US2397658A - Combustion apparatus - Google Patents

Combustion apparatus Download PDF

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US2397658A
US2397658A US433963A US43396342A US2397658A US 2397658 A US2397658 A US 2397658A US 433963 A US433963 A US 433963A US 43396342 A US43396342 A US 43396342A US 2397658 A US2397658 A US 2397658A
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casing
combustion chamber
combustion
chamber
gasoline
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US433963A
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Robert H Goddard
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DANIEL AND FLORENCE GUGGENHEIM
DANIEL AND FLORENCE GUGGENHEIM FOUNDATION
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DANIEL AND FLORENCE GUGGENHEIM
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Priority claimed from US64760746 external-priority patent/US2496710A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/42Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using liquid or gaseous propellants
    • F02K9/44Feeding propellants
    • F02K9/56Control
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/42Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using liquid or gaseous propellants
    • F02K9/60Constructional parts; Details
    • F02K9/62Combustion or thrust chambers
    • F02K9/64Combustion or thrust chambers having cooling arrangements
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S60/00Power plants
    • Y10S60/915Collection of goddard patents

Description

April 2, 1946. R. H. GODDARD GOMBUSTI IION APPARATUS Filed March 9, 1942 2 Sheet s-Sheet l I c/ wr- Faierf'ZG j April 2, 1946. R. H. GODDARD 2,397,553
COMBUSTION APPARATUS Filed March 9, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Apr. 2, 1946 FFlCE COMBUSTION APPARATUS Robert H. Goddard, Boswell, N. Mean, asslgnor of one-half to The Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application March 9, 1942, Serial No. 433,963
(Cl. (so-35.6) I
13 Claims.
This invention relates to a. combustion chamber in which mixed oxidizing and combustible gases or vapors may be continuously burned. While capable of general application, my improved combustion chamber is particularly designed and adapted for use in the propulsion of rockets or rocket craft.
It is an important object of my invention to provide improved and emcient cooling for a combustion chamber of light construction which is exposed to extremely high combustion temperatures.
A further object of my invention is to provide improved regulation of the fuel feed in a combustion chamber. In the preferred form, I maintain the fuel feed in a definite relation to the axial displacement of the combustion chamber in its supporting structure, which displacement is related to changes in axial thrust produced by the combustion gases in said chamber.
I also provide improved means for reducing the surfac tension of the liquid fuel spray by the application of heat to the liquid fuel, and I provide means for supporting the combustion chamber so that the chamber will be at all times under axial tension rather than compression.
My invention further relates to arrangements and combinations of parts which will be hereinafter described and more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
Preferred form of the invention are shown in the drawings, in which Fig. l is a sectional front elevation of my improved combustion chamber;
. Fig. 9 is a detail sectional view showing additional modified structure.
Referring to Fig. 1, I have shown a combustion chamber comprising an inner casing 20, an intermediate casing or Jacket 2|, and an outer casing 22, said parts being held in spaced relation by tie rods or braces 23 (Fig. 4) secured to each of the casing members 20, 2| and 22.
The inner casing 20 comprises a, cylindricial middle portion 25, a conical entrance portion 2', a conical discharge portion 21, and a discharge nozzle 28. A liquid oxygen supply pipe is connected into the space 3| between the outer casing 22 and the intermediate casing or jacket 2| and adjacent the outer end of the nozzle 28. The space 3| is gradually reduced in cross sectional area upward as viewed in Fig. 1 and is closed at its upper end. This gradual reduction in cross sectional area facilitates the maintenance of uniform flow. The liquid oxygen is furnished from any suitable supply under pressure, and the flow of liquid oxygen is controlled by a valve 32.
The intermediate casing or jacket 2| is provided with a multiplicity of perforations 33( Fig.
4) through which narrow streams or Jets J of liquid oxygen are proiected against the outer surface of the inner casing 20 to cool said inner casing and to prevent melting or burning thereof by the extremely hot combustion gases developed within the chamber.
