US2377879A - Compressor - Google Patents

Compressor Download PDF

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Publication number
US2377879A
US2377879A US475236A US47523643A US2377879A US 2377879 A US2377879 A US 2377879A US 475236 A US475236 A US 475236A US 47523643 A US47523643 A US 47523643A US 2377879 A US2377879 A US 2377879A
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fluid
rotor
passages
housing
pressure
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US475236A
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Francis K Gruss
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Francis K Gruss
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04FPUMPING OF FLUID BY DIRECT CONTACT OF ANOTHER FLUID OR BY USING INERTIA OF FLUID TO BE PUMPED; SIPHONS
    • F04F13/00Pressure exchangers

Description

June 12', 1945. G S 2,377,879

COMPRES SOR Filed Feb. 9, 1943 2 Sheets-Sheet 1.

INVENTOR.

FQA/VC/S K. 650058 ATTOPNE vs June 12, 1945. ss 2,377,879

COMPRESSOR Filed Feb. 9, 1945 l2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.

F/eA/vc/s 4 alzuss 52% wQoW l/ ATTOPNE Y3.

from one gas or fluid to another.

. Patented June 12, 1945 Q UNITED STATE S- PATENT OFFICE COMPRESSOR Francis K. Gruss, San Francisco, Calif.

Application February 9, 1943, Serial No. 475,236

6 Claims. (Cl. 230-108) I that a fairly snug flt is maintained between the This invention relates to a compressor or supercharger of the type disclosed in a co-pending application entitledfMethod and apparatus for thereon.

In the compressor disclosed in the mo-pending application referred to, a gas or fluid under pressure and in direct contact with another gas or fluid, for instance air, is utilized to compress the air and thereby insure a direct energy transfer In the type of compressor disclosed, it is not possible to obtain a final pressure greater than the pressure of the first gas or fluid utilized to compress the-second gas or fluid. In some instances it is desirable to compressing gases," flied December 6, 1941, Serial No. 424,553, and especially to improvements obtain a greater pressure than that of the first gas or fluid utilized for compressing purposes. In the present invention, the object is to provide a method and apparatus wherein the pressure of the flrst gas or fluid plus centrifugal force is utilized to compress a second gas or fluid and thereby make it possible to obtain a higher pressure in the second gas or fluid.

An apparatus whereby this is accomplished is shown by way of illustration in the accompanying drawings in which:

Fig. 1 is a central vertical cross-section of the compressor;

Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic enlarged view of the upper portion of the compressor showing the manner in which a gas or fluid under pressure is utilized to compress another gas or fluid; and

3 is a cross-section taken'on line 3-3 of Referring to the drawings in detail, andin particular to Figs. 1 and 3, A indicates a housing in which is formed a compressed air receiving.

chamber D, a volute shaped chamber 3, and an exhaust or outlet 4. The housing is closed on opposite sides by side plates 5 and 6, and disposed within the housing between the plates 5 and 6 is a rotor generally indicated at B,

The rotor as here shown consists of a side plate Y l secured on a shaft 8 which is driven. Bolted inner surface of the ring 9, the inner ends of the vanes Ill, and an annular shoulder Ia formed on the inner face of the plate I. A nozzle 2 is formed by the housing C which is open to the inner ends of the vanes. Both sides of the nozzleareclosed in the manner indicated at ll, but a pipe is extends through plate 5 and into one end of the inner end of the nozzle, so that a fluid under pressure, for instance exhaust gas,-will be delivered thereto as will hereinafter be described.

To facilitate the description of the operation of the compressor, let it be assumed that it is to be utilized as a supercharger on an internal combustion'engine. In that case,- shaft 8 may be directly connected with the crank shaft on themgine or driven thereby. As the rotor 3 is secured to the shaft, it will also be rotated, and as the vanes areradially disposed with relation to the axis of rotation, air between the vanes in the rotor will be centrifugally expelled into the volute chamber and a constant flow of air will result, as an air inlet opening i9 is provided in plate 5, which communicates with the interior of the rotor. A running fit is maintained between the rotor and nozzle C, as previously described, and a similar-fit 'will be maintained exterior of the rotor at the points indicated at 20 and 2!. The running fit referred to need not be closer than ti of an inch, as a small leakage may be tolerated without materially afiecting the overall efliciency. However, carbon tends to collect at the points indicated at 2|] and 2!, and between the nozzle C and the rotor, so that a snug fit will be maintained regardless of the original clearance provided.

