US2368448A - Expander circuit for oscilloscopes - Google Patents

Expander circuit for oscilloscopes Download PDF

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US2368448A
US2368448A US338360A US33836040A US2368448A US 2368448 A US2368448 A US 2368448A US 338360 A US338360 A US 338360A US 33836040 A US33836040 A US 33836040A US 2368448 A US2368448 A US 2368448A
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wave
sweep
portion
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oscilloscope
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Ellsworth D Cook
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General Electric Co
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R13/00Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms
    • G01R13/20Cathode-ray oscilloscopes ; Oscilloscopes using other screens than CRT's, e.g. LCD's
    • G01R13/22Circuits therefor
    • G01R13/32Circuits for displaying non-recurrent functions such as transients; Circuits for triggering; Circuits for synchronisation; Circuits for time-base expansion
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47BTABLES; DESKS; OFFICE FURNITURE; CABINETS; DRAWERS; GENERAL DETAILS OF FURNITURE
    • A47B9/00Tables with tops of variable height
    • A47B9/04Tables with tops of variable height with vertical spindle

Description

1945- E. D. cooK Z,368,:44.

EXPANDER CIRCUIT FOR OSCILLOSCOPES Filed June 1, 1940 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig.4.

BLOCKING Fig.2.. STAGE.\

. 29 SAW T001. WAVE SYNCHRONIZING I V 1 A MFUHEE GENERIFTOR.

ADDITIDN P 20 zl zz cmcun.

' Q 1 v S1GNAL To BE OBSERVED. RECTANGULAR WAVE 2,5

. GENERATOR WAVE SHAPING Z7 cmcun'. ll V SHORT PULSE l6 If RECTANGUHR WAVE GENERATOR,

PHASE SIHIFTER SAW Taom WAVE GENERATOR.

VERTICAL A'HFLIFIER Invehtori El lswdrt h D. Cook.

by .5 His ttorney.

Jan. 36, 1945. E. D. COOK V EXPANDER CIRCUIT FOR OSCILLOSCOPES Filed June 1, 1940 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 i Inventor. Ellsworth D. Cook,

His Attorney Jan. 35), T5. E: 300 25,368,448

I'IXI?AI IDER CIRCUIT FOR OSCILLOSCOPES Filed June 1, 1940 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 ACATHODE BEAM RETURN SWEEP I Q CUTOFF srAeE.-- F g.5..

RECTANGULAR SYNCHROMZWG \7AVE GENERATOR.

AMPLIFIER. -5AW TOOTH GENERATOR- WAVE SHAPING cmun.

BLOCKING STAGE.

$5.5m. P SHIFTER. I

sub!" Pulse SAW roam $352555; L WAVE GENERATOR. 25 WAVE GENERATOR. I-

SQUARE WAVE m BUFFER srAeE I H9 11 8 VERTICAL AMPLIFIER MD rnxzm' Inventof: Ellsworth D. Cook,

His ttorney.

Jan. 39, 194-5. Q I 2,368,448

EXPANDER CIRCUIT FOR OSCILLOSCOPES 3 Filed June 1, 1940 I 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 AMPLIFIER VERTICAL Inventor; Ellsworth .D.Cqok,

His ttorney.

4 PHASE SHIFTER Patented 30, 1945 assays EXPANDED. CIRCUIT FOR OSCILLOSCOPES Ellsworth D. Cook, Scotia, N. Y., assignor to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York Application in... 1,1940, Serial No. 338,380

12 Claims. (cl. I'll-.95)

My invention relates to oscilloscopes and concerns particularly oscilloscopes of the type having a signal-tracing beam, such as cathode ray oscilloscopes, with means for deflecting the beam in a given plane in response to a signal wave to be examined in the oscilloscope and for deflecting the beam in a transverse plane in response to a time-axis or sweep wave.

It is an object of my invention to provide methods and apparatus for expanding on the screen of the oscilloscope an image of a portion of the signal wave to be observed, and to select any desired portion of the signal wave for expansion.