Such narrow streams are superior to sprays for the reason that there is considerable friction tending to retard the motion of small drops,
Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional front elevation 85 particularly in a gas of high pressure and denof certain gasoline feed devices for said chamber;
Fig. 3 is a sectional plan view, taken along the irregular line 33 in Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged detail sectional front elevation of an upper portion of the combustion chamber;
Fig. 4 is a slightly modified detail sectional plan view, taken along the line 4'-4' in Fig. 4;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary side elevation, looking in the direction of the arrow 4" in Fig. 4*;
Fig. 5 is a detail sectional plan view of certain nozzle structure, taken along the line 55 in Fi 1:
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional front elevation showing a braced construction;
Fig. 7 is a front elevation of a, brace. or bracket;
Fig. 8 is a partial sectional front elevation of a modified form of combustion chamber; and
sity, which would reduce the speed. and hence the cooling effect, of sprays.
In order to prevent rebound and scattering of the liquid as it engages the casing 20, I provide recessed portions or dents 25 in the casing 20, which recessed portions are convex inward and concave outward with respect to the casing 20. The recessed portions 35 are aligned with the jets J and as each jet strikes one of these recessed portions in substantial alignment therewith, the jet spreads out sldewise but develops enough centrifugal force to maintain the liquid in close engagement with the casing surface, so
' that the inner casing is thus effectually cooled.
Such engagement, besides cooling'the casing wall 20, also evaporates the cold liquid oxygen. The oxygen vapor or gas thus produced passes upward along the annular space 36 between the walls 20 and 2| and enters the combustion chamber as a conical sheet through an annular slot or opening 36 (Fig. 4) at the top of the cylindrical portion 26 and just below the conical entrance portion 26. It will be noted that the annular space 36 increases in cross section upwardly, to provide increased space for the evaporated and expanding oxygen gas. The conical sheet of oxygen gas and the conical spray of gasoline vapor from a spray orifice to be described impinge from reverse directions, which causes very intimate mixture. The greater weight and volume of oxygen carries the gases well up in the entrance portion 26, where mixing mainly takes place and where active combustion is initiated.
In the preferred form, the recessed portions I or dents 35 are more closely grouped and of smaller area in those portions of the combustion chamber where the highest temperatures are encountered. These smaller and more closely grouped recessedportions are indicated at 35' in Fig. '1. The cooling effect in this portion of the cylinder is increased in part by the increased number and closer spacing of the jets, and also by the sharper curvature of the recessed surfaces, which increases the centrifugal action.
In the lower conical portion 21. of the combustion chamber and in the discharge nozzle 28, the separate recessed portions or dents cannot be used, as they would break up the streamlined surfaces which are essential to prevent interference with the high velocity movement of the combustion gases as they approach the nozzle 28 While it is necessary to cool the inner casingto prevent destruction thereof, it is also desirable to prevent cooling of the gases in the combustion chamber as far as possible, and for this reason I provide a thin refractory lining 44 within the parts and 21 of the combustion chamber and within the discharge nozzle 28.
Thisglining is preferably formed in relatively small sections or shells and is of such thickness in relation to the thicknes of the casing 20 that the inner surface of the casing 26 is heated just below its softening point and that the inner surface of the lining 44 is similarly heated just below its softening point. In this way, the casing 20 is protected, while at the same time the combustion gases are maintained at the highest permissible temperature.
Small shells 44 of refractory material are preferable because of the tendency of unequal expansion to produce cracks over large areas. In the form shown in Figs. 4* and 4 the recessed portions or dents 35 are quite close together and the shells of refractory material over the dents will be held in place by the arched or concave shape of the chamber wall.
A gasoline feed chamber 50 (Fig. 2) is provided at the entrance end of the combustion chamber, to which gasoline may be supplied through a flexible feed pipe 5|. The chamber 50 contains a sleeve 52 fixed therein and having valve openings asa'mes -member 59 to the plate 58.
