US2389846A - High velocity projectile - Google Patents

High velocity projectile Download PDF

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Publication number
US2389846A
US2389846A US408383A US40838341A US2389846A US 2389846 A US2389846 A US 2389846A US 408383 A US408383 A US 408383A US 40838341 A US40838341 A US 40838341A US 2389846 A US2389846 A US 2389846A
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United States
Prior art keywords
projectile
sabot
gun
barrel
shoulder
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US408383A
Inventor
George R Ericson
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George R Ericson
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Publication date
Application filed by George R Ericson filed Critical George R Ericson
Priority to US408383A priority Critical patent/US2389846A/en
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Publication of US2389846A publication Critical patent/US2389846A/en
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Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B14/00Projectiles or missiles characterised by arrangements for guiding or sealing them inside barrels, or for lubricating or cleaning barrels
    • F42B14/06Sub-calibre projectiles having sabots; Sabots therefor
    • F42B14/061Sabots for long rod fin stabilised kinetic energy projectiles, i.e. multisegment sabots attached midway on the projectile
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B10/00Means for influencing, e.g. improving, the aerodynamic properties of projectiles or missiles; Arrangements on projectiles or missiles for stabilising, steering, range-reducing, range-increasing or fall-retarding
    • F42B10/32Range-reducing or range-increasing arrangements; Fall-retarding means
    • F42B10/38Range-increasing arrangements
    • F42B10/42Streamlined projectiles
    • F42B10/44Boat-tails specially adapted for drag reduction