In actual practice, when the engine is in operation, the air entering between the vanes will be substantially trapped by the shroud maintained at 20, as the direction of rotation is that indicated by arrow a; As each pocket advances or approaches the exhaust inlet 2, a further quantity of airwill enter from housing or chamber D at thepoint 212 depending upon the supercharging pressure maintained ahead of the carburetor; hence, as each pocket enters the area 2a acted upon by the'exhaust gases, it will contain air under the same pressure as that contained in housing D, and is substantially the same but slightly higher than that of the exhaust gases in nozzle 2; but it must be remembered that the carburetor inner face of the end plate 5, in such a position which is connected with housing D through a pipe E is constantly being drawn upon by the r spective cylinders in the engine. Hence, there must be a constant flow of air toward the carbin-etor through pipe E. In other words, the pressure in the pockets between the vanes and in housing D would almost instantly drop to zero if the exhaust gases entering the inner ends of ing, the air trapped by the shroud 2. being the quantity of air whichis added by each pocket.

1f absolutely pure air is required, for instance, to supercharge the engine of an airplane, the peripheral speed of the rotor with relation to the velocity of theexhaust gases should be such that gases entering the inner ends of a pocket at the point 20 will not reach the outer end thereof until that pocket reaches the position or point indicated at 21, By maintaining this relation ship between peripheral velocity and gas velocity, co'mmingling of the gas and air is prevented. The exhaust gases which substantially flll the pockets at the point 21 are liberated or exhausted into the lviglrite chamber the moment the point 28 is reache and from that point until the vanes again reach the shroud 2., air will be freely flowing through the'pockets between the vane andinto the volute chamber 3, thus preventing heating of the vanes or rotor, and at the same time diluting and cooling theexhaust gases which have entered the volute chamber atthe point 28, and, in fact, cooling the exhaust gases to such an extent that .danger' of flre from the final exhaust outlet 4 is entirely eliminated. The exhaust gases diluted by the air from the rotor may exhaust from the outlet 4 directly into the atmosphere, Or they may be carried away by a pipe not shown which is connected with the outlet 4 to any point desired.

The form of compressor or supercharger shown in this patent the compressor shown in the co-p'cnding application asthe exhaust gases-in direct contact with air is utilised to compress the air thereby insuring a direct energy transfer. however, in the exhaust nosale 2 There is a difference,

and the housing D which receives the compressed air as it will be noted that the exhaust nozzle in this instance communicates with he inner or inlet ends of the pock ts or passages formed between the vanes while the housing D communicates with, the outer or discharge ends of the passages.- This reversal of the-nozzle 2 and housing D is important as it permits a predetermined pressure, for instance, 5 lbs. gage,- to be obtained in housing D with less exhaust gas pressure as the centrifugal action of the rotor is utiliaed in this instance to boost or assist the exhaust gases to compress anddischarge the compressed air into the housing 1). rminstance, 11 the exhaust gas pressure in the nozzle is 41135. gage, and the centrifugal action of the-rotor equalled '1 lb.

' gage, then 5 lbs. pressure is obtained in the housing Dwith an'ex'haust gas pressure-of only 4 lbs. In other words, with the present structure it is possible to obtain a higher pressure in'the air in housing D than the exhaust gas Pressure em- "pioyed for compressing purposes, while in the structure shown in the cojpending application the exhaust gas pressure will have to be greater as it must overcome centrifugal action while compressingtheair.-

operates on the same principle as 1 arrangement or position of the Having thus described my invention, what I claimanddesiretosecurolryhettersPatentis:

1. In acompressor of the character described, a rotor having a plurality of passages formed thereinandeachpassagehavinganinletanda discharg end, said passages being so positioned that centrifugal action of the rotor will expell fluid therefrom, means for introducing a fluid through the inlet ends of the passages, means for trapping the fluid against removal from the passages at one pomtion of the rotor, means for introducing the same kind of fluid under a predetermined ,pressure through the discharge ends of the passages at a second position of the rotor to compress the trapped fluid, means for introducing a second fluid through the inlet ends of the passages at a third position of the rotor under a predetermined pressure to discharge said fluid from the passages. I