If the valve openings 53 and 55 are aligned, in whole or in part, gasoline from the outer annular space 60 in the gasoline chamber 50 will pass through the valve openings 53 and 55 and thence downward through the inner casing 54 to a nozzle opening 62, provided with any usual device 63 for imparting a whirling motion to the gasoline as it is fed through the nozzle opening 62 to the upper portion 26 of the combustion chamber, which portion has a refractory lining 64. Means for producing relative axial motion between the sleeves 52 and 54 will be hereinafter described.
The injected gasoline preferably forms a hollow cone of spray, just inside the refractory lining 64, this spray meeting the oxygen gas stream from the slot 38 at a substantial obtuse angle. The slot 38 is back of the refractory lining 64 and out of line with the gasoline spray, so that gasoline cannot enter the oxygen jacket 2| accidentally, in the absence of a high speed stream of oxygen gas, and thus produce an explosive mixture when the oxygen starts to flow.
It will be noted'by reference to Fig. 1 that the gasoline enters the combustion chamber as a spray from the single nozzle opening 62, whereas the oxygen enters the chamber almost entirely in gaseous condition and through the extended circumferential entrance slot 38. In order to improve the mixture and to vaporize the gasoline as much as possible, I provide special means for heating the gasoline as it enters the portion 26 of the combustion chamber, such special means being necessary in order to break up the gasoline into very fine drops in the relatively short available distance of travel.
For this purpose, I provide an annular passage 65 (Fig. 2) surrounding the discharge end of the gasoline chamber 50 and connected by a by-pass pipe 66 to the upper end of the annular oxygen space 36. A shut-oil valve 61 controls the flow and its surface tension substantially reduced before it engages the main gaseous oxygen supply, which enters through the annular slot 38.
For most eflicient operation, it is necessary that the proportions of oxygen and gasoline be correctly maintained, and as variations in the amount of oxygen supplied unavoidably occur, due to changes in the rated evaporation of the oxygen and toother variable causes, provision is made to vary the gasoline feed with reference to variations in flow of oxygen gas or vapor to the combustion chamber.
To accomplish this regulation, advantage is taken of the reactive effect of the combustion gases issuing from the nozzle 28 against the closed or upper end of the combustion'chamber II. The more complete and perfect the eombustio the stronger will be these reactive forces.
In order to utilize these forces in the regulation of the gasoline feed, I mount the combustion chamber on an annular plate or ring I! (Fig. 1) and I provide a plurality of supporting rods 18, each of which is secured to the ring II at its lower end. At its upper end, each ofthe supporting rods I3 is connected to a chambered piston ll, slidable in a fixed sleeve and pressed downward by a relatively strong coil spring 15. Guide blocks ll on the supporting rods 18 loosely engage the outer casing 22 of the combustion chamber and center the casing but'without exerting pressure thereon.
With the chamber thus supported, the casings 28, II and 2! are under tension, rather than compression. The reason for supporting the chamber and casings under tension rather than under compression is because all of these thin structures will withstand tension but not compression, except when they are sustaining high internal gas pressure. Moreover, the thin refractory shells 44* cannot withstand the bending which would accompany compression. Tension, on the other hand, merely opens slightly the spaces between the shells.
With this construction, any increase in the reactive forces from the nozzle 28 will cause the chamber 28 to move upward against the pressure of the springs 18, carrying with it the gasoline chamber 58 and the outer valve sleeve 52. As the inner valve sleeve 54 normally remains fixed, the openings 53 and 55 will be more nearly aligned and the flow of gasoline will correspondingly increase. The flexible bellows member 59 permits such relative upward movement of the gasoline chamber 58.
As the thrust increases, more gasoline will be admitted through the opening 55, and this will continue until the rate of gasoline flow is such as to produce the greatest thrust for the oxygen flow that is taking place. This oxygen flow, although mainly dependent on the amount of open- ,ing of the valve 32 (Fig. 1), also depends largely on the temperature of the chamber and jacket walls. Further upward movement of the chamber 28 and gasoline chamber 58 will not increase the thrust, since the excess of gasoline over that required for best combustion will retard the oxygen flow by creating extra chamber pressure. This retardation of the oxygen flow will reduce the combustion, and the velocity of the gases from the nozzle will fall.
