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Down lighting apparatus

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Publication number
US2398507A
US2398507A US52116744A US2398507A US 2398507 A US2398507 A US 2398507A US 52116744 A US52116744 A US 52116744A US 2398507 A US2398507 A US 2398507A
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US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
plates
light
lamps
ceiling
filler
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Thomas W Rolph
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Holophane Co Inc
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Holophane Co Inc
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Publication date
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF
    • F21S8/00Lighting devices intended for fixed installation
    • F21S8/04Lighting devices intended for fixed installation intended only for mounting on a ceiling or the like overhead structures
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V13/00Producing particular characteristics or distribution of the light emitted by means of a combination of elements specified in two or more of main groups F21V1/00 F21V11/00
    • F21V13/02Combinations of only two kinds of elements
    • F21V13/04Combinations of only two kinds of elements the elements being reflectors and refractors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V3/00Globes; Bowls; Cover glasses
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V5/00Refractors for light sources
    • F21V5/02Refractors for light sources of prismatic shape
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21YINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES F21K, F21L, F21S and F21V, RELATING TO THE FORM OR THE KIND OF THE LIGHT SOURCES OR OF THE COLOUR OF THE LIGHT EMITTED
    • F21Y2103/00Elongate light sources, e.g. fluorescent tubes

Description

April, i6, 1946. T. w. RoLPH 2,398,507

DOWN LIGHTING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 5, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet l llllllllHl I llllllIlll IIHIIIHIII umnmuluummnw lllllllllllllm"l TOR LPI-l ATTORNEY April 16, 1946'. 1,-, w. RoLPH 2,398,507

DOWN LIGHTING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 5, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR THOMAS W. PULP# Patented Apr. 16, 1946 UNITEDi STATES PATENT OFFICE DOWN LIGHTING APPARATUS kThomas W. Rolph, Newark, Ohio, asslgnor to Holophane Company, Inc., New York, N. Y., a

corporation of Delaware Application February 5, 1944, serial No. v521,167

(ci. 24o-9) 8 Claims.

objects in the room, and hence the brightness contrasts are very high. Owing to the losses in the reflectors used to get the light out of the luminaries refe'rred to and the interception of light by other lamps in the same unit, the utilization factor is comparatively low.

The present invention contemplates down lighting apparatus wherein the entire overhead surface area is in the form of light transmitting plates and all these plates are rendered luminous so that the entire ceiling is lighted up with comparatively small differences in brightness at the ordinary angles of observation.

A further object of the present invention is to eliminate much of the expense of lamp boxes, wireways and false ceiling supports customarily employed, and to reduce the mechanical features of the installation to their simplest terms, for example, lamps, lamp sockets or holders supported from the original ceiling or from the lens supports, lens plates and filler plates, channels or T-bars suspended from the original ceiling and supporting the plates, lamp auxiliaries supported in any convenient way between the two ceilings and serving lamps in pairs or fours as desired, and wiring in BX or wire mold or similar simple construction. No box or enclosure of sheet metal or other material is required. All, parts between the two ceilings would ordinarily be painted white in so far as practical.

The accompanying drawings show, for purposes of illustrating the present invention, several embodiments in which the invention may take form, it being understood that the drawings are illustrative of the invention rather than limiting the same.

In these drawings:

Figure 1 is a cross section and semi-perspective view showing the general arrangement ofthe down lighting apparatus;

Figures 2A, 2B and 2C are diagrammatic inverted plan views of a ceiling equipped with the down lighting apparatus;

Figure 3 isa cross sectional view showing an optical action of one form of construction and omitting structural features;

Figure 4 is a detailed sectional view through typical prisms of a iiller plate; and

Figures 5 to 9. inclusive, are views similar to Figure 3 showing modified forms of construction.

In Figure 1 the superstructure I0 may be the original ceiling, or the bottom of the floor slab. At suitably spaced intervals the superstructure, or ceiling. carries longitudinally extending supports Il. Rectilinear lamps I 2 are suitably mounted below the ceiling I0 and are preferably placed halfway between certain of the supports II.

'I'he supports I I, which are closest to the lamps I2, support prismatic lens plates I3, I3 of alight concentrating type in rows corresponding with the length of the lamp or lamps employed. The spaces between the rows oi.' lens plates I3, I3 are occupied by nller plates I4, I4. The lens plates and filler plates may be any size convenient for handling.

The dominant feature resides in the use of lens plates and intermediate filler plates. The lamps, lenses and plates may be placed in parallel rows extending lengthwise of the ceiling area as in Figure 2A, or the ceiling plan arrangement may be varied to suit, as, for example, shown in Figures 2B and 2C. The lamps and rows of lenses and plates may extend diagonally of the ceiling space, if desired.

