause settling. down -of bituminous coal in .the. fuel magazine with'outade hering to the surrounding wall of the magazine, andmeans for, admitting secondary air-into the top of said flue for combustion of said gases.
19. In a magazine. heating stove, the combination of an upright fuel magazine adapted to contain acolumn, of fuel therein, an upright combustion chamber disposed beside the fuel maga ing. transversely .of said fiueand projecting downwardly below the top thereof, and means for ad mitting secondary air into .the top ofsaid flue besidesaid .bafiie and'betweensaid baflle and the fuel magazine for causing. intermixing of said air with the combustible. gases..
20. Amagazine-feed stove comprising a magazine structure for containing a colum-noffuel,
saidmagazine. structure. includinga plurality. of-
upright channel members arrangediat intervals about theperiphery of the fuel magazinewith openings between the channel members forming air'passageways in open communication with the interior. of themagazine structure, said channel members having means of. communication from the air; passageways therein into the'openings, and means for supplying air into. said=.channel members. 1
21. A magazine-feed stove comprisinga.imaga-. zine structure for containinga columnoffuel, said .magazine structure including a plurality. of upright channel members arranged at intervals about the peripheryof the fuel magazine with.
said channel members spaced apartitoprovide spaces therebetween with slots opening. .from said spaces into the periphery of the-fuel magazine and said slots, being elongated in an upward di-:- rection throughout a ,substantial'portion of. the height of said magazine, thesidesof the channel members at opposite sides-,ofthe spaces converging toward said slots inwardly relativeto the-:m'agazine,v so that lumps of coal that: may pass through theslots will not'clog. the spaces, and
fuel. magazine, each; of said... channel membershaving means of connnunicationfrom/she air passageway extending..therethrough into the fuel magazine, said-channel. members being spacedapartwith the spaces therebetween open into the fuel magazine.- and having means. of communication through thesidewalls thereof from the air passageways into. said spaces.
23. A magazinefeed-stove: comprising a. fuel magazine forcontaining a column of fuel therein of I the magazine withside flanges directed toward the enclosure and forming an air passageway therethroughextending lengthwise ofthe fuelmagazine, aii-reebrick extending about the lower portion of the-fuel magazine. and having passageways therethroughv in alignment with the channel passageways in open communication therewith and extending to points within-the fuel magazine: for supplying: air, to the-column of fuel therein. v 7
24. A magazine feed stove comprisinga fuel magazinefor containing acolumn of fuel therein and'having a surrounding walllstructure, said,
wall structureincludingcatsurrounding drum, a pluralityof channel members-spacedat intervals about. the drum, each of saidchannel members having an inner wall facing the-interior of the magazine with side fiangesdirected toward the drum and forming an air passageway therethrough extendinglengthwise of a the fuel magazine, a fire-brick-lining extending-about-the fuel partition extending. transversely of the heatingv structure forming a preheating chamber between said partition and the magazine-enclosure having means for admittin-g air. thereto, said fuelmagazine having a plurality of. air inlets about the periphery thereof, means forming one or more passageways extending. downwardly to said air inlets from the-upper end portion of said magazine enclosure and being in open communication with the preheating chamber.
26. A magazine feed stove comprisingra fuel magazinefor containing acolumn of fuel therein and having a surrounding wall structure, a heating. structure. connected with the wall structure and extending laterallytherefrom enclosing a heating: chamber, a partition extending transversely of the. heating structure spaced from the wallstructure forming. a preheating chamber therebetween having an: airinlet, means connected with said preheating chamber for supplying air therefrom through the wall structure to the inner periphery of-the fuel magazine for supporting combustion therein, a flue connecting the lower end portions of the fuel magazine and the-heating chamber; andmeans for adinitting ture having a shoulder connected therewith, a
fire-brick having one side seated on said ledge and having one or more ribs extending laterally from the opposite side thereof and seated on the shoulder for supporting the fire-brick therebetween, said shoulder having the inner edge thereof spaced from the adjacent side of the firebrick forming an opening therebetween from the preheating chamber into the flue. V
28. A magazine heating stove comprising means 18 forming a combustion space, a fuel magazine thereabove adapted to contain bituminous coal and arranged for discharging the same by gravity into the combustion space automatically as fuel is consumed therein, and means for introducing primary air above the combustion space for downward movement thereto in part through the fuel supply in the magazine, whereby the down draft carries the volatile matter produced in the lower portion of the fuel supply into the combustion space without heating all of the fuel in the magazine sufliciently to volatilize "it completely until it has reached a location adjacent the combustion space, said fuel magazine having side walls thereof constructed for lateral expansion to reduce the pressure of the coal against said side walls when the coal is swelled by the heat of combustion in the stove, whereby the coal will settle by gravity into the combustion space as coal is consumed therein.
WILLIAM P. BIDDLE, JR. HUGH W. SANFORD.
US2403829D Magazine feed stove Expired - Lifetime US2403829A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2456570A (en) * 1948-12-14 Smokeless heater for burning coal
US2468415A (en) * 1945-08-17 1949-04-26 Daniel E Stair Method of and apparatus for burning coal
US2481165A (en) * 1949-02-02 1949-09-06 Bertrand A Landry Down and cross draft heater including airtight ash pit
US2481164A (en) * 1949-09-06 Xdraft m magazine heater fob
US2564713A (en) * 1946-01-31 1951-08-21 Standard Oil Co Coal coking and burning magazine stove
US2579213A (en) * 1951-12-18 Smokeless solid fuel heater with

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2456570A (en) * 1948-12-14 Smokeless heater for burning coal
US2481164A (en) * 1949-09-06 Xdraft m magazine heater fob
US2579213A (en) * 1951-12-18 Smokeless solid fuel heater with
US2468415A (en) * 1945-08-17 1949-04-26 Daniel E Stair Method of and apparatus for burning coal
US2564713A (en) * 1946-01-31 1951-08-21 Standard Oil Co Coal coking and burning magazine stove
US2481165A (en) * 1949-02-02 1949-09-06 Bertrand A Landry Down and cross draft heater including airtight ash pit

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