In order to prevent undesirable oscillations or hunting of the combustion chamber and particularly those produced by the coaction of the nozzle thrust acting on the valve 58 and the springs I6, I provide perforated pistons 88 in cylindrical openings 8| in the pistons 14. These perforated pistons 88 are mounted atthe lower ends of rods 83 fixed in the frame F, so that a. dash-pot effect is produced and oscillations of the combustion chamber are prevented. 'I'o permit upward movement of the oxygen feed pipe 38, a telescoping joint 84 (Fig. 1) is provided.
It is desirable that the nozzle opening 62 at the bottom of the gasoline chamber 58 be positively closed when the apparatus is not in use. For this purpose, I mount the plate 58 (Fig. 1) at the lower end of a sleeve or plunger 88 slidable vertically in a bearing in the frame F and having a pin and slot connection with a forked bell crank 81 and pull rod 88.
Whencombustion is to be discontinued, the rod 88 is pulled, depressing the sleeve 88 and forcing a valve member 88 at the lower end of the rod 51 against the lower end of the combustion chamber 58, thereby closing thenozzle opening 82. The parts may be frictionally held in this position. when active operation of the apparatus is to be resumed, the parts are manually restored to the position shown in Fig. 1, which position will be maintained during operation by friction and by the gaseous pressures developed in the apparatus.
Precooling of the apparatus is desirable to prevent gas bind in quick starting. To accomplish this result, the oxygen valve 32 may be opened slightly, some time before the gasoline valve 88 is opened. A slow evaporation of oxygen will then precool the casings 28, 2i and 22. This method of precooling is safe, since the gasoline valve member 83 is tightly closed and hence leakage of gasoline vapor into the chamber, which might form an explosive mixture, is avoided.
As the parts adjacent the annular oxygen feed slot 88 are relatively unsupported, -I provide brackets or braces 98 (Figs. 6 and '7) which are vertically disposed so that they do not interfere with the flow of oxygen gas but which nevertheles firmly support the upper edge of the inner casing 28.
In Fig. 9 I have shown a variation of the nozzle structure shown in Fig. 5, with the nozzle formed of a conical metal sleeve 85 having a smooth inner surface 96 and outer recessed portions or dents 81, similar to 35 of Fig. 4 or 35* in Fig. 4 .These dents 81 are more effective than the concave axial ribbed portions 48 of Fig. 5', since centrifugal force causes intimate contact of the spray with the metal surface in all directions around the Jets J and gives a smooth, streamlined, inner surface, but have less efficient total cooling effect, due to the increased thickness of metal between the recessed portions 81.
In Fig. 8 I have shown a modified construction of combustion chamber I88 in which the chamber is substantially spherical, rather than of the shape shown in Fig. 1. This construction has certain advantages for combustion chambers of small size but is less desirable for the larger units, as its capacity can only be increased by an increase in diameter, whereas increased capacity can be obtained in the preferred formby an iiicrease in the axial length of the cylinder. The thin refractory lining of the nozzle consists pref era-bly of sections l8l (Fig. 8) of short axial length, so as not to be subject to severe expansion forces. They are beveled at I82 on the edges where the gas stream impinges, so as not to interfere with gas flow.
It will thus appear that I have provided simple and effective apparatus for cooling and continuously operating a combustion chamber and for automatically regulating the supply of fuel thereto.
The provision made for movably mounting the combustion chamberin the fixed frame and for varying the gasoline feed in accordance with the axial position of the combustion chamber is not claimed herein but forms the subject matter of a divisional application Serial No. 647,607, filed February 14, 1946.
Having thus described my invention and the advantages thereof, I do not wish to be limited to the details herein disclosed, otherwise than as set forth in the claims, but what I 'claimis:
. tions formed therein and providing concave depressions in the outer surface of said combustion chamber, and means to direct a jet of cold liquid against each of said concave depressed portions at the outside of said combustion chamber.