. may be mere diffusing plates, if desired. rIjhe ceiling I0 has a diffuse reflecting surface, for example, white paint. The lens plates are preferably made of the maximum width by which light can be concentrated to the desired extent by dioptric prisms. For regularity of appearance and flexibility of mounting the widths of plates I3 and I4 are preferably the same. The plates I4 accept direct rays, such as indicated at I6, I6, Figure 4, from the lamps I2, I2 and reflect these rays downwardly as indicated at II, I1, and, if desired, these rays may becaused to slightly diverge by providing the bottom of the plates with diil'using u'tes I8. i

In the arrangement shown in Figures 3 and 4 direct light through a very wide angle each side of the nadir is accepted by the plates and transmitted into the desired directions. The upwardly emitted light is intercepted by the ceiling and diffusely reflected downwardly where it adds to the general downwardly directed illumination. In

this arrangement the plates are shown flat and lamp obstruct the light from another, as is common in fluorescent lighting equipment employing two or more comparatively closely placed lamps. Furthermore it is possible to make the equipment very shallow, for example, the lens plates one foot wide need be only 4 inches or 5 inches below the reecting surface of the ceiling.

The prisms I5 preferably have an apex angle of approximately 60 and the prism surfaces may be plane or curved. These prisms will receive light from the lamps between angles of 60 and 90 from the nadir and reiiect such light downwardly with high eiiiciency.

In the arrangement shown in Figure 5 the vprismatic lens plate I3 is the same as before, but two filler plates 20, 20 are used andeach slopes upwardly from the adjacent edge of the light concentrating plates I3 so that all the light emitted below the horizontal is intercepted by plates I3- and 20 or 20. Plate 20 is shown as having refracting prisms 2I which lower the light as indicated, while the plate 20' is shown with reecting prisms for the same purpose. The ceiling I0 diffusely reflects the light as before.

In the arrangements shown in Figures 6 to 8, inclusive, the light concentrating plates 22 are dished so as to intercept more of the light emitted by the lamps below the horizontal than the flat plates I3. The filler plate 23 of Figure 6 receives no direct light, but does receive light diiiusely reflected down by the ceiling I Il, and this plate may therefore be a simple diffusing plate. The plates 24 and 25 of Figures 7 and 8 receive light reected toward them by the specular reflectors 26 and 21, respectively, and the plates 24 and 25 are therefore preferably reflecting plates of the type indicated in Figure 4.

In the arrangement shown in Figure 9 the lens plates 26 under the lamps are of the light spreading type and they may be used with filler plates 2l of any of the forms above discussed. Such lens plates will provide a more extensive distribution of light.

It will be noted that the down lighting apparatus shown herein is one wherein the lighting equipment typically occupies a large portion of the ceiling area and may be rendered luminous when in operation. It therefore has much less brightness contrast than ceiling constructions wherein part of the ceiling is illuminated only by reiiected light. It also has less maximum brightness than ceiling constructions using the same size and amount of lighting equipment, but having reflectors which send the light downwardly and therefore build up the amount of light which must be transmitted through the narrowed region.

The equipment is one which has a high elciency of light utilization and it is readily possible to obtain varied intensities of illumination by varying the number of rows of filler plates used foreach row of lens plates. If, for example, the rows of lens plates and filler plates be alternated and a certain average horizontal illumination be obtained, then it is possible to obtain two-thirds of this illumination by using two rows of filler plates between each row of lens plates; or it is possible to obtain one-half the original illumination by using three rows of flllerplates between each row of lens plates. In locations where extremely high illumination intensities are desired. the entire area may be covered with lens plates with one or more lamps over each plate.

In practicing the present invention it is possible to use plates which are fiat or dished, horizontal, or sloping and provided with refracting prisms near the lamps and with reiecting or refracting prisms more remote from the lamps, or in the latter location, diifusing plates may be used. The arrangement of light controlling prisms is designed for optical control of the light rays, while the size of the plates on which the prisms (or diffusing surfaces where used) are disposed is determined by convenience in manufacturing methods and installations. The reflecting surface above the lamps may be specular, semi-specular or diil'use and of suitable contour.

