US2380846A - Pocket calculating machine - Google Patents

Pocket calculating machine Download PDF

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US2380846A
US2380846A US2380846DA US2380846A US 2380846 A US2380846 A US 2380846A US 2380846D A US2380846D A US 2380846DA US 2380846 A US2380846 A US 2380846A
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dials
shafts
resetting
zero
shaft
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06CDIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
    • G06C1/00Computing aids in which the computing members form at least part of the displayed result and manipulated directly by hand, e.g. abacus, pocket adding device

Description

July 31, 1945. A, M. JQSEPH y I2,380,346
POCKET CALGULATING MACHINE original Filed Nov. 1o, 1938 4 SheeS-Sheet l Zzgfaam @-33 as 3' 55 g3' ai ma/m2;
July 31, M JOISEPH POCKET CALGULATING MAQHINE original Filed Nov. 1o, 19:58 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 "lum ATTORNEY.
July 31,1945. A, M JQSEPHO 2,380,846
y POCKET CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Nov. 10. 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 20 .ZIJO
V NVEN-T0.
July 31, 1945. A. M. JOSEPH@ 2,380,846
POCKET CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed NOV. 10, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 `L12-E115 34' aib,
Patented July 3l, 1945 UNITED vSTATES PATENT QFFICE 239,797, November 10, 1938.
This application January 21, 1943, Serial No. 473,079
(Cl. 23S-74) 4 Claims.
means whereby a record can be had of the num.
ber of times the resetting bar had been set in the device comprising my invention.
Further objects of the invention will be seen as the description thereof proceeds.
Referring to the drawings:
Figure 1 is a. plan view of the calculator device or machine showing a memory unit in open position.
Figure 2 shows the numeral entering registering dials of the calculating machine shown in Figure 1, with the upper cover removed, taken on the line 2--2, Figure 8. The dials, marked from zero to 9, are shown for clarity only with the zero.
Figure 3 is a section taken on the line 3\3 of Figure 8, said gure showing the totalizing dials, marked from zero to 9 but, for clarity only, showing the zero.
Figure 4 is a partial sectional view of the rear side of the device taken on the line 4-4, Figure 3, said view showing the single toothed iinger for operating the totalizing dials.
Figure 5 is a view of the resetting mechanism for resetting the numeral entering registering dials, shown without markings, to zero setting.
Figure 6 is an enlarged view showing the manner for locking the numeral entering dials, shown without markings, into place, the purpose of which will be hereinafter described.
Figure 7 is a section taken on the line Figure 6.
Figure 8 is a section'taken on the line y8--8, Figure 6.
Figure 9 shows a partial sectional View through the memory unit .of the machine.'
Figure v10 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the manner the calculating machine is used for making calculations in addition.
Figure 11 is a partial section through the device showing the numeral entering registering dials and'the totalizing dials. The numerals etched upon the surface of each dial run from zero to. nine.
Figure 12 is a section through the device showing the relation of the numerals etched upon each dial. Note that the numerals of adjacent entering dials run in opposite direction. While one dial has numerals etched thereon running in la clockwise direction, the other dial has numerals running in an anti-clockwise direction.
Fig. 13 is a face view in elevation of the resetting ,4 bar and three of the numeral total dials resetting gears.
Fig. 14 is a perspective view showing the udriving pinions for operating the dials.
Referring to Figure 4, the numeral 20 represents the calculating machine proper. A cover 2| is set or mounted over a base plate 22. A second cover 23 is mounted over the first cover 2|. As shown in Figure l, the covers 2| and 23 are secured to the base plate 22 by means of suitable screws 24 and 25 respectively.
The cover 2| has one row of visual openings 26, 21, 28, 29, 30, 3| and 32. The cover 23 has two rows of visual openings 26m, 21x, 28x, 29x, 30m, 3|x and 32m; and also openings 26mm, 21mm, 28x32, 29x12, 30mm, 3|:c:c and 321cm.