It is a more specific object of my invention to provide methods and apparatus for modifying the shape of the sweep wave of the oscilloscope and to introduce a portion of greater steepness for expansion of the wave.

Other and further objects and advantages will become apparent as the description proceeds.

In carrying out my invention in its preferred form in connection with cathode ray oscilloscopes having deflection plates for electrostatic deflection of the beam, I provide a discharge tube circuit for producing a "sweep wave for application to the "sweep deflection plates of the oscilloscope and an ofi-setting wave for application to the signal-responsive deflection plates of the oscilloscope. The sweep wave has an amplitude-time graph which is made up of successive sloping linear segments and its shape is such that, during the greater portion of the cycle, the oscilloscope beam is swept at a speed producing a normal representation of the signal wave on the oscilloscope screen, but during a fraction of the cycle, the beam is swept at a greatly increased speed for the purpose of expanding a selected portion 'of the signal wave to be observed. Such a sweep wave is made up in one exemplification of this invention by superimposing upon a normal triangular or "so-called saw tooth wave, another wave having short steep portions to produce high "sweep" speed. For selecting the portion of the signal wave to be expanded, I provide a phase shifting circuit arranged to vary the phase relationship between the normal triangular wave and the high sweep-speed component. Anoff-setting wave which may be added to theusual vertical deflecting signal, serves to separate the expanded portion from the remainder of the wave on the oscilloscope screen in order to avoid confusion.

My invention will be understood more readily from the following detailed description when considered in connect/i? with the accompanying drawings and those I which are believed to be novel and patentable will be pointed out in the claims appended hereto. In the drawings Fig. 1 is a diagram representing a form of sweep wave which may be used. in accordance with one embodiment of my invention. Figs. 1a and 1b are graphs representing the components of the sweep wave of Fig. 1. Fig. 2 is a block diagram schematically representing the electrical circuits of a sweep wave generator and a cathode ray oscilloscope, forming one embodiment of my invention. Fig. 3 is a circuit diagram representing more in detail the same arrangement as that represented in Fig. 2 and including graphs of wave shapes in various parts of the circuit. Fig. 4 is a graph representing a modified form of sweep wave which may be used in accordance with a modified embodiment of my invention. Figs. 4a, 4b and 4c are graphs representing the components of the sweep wave shown in Fig. 4. Fig. 5 is a block diagram schematically representing the electrical circuits of a sweep wave generator and cathode ray oscilloscope which may be used when a sweep wave of the shape shown in Fig. 4 is desired. Fig. 6 is a graphrepresenting an image which may be produced on the oscilloscope screen when examining a sine wave andexpanding the central portion thereof by use of the method and apparatus represented in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. Fig. 'l is a, graph representing the appearance which the sine wave would take if no portion thereof were expanded. Fig. 8 is a diagram corresponding to Fig. 6 representing the image obtained on the oscilloscope screen when the method and apparatus represented in Figs. 4 and 5 are employed,

and Fig. 9 is a fragmentary circuit diagram representing more in detail certain portions of the circuit represented in Fig. 5. Like reference characters are utilized throughout the drawings to designate like parts.

In cathode ray oscilloscopes, it is customary to provide sweep wave generators which "sweep the beam in a direction transverse to that in which the beam is deflected by the variations in magnitude of the signal to be examined in order that the time relationship of the variations in magnitude of the signal wave may be ascertained.