2. In combustion apparatus, a combustion chamber having a thin metal side wall with a plurality of spaced and inwardly displaced portions formed therein and providing concave depressions in the outer surface of said combustion chamber, means to direct a jet of cold liquid against each of said concave depressed portions at the outside of said combustion chamber, and means to conduct the vapors of said cold liquid produced by such engagement to the entrance end of said combustion chamber.
3. In a combustion apparatus, wiiombustion chamber comprising an inner casing, a perforated intermediate casing and 'an outer casing, said inner casing having an entrance portion for combustion liquids at one end and a nozzle outlet for combustion gases at the other end, means to maintain said three casings in spaced relation, means to supply a cold liquid under pressure to the space between the outer and intermediate casings, said liquid being projected by said pressure in spaced jets through said perforated intermediate casing and against said inner casing,
and means to conduct the vapors of said cold liquid produced by such engagement toward'the entrance end of said combustion chamber, and the distance between the inner and intermediate casings increasing progressively in the direction of flow of said vapors from the nozzle end to the entrance end of said combustion chamber and thereby relatively reducing the rate of flow of said vapors through the annular space between the inner and intermediate casings.
4. In a combustion chamber, an inner casing,
a perforated intermediate casing and an outer casing, means to maintain said three casings in spaced relation, and means to supply an oxidizasamss that portion of the combustion chamber which is subject to the greatest heat, and said depressed portions being more sharply'concave where they are more closely disposed.
7. In combustion apparatus, a combustion chamber having a thin metal side wall with a plurality of spaced and inwardly displaced portions formed therein and providing concave depressions in the outer surface of said combustion chamber, and means to direct a'jet of cold liquid against each of said concave depressed portions at the outside of said combustion chamber, and the radii of curvature of said depressed portions varying inversely to the temperature ratios in said combustion chamber when said chamber is in continuous operation.
8. In a combustion apparatus, a combustion chamber having a discharge nozzle with its side walls comprising longitudinally extending and closely adjacent casing portions which are inwardly convex and outwardly concave, and means to direct jets of a cold oxidizing liquid against the outer and intermediate casings, said liquid being projected by said pressure in spaced jets through said perforated intermediate casing and against said inner casing, and said inner casing having spaced depressions aligned with said jets and presenting concave surfaces thereto whereby said liquid maintains close cooling engagement with said inner casing.
5. In combustion apparatus, a combustion chamber having a thin metal side wall with a plurality of; spaced and inwardly displaced portions formed therein and providing concave depressions .in the outer surface of said combustion chamber, and means to direct a jet of cold liquid against each of said concave depressed portions at the -outside of said combustion chamber, said depressed portions being more closely disposed in that portion of the combustion chamber which is subject to the greatest heat.
6. In combustion apparatus, a combustion chamber having a thin metal side wall with a plurality of spaced and inwardly displaced portions formed therein and providing concave depressions in the outer surface of said combustion chamber, and means to direct a jet of cold liquid against each of said concave depressed portions at the outside of said combustion chamber, said depressed portions being more closely disposed in the outer concave surfaces of said longitudinally extending portions.
9. In a combustion apparatus, a combustion chamber having a substantially conical entrance portion, means to introduce a spray of liquid fuel through the outer end of said conical portion, and means to introduce anbxidizing liquid as a conical sheet through an annular slot adjacent the inner'end of said conical entrance portion, said oxidizing liquid and said liquid fuel impinging as they approach from relatively reverse directions.
10. In a combustion chamber, an inner casing, a perforated intermediate casing and an outer casing, means to maintain said three casings in spaced relation, means to supply an oxidizing liquid under pressure to the space between the outer and intermediate casings, said liquid being projected by said pressure in spaced jets through said perforated intermediate casing and against said inner casing, said inner casing having spaced depressions aligned with said jets and presenting concave surfaces thereto, and the inner faces of said inner casing and of said depressed portions thereof being covered with inner refractory shells.