A set of knobs 33 are used for operating the machine. A resetting bar 34 is used to reset the numbers shown through the row of openings 26 to 32 inclusive. Another resetting bar 35 is used to reset the numbers visible through the openings 26x to 32a: inclusive, and also 23am to 32mm inclusive.
The openings 26 to 32 inclusive are used for observing the sum totals. The openings 26x to 32x inclusive are used for observing calculations made in addition, and the viewing openings 269:1: to 32am: inclusive are used for observing calculations made in subtraction. The knobs 33 are rotated clockwise for calculations in addition andv anti-'clockwise for subtraction calculations.
Arsliding bar 36 with markings thereon, said markings representing units, tens, hundreds. thousands, hundred thousands and millions is slidably mounted over the front portion of the calculating machine. The sliding bar 36 is provided with visible openings 31 and 38, and is slid by means of the knob 39, see Fig. 1. 'I'he sliding bar is used for convenience in xing the decimal point at the beginning of a calculation. An Lshaped bracket 40 is attached to the right side of the machine and has a viewing opening 4I. A ratchet wheel 42 with markings thereon from zero to 9 is operated by a exible spring 43 which is attached to the end of the resetting bar I5. As the wheel 42 has an `qual number of teeth corresponding to the markings thereon every time the resetting bar 3l is operated the wheel 42 is accordingly rotated through the medium of the spring 43 and in this manner a numerical record is obtained of the number of times that the resetting bar Il is used.
On theright side of the calculating machine a memory" unit 44 for memorizing numerals used in making multiplication and division is hingably mounted on a hinge The memory unit is shown in open position in Figure 1. which unit comprises a pair of plates I3, having visible openings ll and Il. A set of gear wheels Il with markings thereon from zero to I are rotatably mounted within the plates Il and I1.
Whenever a number has to be memorized by the user of the device, the knurled discs Il carrying gears lila: are turned by the finger until the required number is shown through the visual openings 43 or 43. A resetting knob Si having a gear B2 in mesh with the gears "z is used for resetting' the same to aero. described above is used to memorize numbers for multiplication and division calculations only.)
Referring to Figure 2 which illustrates a sec-'v' tion through the numeral entering registering dials of the machine, the dials I3 are used for addition and the dials M are used for subtraction.
Referring to Figure 6 dials I3 are provided with teeth on their peripheries and they rotate on shafts 55. The numeral entering registering dials 54 are also provided with an equal number of teeth' similar to dials I3. The dials I3 are rotatable on shafts $5, but are mounted thereon with enough friction to enable` them' to rotate with shafts 5I; their teeth mesh with the teeth upon the dials 53 so that when the dials I3 are rotated by the action of the shaft ll; the dials N are turned likewise.
The resetting bar 3l is provided with curved extensions l1. The dials U3 are conjoined to heart-shaped cams Il (see Figure 5). When said cams ll are moved from the position shown in Figure 5 then by a sliding movement of the resetting bar 3l in the direction shown by the arrow against the tension of the spring Il. the curved extensions 31 of the resetting bar 3l will contact the cams il and will rotate said cams and with them the dials I3 respectively, to their original zero position. As the teeth of the dial 53 mesh with the teeth of the dial Il, vthe resetting operation upon the dials I3 will also reset the latter.
(The "memory 'unit the latter being fastened upon the partition wall or plate 13. l
At the rear of each of the totalizer dials there is a gear 33, mounted on each shaft Il, which is operated by rotation of the knobs 33 through the gears 0l and, where present in the train, gears 1I. Each gear 3l in the row is securely attached to each shaft il, the trainof gears 33 and 1I being idlers, their sole purpose is to transfer the rotating operation of the knob 33 to the gear 33. 'I'he totalizer dials are so geared that one of said dials rotates in a clockwise direction while the adjacent dial turns in an anti-clockwise direction.