If a relatively faithful representation of the signal wave is desired, means are provided for sweeping the beam forward at a uniform rate of speed and afterwards quickly returning the beam. to

the starting point. The rate of movement of the beam during the forward sweep may be repreea-tures of the invention sented by the rising or advancing portion H of the wave shown in Fig. 1a. The portion I2 of the wave shown in Fig. in. may represent the quick return of the beam during which period the beam may be blanked out to avoid confusion. In the case of oscilloscopes having electrostatic deflection plates, the Wave of Fig. 1a may represent the voltage applied to the horizontal plates, or in the case of oscilloscopes having magnetic deflecting coils, the wave of Fig. 1a may represent the current flowing in the horizontal deflection coils. Throughout, the description and claims the term wave as applied to the deflection producing force of the oscilloscope signifies a voltage wave in the case of oscilloscopes have electrostatic deflection plates and signifies a current wave in the case of oscilloscopes having electromagnetic deflection coils. The horizontal and vertical amplifiers may be arranged to convert voltage waves into current waves of corresponding shape when deflection coils instead of plates are used. It will be understood that in order to make the signal wave appear to stand-still when the cathode ray beam is rapidly swept across the screen in response to successive repetitions of the signal wave, the sweep wave must have the same frequency as the fundamental of the signal wave to be examined or some sub-multiple thereof and must be synchronized therewith. Although I have described my invention in connection with cathode ray oscilloscopes inwhich the wave-tracing beam is a bundle of cathode rays'or a stream of electrons, my invention is not limited thereto and the term "beam in the description and claims signifies any suitable deflectable means for tracing a wave on a screen or on a sensitized surface.

I have found that anydesired portion of the signal wave may be expanded for the sake of more convenient inspection on the oscilloscope screen by modifying the shape of the sweep wave to include relatively short portions of increased steepness. For example, as shown in Fig. 1, the forward portion of the sweep" wave is broken into three linear segments 'l3, l4 and IS, the portions l3 and I5 having the same slope and the portion I4 having a greater slope for the purpose of increasing the speed of sweep of the oscilloscope beam and thereby expanding the portion of the signal wave occurring during the interval represented by the portion'. The return or fly-back portion of the wave is represented by the segment l6 which is shown dotted to indicate that the beam may be blanked out during the return. I produce a wave of the shape shown in Fig. 1 by combining two triangular waves, such as the waves shown in Figs. 1a and 1b. It will be observed that the wave shown in Fig. 1a has an advancing portion II which is relatively long or may be said to have a relatively great pulse width in comparison with the return portion l2. The wave shown in Fig.

ID, on the other hand, has an advancing portion with the forward sweep portion. However, my invention is not limited thereto and does not exclude, for example, having the forward and retrace portions of the "sweep wave substantially equal in time durationso that the input signal wave may be fed through some form of electronic switch, such as that illustrated in United States Patent 2,089,430, Boys and Mayer, for instance, for showing two separate and independent functions on the screen, and either one 'or both of these functions having sectional wave expansion.

Waves such as those illustrated in Figs. la and 1b may be produced and combined to form the wave of Fig. 1 by means of apparatus, such as that represented in Figs. 2 and 3. The signalto be observed is assumed to be applied as a voltage, by suitable direct or indirect coupling, e. g., conductors I, to a pair of synchronizing terminals 8 and 9, the latter of which is shown as being grounded. A cathode ray oscilloscope of the electrostatic beam deflection type is illustrated having horizontal deflection-producing plates l4, vertical deflection-producing plates IS.

a beam intensity control electrode or grid IS, a

cathode H, a fluorescent screen IS, an anode, not shown, and possibly other auxiliary electrodes, not shown, in accordance with well known standard types of oscilloscopes.

The general arrangement of the sweep wave generator is shown in Fig. 2 in which the various elements of the circuit are represented by rectangles and the electrical relationship between the elements is indicated by means of connecting lines and arrows. The input signal, which it is desired to observe upon the oscilloscope screen is represented by the arrow IS. A synchronizing amplifier 20 isprovided to which an impulse derived from the signal i9 may be applied for sufllcient amplification to control the phase of the sweep wave. A rectangular wave generator 2| is provided which is subject to synchronization with the signal amplified by the synchronizing amplifier 20 and a saw tooth wave generator 22 is provided for converting an output' of the rectangular wave generator 2| into a triangular wave to form the principal component of the sweep wave, as illustrated in Fig. 1a.