Since it is obvious that the invention may be embodied in other formsand constructions within the scope of the claims, I wish it to be understood that the particular forms shown are but a few of these forms, and various modifications and changes being possible, I do not otherwise prisms when embodied in a plate, the plates acting to symmetrically alter the spread of light from the corresponding superposed lamps and direct the transmitted rays into beams with controlled spread toward regions of a working area underneath and to each side of said corresponding lamps, the lamps being laterally spaced from one another to leave spaces between adjacent edges of the prismatic plates of substantial width, and light redirecting iiller plates occupying the said spaces and being disposed between the refracting plates, the filler plates receiving light originating in the adjacent lamps and emitted at angles above the edgesvof the refracting plates and reflected downwardly from said reecting surface and transmitting suchv light in generally downward directions whereby substantially all the light emitted by the lamps is received by the plates either as direct light or as once reected light, and all the plates appear luminous, the iiller plates acting to build up the light ux received 'in said working area, beneath the filler plates.

2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein all the plates are flat and at a common level with the refracting plates so that the ller plates receive direct light.

3. Apparatus as claimed in claim l, wherein all the plates are flat and at acommon level With the refracting plates so that the filler plates receive direct light and the filler plates are provided with light directing ribs parallel with the sources and disposed to accept direct light and bend it downwardly.

4. -Apparatus'as claimed in claim 1, wherein the ller plates are flat and at a common level with the refracting plates so that the filler plates receive direct light and are provided on their upper surfaces with light reecting ribs parallel to the sources which reilect light generally downwardly.

5. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the ller plates are ilat and at a common level with the refracting pl-ates so that the filler plates receive direct light and are provided on their upper surfaces with light reilecting ribs parallel to the adjacent sources which reflect 'light generally downwardly, and diffusing flutes on the lower surface which scatter light laterally.

6. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein two ller plates are employed between adjacent refracting plates and they extend upwardly from the edges of therefracting plates to substantially the level of the lamps so as to receive light emitted between the horizontal and the refracting plates and have light depressing prisms.

7. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the light refracting plates are dished to accept substantially all direct light below the horizontal and the ller plates are substantially at the level of the sources.

8. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the reflecting surface includes specular reflectors disposed to reflect light on to the filler plates, and wherein the refracting plates are dished to accept substantially all direct lightbelow the horizontal and the illler plates are substantially at the level of the sources and the filler plates are provided with ribs parallel with the sources which reect light downwardly.

THOMAS W. ROLPH.

US2398507A 1944-02-05 1944-02-05 Down lighting apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2398507A (en)

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Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2659807A (en) * 1949-05-16 1953-11-17 F W Wakefield Brass Company Combination luminous and acoustical ceiling
US2659808A (en) * 1949-06-22 1953-11-17 F W Wakefield Brass Company Combination luminous and acoustical ceiling
US2691720A (en) * 1949-06-09 1954-10-12 Elwyn L Simmons Wall and ceiling light transmitting means
US2710335A (en) * 1952-12-30 1955-06-07 Cepco Inc Light diffusing and sound absorbing unit
US2713631A (en) * 1954-06-30 1955-07-19 Solux Corp Direct fluorescent lighting equipment
US2730942A (en) * 1951-06-29 1956-01-17 Wakefield Company Combination luminous ceiling and air conditioning system
US2752017A (en) * 1956-06-26 Light diffusing ceiling construction
US2762911A (en) * 1954-06-30 1956-09-11 Solux Corp Reflector for direct lighting equipment
US2884512A (en) * 1953-10-30 1959-04-28 Wakefield Company Overhead lighting and room conditioning system
US2904673A (en) * 1957-02-13 1959-09-15 Sr Edwin F Guth Light diffusors for illuminating devices
US2958761A (en) * 1955-09-14 1960-11-01 Wakefield Company Overhead lighting equipment
US2978571A (en) * 1956-07-31 1961-04-04 Maurice C Rosenblatt Luminous acoustical ceiling
US3093323A (en) * 1961-10-12 1963-06-11 Edwin F Guth Company Light diffusors
US3113728A (en) * 1960-06-24 1963-12-10 Owens Illinois Glass Co Artificial light and daylighting structure
US3179796A (en) * 1957-07-29 1965-04-20 Holophane Co Inc Light refracting plates
US3213751A (en) * 1959-05-13 1965-10-26 Corning Glass Works Prismatic light transmitting panel
US4164011A (en) * 1977-11-11 1979-08-07 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Decorative drop ceiling
US4363082A (en) * 1980-08-26 1982-12-07 Levolor Lorentzen, Inc. Panel ceiling and light fixture
US4704662A (en) * 1985-07-09 1987-11-03 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Lighting device for an elevator
US6356391B1 (en) 1999-10-08 2002-03-12 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical film with variable angle prisms
US6447135B1 (en) 1999-10-08 2002-09-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Lightguide having a directly secured reflector and method of making the same
US20050001043A1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2005-01-06 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical elements having programmed optical structures
US20060051048A1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2006-03-09 Gardiner Mark E Backlight with structured surfaces
US20090303737A1 (en) * 2006-02-01 2009-12-10 Zumtobel Lighting Gmbh Lamp with a box-like lamp housing element and a light outlet element
EP2145130A2 (en) * 2007-04-10 2010-01-20 Ledalite Architectural Products, Inc. Light control device exhibiting batwing luminous intensity distributions in upper and lower hemispheres