The totalizer dials Il are secured to the shafts Il. The numeral entering registering dials I3 are loosely mounted on the shafts Si. The numeral entering registering dials Il are also loosely mounted on the shafts l0. 'I'he dials I3 have teeth upon their circumference which are in mesh with the teeth upon the dials M. There 'I'he dials Il rotateonshafts ,and
A set of hingably mountedl fingers 3l hinting I et u are located inside une cover n." 'rnc hingabiy mounted fingers I3 are under pressure of the spring n. .'rnc functions of thc hinubiy mounted fingers Il will be further described The resetting bar 3l is slidablymounted inside the cover 23 and is guided by the screws 'I3 and 34.
Referring to Figure 3 which is a section?" through the totaliser unit of-'the machine, the
totalizer dials l! conform in appearance to a ten-point -star with markings thereon respectively fromy zero to l., The markings are arranged alternately in clockwise and counterclockwise positions on adjacent dials.
A set of springs areset over the corners of the star-shaped dials. said springs serving to hold said dials l5 in place, each of said springs being secured to a spring supporting' member t1,
is enough friction between the shafts It and each ofzithenials. I l to cause the dials to turn with the shafts II when shafts I3 are rotated. Each ofthe shafts ll has a hub 11 having a finger 12 fastened to it and each hub 11 is fastened to its respective shaft ll. The shafts ll are rotatably mounted in plate 13 which is secured to the calculating machine proper by means of the screw 1l.
The knobs 33 operate the train of gears Il and ll, including gear 1l, where present in the train, through the medium of the intermediate gear 'Il and the shafts 1I. In the train of gears wherein the gear 13 is missing, the intermediate gear 1l meshes directly with the gear ll, see Fig. 12. The shafts Ii are held in pla by means of U- shaped brackets (not shown) secured to the base 32 by means of screws (not shown). The opposite end 1l: of each of the shafts 1l turns in theL-shaped extensions 1I of the plate 13.
' At the rear of the plate 'I3 (see Figure 4) and securedto the shafts Il are toothed discs I3. A single-.toothed finger 3l is secured to each shaft il with the exception of the last shaft` on the 'right of the device. Each nnger Il is positioned in such manner upon the shaft Il as to contact any one tooth of a neighboring toothed disc Il to the left of the device. It can be seen that while the shafts Il make one complete revolution, esch'toothed finger li on one shaft will contact the toothed disc of an adiacent shaft only once in everyrevoiution and will turn said disc one tenth of a revolution. 'I'his is what is termed the tens transfer. It will be understood that the,toothed disc Il has ten teeth upon its periphery.
'I'he resetting bar 34 which has a slot 32 for accommodating gears Il slides under the tension of spring I3. The resetting bar 34 comprisesan upper toothed rack 33a and a lower toothed rack 34. A gear 3| is also secured to each ofthe' shafts Il. The gear Il in this.case has eight teeth is operated through the medium of the toothed racks 33a and Il. Each rack operating every second gear Il, the upper rack 33a operating one gear and the lower rack Il operating a second gear etc. Said racks have ten teeth each, .Thus when the totaliaer dialsv 3l are at zero the gears Il are released from the rack 33a and Il and cannot be rotated as shown in Fig-v ure 4.
when operated by the knobs 33 and the train of gears 75, where present, 69 and 68.
Operation-Addition,
Referring to Figure l0 which illustrates the manner the calculating machine is used for the purpose 0f addition; for example, if a number 887 has to be added to the number 475 the knobs 33 marked as first, second and third are turned in succession (see Figure l0, position A) so that the visual openings 30m, 3|.r, 32a: are registering the number 475. As the knobs 33 operate the train of gears G8 and 69, including gear 10, where present in the train, the totalizer dials 65 will register the same number 475 which number can be viewed through the visual openings 30, 3| and 32.
Position B also shows the number 475 retained by the totalizing dials 65 although the resetting bar 35 has been actuated to reset the numeral entering registering dials 53 to zero. Position B also shows the registering of the resetting bar 35 by means of the ratchet wheel 42 which shows that the resetting bar has been operated once.
Position C indicates the manner in which the number 887 is added to the number 475. In this case the knobs 33 are again rotated in succession as marked first, second and third until the numeral 887 can be viewed through the visual openings 30x, 3Ir, 32x. As the knobs 3'3 also rotate the totalizer dials B5, the visual openings 29, 30, 3| and 32 will show the total of both numbers which sum is 1362.