For producing the component of the sweep wave effecting the expansion, there are provided a relatively short-pulse rectangular wave generator 23 and a saw tooth wave generator 24 associated therewith. For combining the two wave components from the saw tooth wave generators 22 and 24, an addition, or mixing, circuit 25 is provided, the output of which is supplied to the horizontal deflection plates l4, preferably through a horizontal amplifier, not shown. Although single ended output is shown for the deflection circuit, it-is understood that push-pull operation is possible.

For enabling any portion of the signal wave to be selected for expansion, phase shifting equipment is provided including an actual phase shifter 26 and a wave shaping circuit 21 which is interposed between the rectangular wave generator 2| and the phase shifter 26 to convert the generated wave into a wave shape sufficiently sinusoidal for successful operation in a relatively simple phase shifter circuit.

The signal I9 to be observed, is applied to the vertical deflection plates 15, preferably through a vertical amplifier 28, and in order to oif-set the expanded portion of the wave from the remainder of the wave, the vertical amplifier 28 is preferably arranged as an addition circuit so that it will add to the input signal, a rectangular wave synchronized with the expansion pulse derived from the short-pulse rectangular wave generator 28. It is of course understood that operation is possible without the addition of this oil-setting pulse to the vertical amplifier 28.

The amplifiers, rectangular wave generators.

and addition circuits may consist of standard types of circuits employing electronic discharge devices, such as vacuum tubes, a suitable form of tube circuits being shown more in detail by way of example in Fig. 3.

For blanking out the cathode ray beam during the return sweep, a blocking stage 28 may be provided.

The synchronizing amplifier 28 may comprise a triode vacuum tube 30 having an anode 8i, a control electrode 32 and a cathode 33. Since in the arrangement shown the variousvacuum tube stages are resistance-capacity coupled, a resistor 88 is shown in the anode lead of the tube 38. For negative feed-back or stabilization, a biasing resistor 35 may be connected in the cathode lead without the by-pass condenser 38, but where the additional gain is helpful, the condenser 38 is employed. The control electrode 32 is excited by a portion of the input signal to be observed applied through a coupling condenser 36 and a volume control potentiometer 31.

The rectangular wave generator 2| may be in the form of a generator or multi-vibrator stage 38 and a "clipper stage 39. The particular form of multi-vibrator stage shown as 38 consists of a pair of triodes-or triode units 40 and 4! including anodes 82 and 43, control electrodes or grids 84 and 45, and cathodes 68 and 81, respectively. The triodes 40 and 8| also have resistors in the anode leads and the anodes are cross connected to the control electrodes or grids by means of coupling condensers 48 and 48. It is therefore essentially a resistance capacitycoupled amplifier with its output coupled back to its input. Grid leak resistors 58 and are connected from the grids to an adjustable tap 82 of a potentiometer 53 which is connected across the plate voltage source for the tubes.

For permitting adjustment of the fundamental frequency of the wave produced. by the multivibrator 38. to approximately that preferred for the given input signal i9, the position of the tap 82 on the potentiometer 53 is made adjustable. Preferably a by-pass condenser 54 is connected between the tap 52 on the ground point of the system. For synchronizing the wave produced by the multi-vibrator 38, a tie-in is made through a coupling condenser 55 between the anode 3! of the synchronizing amplifier 28 and a suitable point in the multi-vibrator circuit 38,-

for example, a point on the grid leak 53 which is connected to the control electrode 68 of the triode 68.

For converting the steep-sided peaked loops of the wave produced by the multi-vibrator 38 into rectangular pulses a clipper stage (39 is provided having electron tubes 56 and 5! of such a design that the wave loops applied to them by the multi-vibrator 38 exceed the cut-off points of the tubes 56 and 57. The tube 56 includes an anode 58, a control electrode 53, and a cathode 88, and the tube 51! includes corresponding electrodes at, 62 and 63, respectively. The control electrode or grid 59 is coupled to the anode 63 of the multi-vibrator stage 38 through a coupling condenser 84, the grid 82 in turn being coupled through the coupling condenser 88 to the anode 88 of the tube 88.