Cited By (36)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2752017A (en) * 1956-06-26 Light diffusing ceiling construction
US2659807A (en) * 1949-05-16 1953-11-17 F W Wakefield Brass Company Combination luminous and acoustical ceiling
US2691720A (en) * 1949-06-09 1954-10-12 Elwyn L Simmons Wall and ceiling light transmitting means
US2659808A (en) * 1949-06-22 1953-11-17 F W Wakefield Brass Company Combination luminous and acoustical ceiling
US2730942A (en) * 1951-06-29 1956-01-17 Wakefield Company Combination luminous ceiling and air conditioning system
US2710335A (en) * 1952-12-30 1955-06-07 Cepco Inc Light diffusing and sound absorbing unit
US2884512A (en) * 1953-10-30 1959-04-28 Wakefield Company Overhead lighting and room conditioning system
US2713631A (en) * 1954-06-30 1955-07-19 Solux Corp Direct fluorescent lighting equipment
US2762911A (en) * 1954-06-30 1956-09-11 Solux Corp Reflector for direct lighting equipment
US2958761A (en) * 1955-09-14 1960-11-01 Wakefield Company Overhead lighting equipment
US2978571A (en) * 1956-07-31 1961-04-04 Maurice C Rosenblatt Luminous acoustical ceiling
US2904673A (en) * 1957-02-13 1959-09-15 Sr Edwin F Guth Light diffusors for illuminating devices
US3179796A (en) * 1957-07-29 1965-04-20 Holophane Co Inc Light refracting plates
US3213751A (en) * 1959-05-13 1965-10-26 Corning Glass Works Prismatic light transmitting panel
US3113728A (en) * 1960-06-24 1963-12-10 Owens Illinois Glass Co Artificial light and daylighting structure
US3093323A (en) * 1961-10-12 1963-06-11 Edwin F Guth Company Light diffusors
US4164011A (en) * 1977-11-11 1979-08-07 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Decorative drop ceiling
US4363082A (en) * 1980-08-26 1982-12-07 Levolor Lorentzen, Inc. Panel ceiling and light fixture
US4704662A (en) * 1985-07-09 1987-11-03 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Lighting device for an elevator
US7873256B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2011-01-18 3M Innovative Properties Company Backlight with structured surfaces
US6447135B1 (en) 1999-10-08 2002-09-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Lightguide having a directly secured reflector and method of making the same
US6560026B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2003-05-06 Mark E. Gardiner Optical film with variable angle prisms
US6707611B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2004-03-16 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical film with variable angle prisms
US20050001043A1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2005-01-06 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical elements having programmed optical structures
US6845212B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2005-01-18 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical element having programmed optical structures
US20060051048A1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2006-03-09 Gardiner Mark E Backlight with structured surfaces
US7046905B1 (en) 1999-10-08 2006-05-16 3M Innovative Properties Company Blacklight with structured surfaces
US7221847B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2007-05-22 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical elements having programmed optical structures
US20080050088A1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2008-02-28 3M Innovative Properties Company Backlight with structured surfaces
US8588574B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2013-11-19 3M Innovative Properties Company Backlight with structured surfaces
US6356391B1 (en) 1999-10-08 2002-03-12 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical film with variable angle prisms
US8201978B2 (en) * 2006-02-01 2012-06-19 Zumtobel Lighting Gmbh Lamp with a box-like lamp housing element and a light outlet element
US20090303737A1 (en) * 2006-02-01 2009-12-10 Zumtobel Lighting Gmbh Lamp with a box-like lamp housing element and a light outlet element
EP1979668B1 (en) * 2006-02-01 2017-03-15 Zumtobel Lighting GmbH Lamp with a box-like lamp housing an a light outlet element
EP2145130A2 (en) * 2007-04-10 2010-01-20 Ledalite Architectural Products, Inc. Light control device exhibiting batwing luminous intensity distributions in upper and lower hemispheres
EP2145130A4 (en) * 2007-04-10 2013-07-17 Ledalite Architectural Products Inc Light control device exhibiting batwing luminous intensity distributions in upper and lower hemispheres

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