11. In a combustion chamber, an inner casing, a perforated intermediate casing and an outer casing, means to maintain said three casings in spaced relation, means to supply an oxidizing liquid under pressure to the space between the outer and intermediate casings, said liquid being projected by said pressure in spaced jets through said perforated intermediate casing and against said inner casing, said inner casing having spaced depressions aligned with said jets and presenting concave surfaces thereto, and the inner faces of said inner casing and of said depressed portions thereof being covered with an inner refractory surface comprising sectional plates of relatively small area and of relatively slight thickness.
.12. In combustion apparatus, a combustion chamber, separate means to introduce an oxidizing liquid and liquid fuel therein, means to vaporize the oxidizing liquid before it enters the combustion chamber, and means to by-pass a small portion of said oxidizing vapor to the point of entrance of said. liquid fuel to said chamber, whereby initial combustion thereof preheats the fuel spray and reduces the surface tension thereof.
13. In a combustion apparatus, a combustion chamber having a substantially conical entrance portion, means to'intr'oduce a spray of liquid fuel through the outer end of said conical portion, 1nd
means to introduce an oxidizing liquid as a conical sheet through an annular slot adjacent the inner end of said conical entrance portion, said oxidizin 'liqu'id and said liquid fuel impinging as they approach from relatively reverse directions, and
ROBERT H. GODDARD.
US433963A 1942-03-09 1942-03-09 Combustion apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2397658A (en)

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US64760746 US2496710A (en) 1942-03-09 1946-02-14 Fuel controlling apparatus for longitudinally movable combustion chambers

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2584170A (en) * 1946-05-17 1952-02-05 Robert H Thorner Governor mechanism
US2621871A (en) * 1947-07-30 1952-12-16 Robert Roger Aime Steering control device for jetpropelled flying machines
US2669835A (en) * 1949-03-04 1954-02-23 Kellogg M W Co Wall structure for regeneratively cooled rocket motors
US2737015A (en) * 1948-05-07 1956-03-06 Pratt & Whitney Co Inc Jet engine control
US2814250A (en) * 1952-07-03 1957-11-26 Wilhelm S Everett Adjustable shock and vibration mount
US2853851A (en) * 1948-04-29 1958-09-30 Pratt & Whitney Co Inc Jet engine thrust control
US2938333A (en) * 1957-03-18 1960-05-31 Gen Motors Corp Combustion chamber liner construction
US2994192A (en) * 1955-07-30 1961-08-01 Daimler Benz Ag Annular combustion chamber with rotary atomization of the injected fuel
US3001376A (en) * 1957-11-26 1961-09-26 British Oxygen Co Ltd Storage tanks for liquid oxygen and the like in rockets
US3298175A (en) * 1963-08-05 1967-01-17 Charles P Morse Method and device for cooling

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2584170A (en) * 1946-05-17 1952-02-05 Robert H Thorner Governor mechanism
US2621871A (en) * 1947-07-30 1952-12-16 Robert Roger Aime Steering control device for jetpropelled flying machines
US2853851A (en) * 1948-04-29 1958-09-30 Pratt & Whitney Co Inc Jet engine thrust control
US2737015A (en) * 1948-05-07 1956-03-06 Pratt & Whitney Co Inc Jet engine control
US2669835A (en) * 1949-03-04 1954-02-23 Kellogg M W Co Wall structure for regeneratively cooled rocket motors
US2814250A (en) * 1952-07-03 1957-11-26 Wilhelm S Everett Adjustable shock and vibration mount
US2994192A (en) * 1955-07-30 1961-08-01 Daimler Benz Ag Annular combustion chamber with rotary atomization of the injected fuel
US2938333A (en) * 1957-03-18 1960-05-31 Gen Motors Corp Combustion chamber liner construction
US3001376A (en) * 1957-11-26 1961-09-26 British Oxygen Co Ltd Storage tanks for liquid oxygen and the like in rockets
US3298175A (en) * 1963-08-05 1967-01-17 Charles P Morse Method and device for cooling

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