The triangular wave generator 22 may take the well-known form of a resistor 88 and a condenser 81 connected in series across the plate circuit of the clipper tube 81. The condenser 81 is on the cathode side of the series combination and the common terminal 88 and the ground bus serve as the output terminals across which the triangular wave appears.

The addition circuit 28 includes suitable means for additively combining two waves which may take the form of a mixer tube 88, such as a tetrode, for example, having an anode 18, a secondary control electrode or screen ll, a primary control electrode or grid 12 and a cathode 13. The control electrode H is positively polarized if it is of the screen grid type. A connection is made between the output point 88 of the triangular wave generator 22 and one of the control electrodes of the tube 88 through a coupling condenser 14, and if desired, through an injector amplifier, not shown. The mixer or horizontal amplifier 25 may also include one or more stages of vacuum tube amplification, such as the tube I8, for example. Although I have by way of il lustration described the use of a mixer tube for combining two voltage waves, it will be understood that my invention is not limited thereto and does not exclude, e. g., applying one wave directly in a grid circuit and the other across a cathode resistor of an electron tube.

The blanking stage 28 may take the form of a triode 16 having an anode H, a control electrode 78 and a cathode 18. The anode 11 serving as the output terminal of the blanking stage 29' is connected to the control electrode or grid l8 of the oscilloscope tube l3. The grid 18 of the tube 18 is connected to a source of a wave having positive potential impulses during the periods of the return sweep of the sweep wave, for example, to the anode 58 of the clipper tube 58 in the clipper stage 38. Blanking may also be accomplished by connecting the oscilloscope grid I6 directly to the anode H of the final clipper stage of the rectangular wave generator 2i, omitting the blanking tube I8.

The wave-shaping circuit 21 may take any suitable form. For the sake of example, I have shown a low pass filter network consisting of a tapped inductance 8|, adjustable condensers 82 connected between ground and the-adjustable taps of the inductance 8|, and a condenser 83 connected in series with the inductance 8| for isolating the +B) voltage from the circuit. The adjustable features show one way to permit the passage of waves of the frequency corresponding to the output of the rectangular wave generator 2!. The wave-shaping circuit 21 converts a square wave into a substantially sinusoidal wave which may be handled by the phase shifter 26.

The phase shifter 26 may be of the simple rheostat and condenser type comprisinga condenser 8d in series with a, rheostat 85 connected across the output of the wave-shaping circuit 21, preferably through the interposition of a transformer 86-and a polarity reversing switch 81, for extending the range of the phase shifter from to 360 degrees. The center point of the secondary winding of the transformer 86 is grounded.

The short-pulse rectangular wave generator 23 may be of the same type as the rectangular wave generator 2i difiering therefrom, however,

the form of a resistor and condenser connected in series across the output of the rectangular 1 wave generator 23, with a'common terminal to which is connected an output lead 90 in which the short pulse triangular wave appears. lead- 90 is connected to the remaining control electrode I2 of the mixer tube 69, preferably through a coupling condenser 9 I The vertical deflection amplifier 28 may also take the form of a vacuum tube amplifier including one or more stages of vacuum tubes, the initial stage, for example, comprising a mixer tube 92 having electrodes performing the same functions as the electrodes of the mixer tube 69, previously mentioned. In the particular form shown, it may include a control electrode 93 and control electrode or grid 94. One of the control electrodes, for example, the electrode 93, is tied through a coupling condenser 95 to a suitable point in the short-pulse rectangular wave generator 23 at which a short positive pulse appears. In the arrangement illustrated this connection is made to the output terminal of the generator 23. The remaining control electrode 94 is connected through a coupling condenser 96 to the terminal II at which the input signal I9 appears. If further amplification of the rectangular wave output short-pulse generator 23 is required forofi-setting the expanded portion of the signal wave, an injector amplifier (not shown) may be itnerposed in the connection from the short pulse rectangular wave generator 23 to the control electrode of the tube 92. It will be understood that the output of the ver.. tical amplifier 28 is connected to the deflection plates I5 of thetube for producing the signalrepresenting deflection of the cathode ray beam.