Description

Nov. 27, 1945. G. R. ERICSON HIGH VELOCITY PROJECTILE Filed Aug. 26, 1941 N w mm NR R W m Rgm E t G y R A m M G G 1 H Patented Nov. 27, 1945 res 'E'E'i' FFHE This invention relates to projectiles and particularly to projectiles intended to be fired at high velocities.
As is well known to those skilled in the art, the
exterior ballistic efiiciency of a high velocity pro-,
jectile depends to a great extent on a high ratio of projectile weight to cross-sectional area while the internal ballistic eificiency of the projectile depends on a high ratio of cross-sectional area to projectile weight. That is to say, the require-.
ments for internal and external ballistic efficiency are just the opposite.
In order to avoid the above mentioned difficulty it has been proposed to use a projectile having comparatively great length and comparatively small diameter but provided with a packing, plug or sabot to increase the cross-sectional area of the projectile so that it will fit into a gun of comparatively large diameter, the sabot being of comparatively light weight and detachable as soon as up to the present applicant does not know that: i
any sabot has been developed having the necessary characteristics which may be summarized as follows: First, it must form a positive and effective seal against leakage of gas around (or through) the projectile during the discharge of the gun; second, it must firmly engage the projectile and also the rifling of the gun during discharge through the barrel so as to give the projectile the proper spin; third, it must maintain the projectile co-aXial with the barrel and guide it so that the centrifugal force due to the spin of the projectile will not in itself cause undue precession or yaw of the projectile in flight; fourth, it must be promptly detached from the projectile as soon as it leaves the gun; fifth, it must be of comparatively light weight; sixth, the projectile itself must have a high ballistic coefficient when detached from the sabot.
I obtain the desirable results outlined above by the construction shown in the accompanying drawing and described in the following specification and claims.
Referring to the drawing:
Fig. 1 shows a complete round of ammunition embodying my improved sabot and projectile, parts being shown in section,
Fig. 2 shows the base of the assembled projectile and sabot detached from the cartridge case,
Fig. 3 shows the condition and relation of the projectile and sabot while traveling through the barrel of the gun,
Fig. 4 shows a slightly modified form of sabot and projectile,
Fig. 5 shows the condition of the device shown in Fig. 4 while traveling through the barrel of the gun; and
Fig. 6 shows the adaptation of certain features of the invention to a nozzle type projectile.
The reference numeral l indicates the projectile having an ogee shape at the front end terminating in a shoulder 2 which is shown somewhat exaggerated in the drawing for purpose of illustration. At the rear of the shoulder cylindrical portion 3 followed by a boat tail or conical portion 4. The projectile may be made of whatever material desired and may or may not carry an explosive charge and fuse.
The sabot 5 comprises a tubular central portion having a comparatively thin inturned front flange G separated by an annular groove 1 from a thicker inturned flange 8. The inside diameter of the forward flange 6 is such as to snugly fit the short cylindrical portion 3 of the projectile while the internal diameter of the flange 8 is of a slightly larger diameter so that it can not stick or wedge onto the projectile. The difference in internal diameter between the members 6 and 1 may be comparatively small especially in small projectiles. Fifteen or twenty thousandths of an inch difference is ample for a projectile in the order of .50 caliber. At the rear of the sabot openings 9 are provided for a purpose which will be hereinafter described. These openings are formed between prongs I 0 terminating in guide members H engaging the rear of the projectile to maintain the projectile in position coaxial with the barrel of the gun. The outside diameter of the prongs I0 is preferably a freely sliding fit on the lands of the rifling of the gun, the number and width of the prongs i0 is such that they cannot expand into the rifling grooves but will bridge the grooves.
The turning action is provided by a turning band l2 of soft material such as gliding metal which is adapted to be engraved by the rifling in the usual manner.
The projectile and sabot may be applied to cartridge case 4 as indicated in Fig. 1.
In operation the explosion of the propelling in Fig. 3 but also to hold this flange in rigid.
frictional driving relation with the projectile so as to transmit the necessary spin to the bullet. The shoulder 2 may be narrowed so as to dig into the softer metal of the sabot to cause a more positive driving engagement but this is not ordinarily necessary.
When the projectile reaches the end of the gun barrel the openings 9 permit the escap of gas from the gun before the prongs I of the sabot are clear of the gun barrel. In this manner the disturbing force of the muzzle blast is reduced before the projectile is free to be tipped sideways and the likelihood of a substantial amount of yaw being set up at the instant of discharge is greatly reduced.
As soon as the prongs H) are free from the gun barrel centrifugal force Springs the members In and l I outwardly vary slightly but still enough to insure frictional disengagement from the projectile. It will be noted that the deformation of the forward flange 6 to the position shown in Fig. 3 will necessarily have the effect of expanding the internal diameter of this member and forcibly cracking it away from the projectile portion of the projectile 3. The deformation of the annular portion of the sealing member .tends to cause the prongs ID to spring outwardly so that as soon as they are free from the gun barrel they also release the projectile. The elimination of the pressure in the gun barrel permits the whole sabot to fall back in response to air resistance so that it drops free from the projectile a few yards after it leaves-the gun barrel. The sabot being made of very light construction does not travel far and falls to. the ground.
In the form of the invention shown in Fig. 4 the annular groove 8 in Fig. 1 is not formed in the sabot but the limitation of deformation of the sabot I is accomplished by contact of the sabot with the shoulder I6, it being noted that the bending of the sabot'to the position shown in Fig. 5 causes expansion of the internal diameter of the sabot to disengage it from cylindrical surface 3 and the taper of the shoulder I6 is much too steep to permit sticking of the sabot on this shoulder.
In the form of the invention shown in Fig. 6 the outside of the projectile is cylindrical and the inside of the forward end is tapered inwardly with an ogee curve, the radius of which is preferably from fourteen to twenty times the thickness of the wall at the rear end of the taper. The annular sealing surface 3 is formed behind the shoulder at the rear of the ogee forms the same as with the projectile shown in Fig. 1. At the rear of the cylindrical portion 3 the projectile is tapered out to the rear end with a curved taper. The equation of the curve may readily be calculated as follows: The sound wave thrown off from the nose of the projectile striking the inner surface of the rear cone at any point should be reflected within a direction directly opposite to the line of flight.
I claim:
1. In combination, a projectile for use in a gun, said projectile including a shoulder, a sabot having portions engaging the barrel of said gun and said projectile including spaced annular flanges, at least one of which is in sealing engagement with said projectile rearward of said shoulder, the flange having sealing engagement with said projectil including an area capable of distortion under discharge pressure in said gun to weaken said sealing engagement, whereby said sabot and projectile may separate after discharge.
2. In combination, a projectile for use in a gun, said projectile including a shoulder, a sabot having portions engaging the barrel of said gun and said projectile including spaced annular flanges, at least one of which is in sealing engagement with said projectile rearward of said shoulder, the flange having sealing engagement with said projectile including an area capable of distortion under discharge pressure in said gun to weaken said sealing. engagement, whereby said sabot and projectile may separate after discharge, and means including a spaced annular flange for limiting the distortion of an adjacent flange.
GEORGE R. ERICSON.
US408383A 1941-08-26 1941-08-26 High velocity projectile Expired - Lifetime US2389846A (en)