2. In a compressor of v the character described, a rotor having a plurality, of passages formed therein and each passage having an inlet and a discharge end, said passages being so positioned that centrifugal action of the rotor will expell fluid therefrom, means for introducing, a fluid through the inlet ends of the passages,- ,means for trapping the fluid against removal from the passages at one position of the rotor, means for in troducing the same kind of fluid under a predetermined pressure through the discharge ends of I the passages at a second position of the rotor to second fluid at a, fourth position of the.rotor.-

3'. In a compressor of the character described, a rotor having a plurality of radially disposed passagesformed therein, each passage having an inlet opening at the inner end and a discharge opening at the outer end to permit centrifugal action-.to maintain. a flow of fluid through the passages during rotation of the rotor, means for .trapping said fluid against removal from the passages at one position of th rotor, means for introducing the same kind of fluid under a predetermined pressure through the discharge ends of the passages at a second position of the rotor to compress the trapped fluid, means for introducing a second fluid through the inlet ends of the passages at a. third position of the rotor 'under a predetermined pressure to discharge said fluid from the passages.

4. In a compressor of the charactendescribed,

a rotor having a plurality of radially disposed passages formed therein, each passage having an inlet opening at the inner end and a discharge opening at the outer end to permit centrifugal action to maintain a flow of fluid through the passages during rotation of the rotor, means for trapping said fluid against removal from the passages at one position of the rotor, meansfor introducing the same kind of fluid under a predetermined pressure through the discharge ends of the passages at .a second position of the rotor to compress the trapped fluid, means for introducing'a second fluid through the inlet end; of the passages at a thirdposition of the rotor under a predetermined pressure to discharge said fluid from the passages, and means for discharging the second fluid at a fourth position on the rotor.

5. In a compressor of the character described a a rotor having a plurality of radially disposed passage formed therein, each passage having an inlet-and a discharge end to permit centrifugal action to maintain the flow of fluid through the passages during rotation of the rotor, means for interrupting said flow to trap the fluid in said passages at one position of the rotor, a housing communicating with the discharge ends of the passages at a second position of the rotor, said housing containing a fluid under a higher pressure than the trap fluid in the passages, said fluid un-' der higher pressure entering the discharge ends of the passages to compress the trap fluid to the same pressure as the fluid in the housing, a second housing communicating with the inlet ends of the passages at a third position on the rotor, means for delivering a second fluid to said housing under a predetermined pressure to force the com-.

pressed fluid out of the discharge ends of the passages back into the first-named housing, and an outlet conduit connected with the first-named housing for discharge of the compressed fluid.

.6. In a compressor of the character described, a rotor having a plurality of radially disposed passages formed therein, each passage having an inlet and a discharge end to permit centrifugal action to maintain the flow or fluid through the passages during rotation of the rotor, means for interrupting said flow to trap the fluid in said passages at one position of the rotor, a housing communicating with the discharge ends of the passages at a second position of the rotor, said housing containing a fluid under a higher pressure than the trap fluid in the passages, said fluid under higher pressure entering the discharge ends of the passages to compress the trap fluid to the same pressure as the fluid in the housing, a second housing communicating with the inlet ends of the passages at a third position on the rotor, means for delivering a second fluid to said housing under a predetermined pressure to force the compressed fluid out of the discharge ends of the passages back into the first-named housing, an outlet conduit connected with the first-named housing for discharge of the compressed fluid, and means for discharging the second-named fluid from the passages at a fourth position on the rotor.

FRANCIS K. GR'USS.

US475236A 1943-02-09 1943-02-09 Compressor Expired - Lifetime US2377879A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
ITVI20090068A1 (en) * 2009-03-24 2009-06-23 Giannino Ghiotto Turbocharger for supercharging of internal combustion engines especially aeronautical
US20130247555A1 (en) * 2012-03-22 2013-09-26 Safwan Mohammad Ibrahim Al-Hussaini Gravity Vortex Continuous Pipe Engine

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
ITVI20090068A1 (en) * 2009-03-24 2009-06-23 Giannino Ghiotto Turbocharger for supercharging of internal combustion engines especially aeronautical
US20130247555A1 (en) * 2012-03-22 2013-09-26 Safwan Mohammad Ibrahim Al-Hussaini Gravity Vortex Continuous Pipe Engine

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