It will. be further understood that a suitable source of power for energizing the heaters and plate circuits of the vacuum tube is provided, the positive terminal of the plate source being represented at 91. Other conventional elements of the circuit, such as anode resistors, rippleabsorbing filter condensers, grid leak resistors, decoupling circuits, and the like are to be used,

' as will be understood by those skilled in the art. In the tube 92 it may be desirable to ground the screen 93 with respect to radio frequency, while permitting its potential to rise sufiiciently with respect to sweep frequency by interposing a condenser 92' in series with a. resistance between the screen 93 and round. If the four-electrode tube 92 is of the screen-grid type the screen 93 must be polarized by a. positive potential source 93'.

The principle of operation of the apparatus is indicated by the sample curves shown in Fig. 3 below each of the elements thereof to indicate the type of voltage wave appearing at the output terminals of the corresponding element. The signal to be observed applied at the input terminals II and I2 may, of course, have any wave shape which is, however, assumed to be recurring in order that the traces on the screen l8 of the oscilloscope tube I3 may be superimposed. The wave shape corresponding to the input wave I9 is amplified by the synchronizing amplifier and energizes the control electrode 49 of the The multi-vibrator 38 whenever the polarity of the amplified wave applied thereto becomes sufficiently positive to permit the grid 44 to reach a predetermined value of potential which will initiate conduction in tube 40; This shifts the current in the multi-vibrator circuit to the tube H0 at a predetermined pointin each cycle, or if so desired in each group of cycles, of the input wave, thus synchronizing the output or the multi" vibrator 38 with the signal to be observed. Since the control electrodes and anodes of the multivibrator 38 are cross connected and condensers and resistors are interposed in the grid circuits, energization of one tube shifts the current away from the other tube by abruptly depressing its anode potential. However, the resistors 50 and 5| permit gradual discharge of the condensers 48 and 49 corresponding to the exponential portions of the wave 98, and when the potentials have been readjusted to a certain point, the tube which has been non-conducting fires abruptly shifting the current away from the other tube. The abrupt shifts in current are represented by the vertical portions of the wave 98.

The magnitudes of the positive and negative loops of the Wave 98 are such as to depress the grid potentials of the clipper tubes 56 and 51 alternatively to cut oil so that the output of the clipper circuit 39 is in the form of a rectangular wave '99 having pulse lengths corresponding to the pulse lengths in the wave 90, but'with flat tops.

The resistance of the resistor 66 in the triangular wave generator 22 is relatively great in relation to the capacitance of the condenser 61 so that the charging current of the condenser 61 is determined substantially constant during the forward sweep part of the cycle. Since the ratio of the grid leak resistors 50 and SI of the multivibrator 38 is made such as to cause the positive pulse of the output voltage wave as shown at 99 to be longer than the negative pulse,

' the rectangular output voltage wave 99 has long positive pulses and short negative pulses causing a relatively small, long continued, positive charging current in the condenser 61 and a relatively large, negative or discharging current 01' short duration in the condenser 61. The condenser potential accordingly rises gradually and falls more rapidly as represented by the triangularwave I00, which is the wave shown in Fig. 1a.

In a similar manner, the short-pulse rectangular wave generator 23 produces an intermediate irregular wave IOI, and a rectangular wave I02 with short positive voltage pulses and long negative voltage pulses resulting in the triangular voltage wave I03 with short rapid ascending portions and longer descending portions, as shown in larger scale in Fig. lb. It will be understood that any difference in ratio of lengths of the positive and negative pulses in the generators 2| and .23, as well as any turning over of the waves as shown at 98 and II, is accomplished by a, corresponding difference in the ratios of the grid-leak resistors, as well as an interchange of position of these resistors in the two multivibrator circuits.