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Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2863394A (en) * 1954-06-14 1958-12-09 Losfeld Andre Projectile and cartridge
US3120185A (en) * 1962-05-25 1964-02-04 Henry S Lipinski Separate loading ammunition ramming assist
US3151412A (en) * 1962-01-02 1964-10-06 Jack Spencer Firearm barrel with grooves and projectile with fins fitting in said grooves
US3185094A (en) * 1962-06-20 1965-05-25 Rheinmetall Gmbh Cartridge case extension piece for use with projectiles
US3359905A (en) * 1965-04-01 1967-12-26 Oerlikon Buehrle Holding Ag Sabot projectile
US3750578A (en) * 1972-01-04 1973-08-07 Us Army Expellable cartridge case
US3759184A (en) * 1972-01-27 1973-09-18 Us Army Self-obturating, expellable cartridge case
US3882777A (en) * 1972-04-20 1975-05-13 Ladco Enterprises Limited Cartridge for firearms
EP0205266A2 (en) * 1985-06-05 1986-12-17 The State Of Israel Ministry Of Defence Rafael Armament Development Authority A sub-caliber projectile
US5359937A (en) * 1990-03-22 1994-11-01 Snc Industrial Technologies Inc./Les Technologies Industrielles Snc Inc. Reduced energy cartridge
US5458064A (en) * 1994-04-29 1995-10-17 Kearns; Robert M. Firearm projectile
US5677505A (en) * 1990-03-22 1997-10-14 Dittrich; William A. Reduced energy cartridge
US6763765B2 (en) 2001-09-27 2004-07-20 Harold Crowson Break-away gas check for muzzle-loading firearms
US6796068B2 (en) 2000-09-05 2004-09-28 Harold Crowson Muzzleloading bullet with expanding pin for gas check
US20050115451A1 (en) * 2001-09-27 2005-06-02 Harold Crowson Break-away gas check for muzzle-loading firearms
US7827915B1 (en) 2001-09-27 2010-11-09 Accura Bullets Gas check with system for improved loading and retention in bore of muzzleloading firearms
US20110048272A1 (en) * 2001-09-27 2011-03-03 Hall Daniel W Gas check with system for improved loading and retention in bore of muzzleloading firearms
US20130284045A1 (en) * 2011-02-01 2013-10-31 Korea Nuclear Engineering Co., Ltd. Ammunition
US20140130699A1 (en) * 2012-09-28 2014-05-15 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Muzzleloader bullet system
US9329003B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2016-05-03 Vista Outdoor Operations Llc Muzzleloader systems
US9714819B1 (en) * 2013-07-15 2017-07-25 The Boeing Company Stepped sabots for projectiles
US10030956B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2018-07-24 Vista Outdoor Operations Llc Muzzleloader systems
USD849874S1 (en) 2018-01-21 2019-05-28 Vista Outdoor Operations Llc Muzzleloader propellant cartridge
US10605577B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2020-03-31 Vista Outdoor Operations Llc Muzzleloader systems

Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2863394A (en) * 1954-06-14 1958-12-09 Losfeld Andre Projectile and cartridge
US3151412A (en) * 1962-01-02 1964-10-06 Jack Spencer Firearm barrel with grooves and projectile with fins fitting in said grooves
US3120185A (en) * 1962-05-25 1964-02-04 Henry S Lipinski Separate loading ammunition ramming assist
US3185094A (en) * 1962-06-20 1965-05-25 Rheinmetall Gmbh Cartridge case extension piece for use with projectiles
US3359905A (en) * 1965-04-01 1967-12-26 Oerlikon Buehrle Holding Ag Sabot projectile
US3750578A (en) * 1972-01-04 1973-08-07 Us Army Expellable cartridge case
US3759184A (en) * 1972-01-27 1973-09-18 Us Army Self-obturating, expellable cartridge case
US3882777A (en) * 1972-04-20 1975-05-13 Ladco Enterprises Limited Cartridge for firearms
EP0205266A2 (en) * 1985-06-05 1986-12-17 The State Of Israel Ministry Of Defence Rafael Armament Development Authority A sub-caliber projectile
EP0205266A3 (en) * 1985-06-05 1987-01-28 The State Of Israel Ministry Of Defence Rafael - Armament Development Authority A sub-caliber projectile
US5359937A (en) * 1990-03-22 1994-11-01 Snc Industrial Technologies Inc./Les Technologies Industrielles Snc Inc. Reduced energy cartridge
US5677505A (en) * 1990-03-22 1997-10-14 Dittrich; William A. Reduced energy cartridge
US5458064A (en) * 1994-04-29 1995-10-17 Kearns; Robert M. Firearm projectile
US5621187A (en) * 1994-04-29 1997-04-15 Kearns; Robert Method for loading a muzzle-loading firearm
US6796068B2 (en) 2000-09-05 2004-09-28 Harold Crowson Muzzleloading bullet with expanding pin for gas check
US20110048272A1 (en) * 2001-09-27 2011-03-03 Hall Daniel W Gas check with system for improved loading and retention in bore of muzzleloading firearms
US20050115451A1 (en) * 2001-09-27 2005-06-02 Harold Crowson Break-away gas check for muzzle-loading firearms
US7827915B1 (en) 2001-09-27 2010-11-09 Accura Bullets Gas check with system for improved loading and retention in bore of muzzleloading firearms
US6763765B2 (en) 2001-09-27 2004-07-20 Harold Crowson Break-away gas check for muzzle-loading firearms
US20130284045A1 (en) * 2011-02-01 2013-10-31 Korea Nuclear Engineering Co., Ltd. Ammunition
US8904941B2 (en) * 2011-02-01 2014-12-09 Korea Nuclear Engineering Co., Ltd. Ammunition
US20140130699A1 (en) * 2012-09-28 2014-05-15 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Muzzleloader bullet system
US9146086B2 (en) * 2012-09-28 2015-09-29 Vista Outdoor Operations Llc Muzzleloader bullet system
US9329003B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2016-05-03 Vista Outdoor Operations Llc Muzzleloader systems
US9562754B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2017-02-07 Vista Outdoor Operations Llc Muzzleloader systems
US10030956B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2018-07-24 Vista Outdoor Operations Llc Muzzleloader systems
US10605577B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2020-03-31 Vista Outdoor Operations Llc Muzzleloader systems
US9714819B1 (en) * 2013-07-15 2017-07-25 The Boeing Company Stepped sabots for projectiles
USD849874S1 (en) 2018-01-21 2019-05-28 Vista Outdoor Operations Llc Muzzleloader propellant cartridge

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