Subtraction In the case of calculations made in subtraction, the numerals of the lower numeral entering registering dials 54 are used. For example, if a number 388 has to be subtracted from the number 475 first, the number 475 is registered by turning the knobs 33 clockwise as indicated in Figure 10, position A. Second, dials `53 are set to zero by sliding the resetting bar 35 asshown in position B in Figure 10. Third, the number 388 is registered by the lower number entering registering dials 54 by turning the knobs 33 in anti-clockwise direction in succession as indicated in Position C, Figure 11, first, second and third. The final result will be number 87.
The function of the fingers 50 is to lock the toothed dials 53 which are loosely mounted on the shafts 55 when the totalizer dials 55 which are secured to shafts 55 rotate from 9 to zero position and vice versa. This operation is required for the purpose of retaining the toothed dials 53 in their set positions. The fingers 60 are moved by the extension fingers 12 which are fastened on each of the hubs 1l whichfare secured to the shafts 55.
This application is based on my abandoned application, led Nov. 10, 1938, Serial No. 239,- 797.
Having described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is as follows:
1. A calculating device comprising: a row of rotatable shafts mounted in a holder, each shaft having one of a first set of dials fixed thereon and another dial of a second set frietionally clutched thereon, all the dials having numerals thereon, a fixed index means to which a selected numeral on each of the dials is settable, means to rotate the dials on a shaft together to set up a value, tens transfer means operatively connecting the dials of the rst set, a means for resetting the dials `of the second set to Zero, and means for locking the dials of the second set against rotation during the tens transfer of corresponding dials of the first set.
2. A calculating device comprising: two rows of shafts mounted in a holder, the shafts of one row each having one of a first set of dials fixed thereon and another dial of second set frictionally clutched thereon, the shafts of the first row being rotatable, all the dials having numerals thereon, a fixed index means to which a selected numeral on each of the dials is settable, a third set of dials mounted on each shaft of the sec* ond row of shafts and each having means engaged with means on each of a corresponding one of the dials of the second set, means to rotate the rst set of dialstogether with the second and third set to set up a value, tens transfer means operatively connecting the dials of the first set, a means for re-setting the dials of the second set together with the dials of the third set to zero and means for locking the dials of the second set against rotation during tens transfer of corresponding dials of the first set.
3. A row of rotatable shafts mounted in a holder, each of the shafts having one of a rst set of dials fixed thereon and another dial of a second set frictionally clutched thereon, all the dials having numerals thereon, means to rotate the dials on a shaft together to set up a value, means on the shafts for moving an adjacent shaft in tens transfer operation, and means to reset the second set of dials to zero, means for locking the dial of the second set during the tens transfer operation, the locking means during the tens transfer operation comprising, a hingably mounted lever for engaging means associated with a dial of the second set, and a cam on a Shaft adjacent the lever for moving the lever into locking position during said operation.
4. A row of rotatable shafts mounted in a holder, each of the shafts having one of a first set of dials fixed thereon and another dial of a second set frictionally clutched thereon, all the dials having numerals thereon; means to rotate the dials on a shaft together to set up a value, said means comprising: alternate trains of gears having an odd number and even number of gears, and rotatable means for moving each train of gears, rwhereby alternate shafts are caused to rotate in a direction opposite to the direction of operation of the other shafts, means to reset the second set of dials to zero, means 4:on the shafts for moving an adjacent shaft in tens transfer operation, means for locking the dial of the second set during the tens transfer operation, the locking means during the tens transfer opera-` tion comprising, a hingably mounted lever for engaging means associated with a dial of the second set, and a cam on a shaft adjacent the lever for moving the lever into locking position during said operation.
ARON M. JOSEPHO.
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2544389A (en) * 1951-03-06 Lipkin
US2973475A (en) * 1958-04-09 1961-02-28 Western Electric Co Computer system

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2544389A (en) * 1951-03-06 Lipkin
US2973475A (en) * 1958-04-09 1961-02-28 Western Electric Co Computer system

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