The triangular waves I00 and I03 are combined in the mixer circuit 25, and the phase relationship of the wave I03 with respect to the wave I 00 may be varied by adjustment of the rheostat in the phase shifter 26. The waveshaper 21 converts the wave 99 into a substantially sinusoidal wave 99a which may be shifted of the clipper stage 39 are reversed again in 1 polarity by the blanking amplifier it so that the potential of the oscilloscope grid as is. depressed to cut-on during the negative pulses or the wave 99 corresponding to the descending portion of the wave ltd, shown at E2 in Fig. la, and at it in Fig. 1. The image on the oscilloscope screen is accordingly produced only during the forward sweep. Short positive pulses of the wave 1102 obtained from the short-pulse generator 23 and combined with the signal in the vertical amplifier 28, ofi-set the portion of the signal wave occurring during the positive pulses of the wave 502. At the same time the oscilloscope beam is being swept with increased rapidity across the screen as represented by the portion H of Fig. 1b and the portion ll of the curve in Fig. 1. Accordingly the wave as depicted on the screen I8 is expanded during this interval of time with respect to those portions of wave corresponding to the portions l3 and 85 of the sweep wave shown in Fig. 1.

The image of the wave as it appears on the oscilloscope screen with the center portion of the sine wave expanded is shown in Fig. 6. The sine wave impulse signal represented in Fig. 7 has its center portion Hi4 expanded and the end portions I05 compressed to form the wave of Fig. 6 and the corresponding portions are represented by the same reference numerals primed. The expanded portion I08 is: however, oflset from the remainder of the wave to produce the segment I06 to avoid confusion, in the case of irregular wave shapes. If the phase shifter 26 had been set to bring the fast sweep portion of the "sweep" wave to a different position with relation to the remainder of the wave a diiierent portion of the input signal would, of course, have been expanded. While the action has been shown for a single sine wave, it is apparent that it may also be applied to more complicated input waves and that it is not restricted'to a single cycle representation on the screen 58.

I have described and illustrated the use of the multi-vibrator circuit with clippers and the saw tooth or integrating circuit for producing a triangular sweep wave, because such a combination circuit is particularly well adapted for working in the high frequency limit of the sweep circuits. My invention, however, is not limited to the specific' arrangement illustrated and obviously does not exclude the use of a gas discharge tube to create the necessary triangular or saw tooth wave.

- In accordance with the modified embodiment of my invention, I expand any desired portion of the wave without compressing the remainder of the wave, and I expand a selected portion the full length of the time axis of the entire signal wave. This I accomplish, by producing a sweep wave of the form represented in Fig. 4 having gradually ascending forwardsweep portions HI and N2 of the same slope for producing the normal representation of the signal wave and having a short steep portion H3 variable in phase relationship with respect to the rest of the wave for producin rapid sweep of the beam for expansion. The sweep wave also includes a portion iii of a negative slope for returning the beam. The lowest and highest points of the portion N3 of the sweep wave are substantially even with the lowest point of the portion ill, and the highest point of the portion 2 so that during the portion! H of the sweep wave, the beam-is swept horizontally through the entire length of its time axis. A wave shape such as shown in Fig. 4 may be produced by combining a short negative pulse rectangular wave as shown in Fig. 4a, a short-pulse Y steep rising triangular wave as shown in Fig. 4b,

and a normal saw-tooth ,sweep wave as shown in Fig. 4c. The waves 4a and db are locked together but are adjustable as a unit in phase relationship with respect to the component of the wave shown in Fig, 4c. The wave of Fig. 412 has its slow return portion blanked out in a manner which will be described more in detail hereinafter.

The wave represented in Fig. 4 may be produced by a sweep" wave generator similar to that represented in Figs. 2 and 3 except for the modification of certain elements and the addition of a few elements. As shown in Fig. 5, the modified form of sweep" wave generator'also includes a synchronizing amplifier 20,. a rectangular wave generator 2i, a saw tooth wave generator 22, a cathode beam return sweep cut-ofi stage 29, a wave shaping circuit 21, a phase shifter 26, a short-pulse rectangular wave generator 23, a saw tooth wave generator 24, and a vertical amplifier and mixer 28. The addition circuit or mixer 25 is replaced by a slightly modified element 25' which permits mixing or adding together three voltages instead of only two. For blanking out the return slope of the saw tooth wave output of connection H! for injecting into the addition circuit 25'- a negative polarity short pulse rectangular wave derived from the rectangular wave generator 23. If'desired, a square .wave bufier stage H8 may be provided with its'input connected to the rectangular wave generator 23 and with its output voltages leading through connec tions I l1 and H9 to the addition circuit 25 and the addition or mixer circuit of the vertical amplifier 28, respectively.

Th modified portions of the circuit represented in Fig. 5 are illustrated more in detail in Fig. 9.

The initial vacuum tube stage of the addition circuit 25' may comprise the vacuum tube 69' having three control electrodes ll," I20 and [2. Although for the sake of simplicity in the drawing, I have shown a circuit for triple addition in a single tube, it will be understood that my invention does not exclude injection in two difierent stages instead of only in the first stage, and utilization in the two injection stages of tubes having two control .electrodes,"combining two voltages in the one stage by applying them to two of the control electrodes'and adding the resultant to the third voltage in the next stage by applying the voltages in question to the control electrodes of the said stage. Altemately it may consist of three separate amplifier stages having separate input circuit for the respective voltages to be added and having a single output resistor circuit. The particular form of addition circuit shown is not my invention and it will be understood by those skilled in the art that any modified form of addition or mixer circuit may be more convenient.

. In the arrangement illustrated, the control electrode ll 01 the tube 88', as in Fig. 3, is connected through a coupling condenser I4 to a long pulse triangular wave source, as in Figs. 2 and 3. The control electrode i2 is connected through th coupling condenser SI to a source of a modifled form of short-pulse triangular wave including the blocking stage H6. The added control electrode H is connected through a coupling condenser ml to a source of negative polarity short-pulse rectangular wave voltage corresponding to the wave not provided by the rectangular wave generator 23. The reversal in polarity may be obtained by drawing the voltage from the first stage of the buffer circuit H8, which may be, for example, a standard two-stage resistance coupled amplifier 0r bufier in which reversal of polarity takes place in each stage, as will be well understood by those skilled in the art. The form of wave applied to the control electrode 8201s represented by the curve I22, and the amplitude is such that operation of mixer tube 00 is on the linear or amplifier part of its characteristic. The output of the butter stage lid is applied to the vertical amplifier 28 to oil-set the expanded portion of the wave upwardly, as explained in connection with Figs. 2 and 3.

The blocking circuit i It may take any suitable form which will pass the positive slope portions of the triangular wave I03 represented at I? in Fig. 1?), but will suppress the negative slope portion represented at I8 in Fig. 1b, in response to rectangular pulses synchronized with the wave H03 wherein the portions ii and I8 are consistent with Fig. 1b. The blocking circuit illustrated takes the form of a. discharge tube I23 which may be a twin triode vacuum tube comprising two sets of electrodes, the first consisting of an anode I24, a control electrode or grid I25, a cathode I26, and the second set consisting of corresponding electrodes I21, E28 and E29, respectively. The left-hand element of the tube I 23 is connected as a conventional resistance coupled amplifier with the triangular wave I03 from the saw tooth generator 24 applied through a coupling condenser I30 to the control electrode I25. The control electrode I28 of the right-hand element of the tube I23 is tied through a coupling condenser I3l to the output connection or anode I24. The right-hand anode I21, however, is so connected as to derive its potential through an anode resistor I32 from a source of rectangular wave voltage having long negative pulses and short posi-- tive pulsessynchronized with the portions I8 and Ii of the triangular wave I03. If desired, such plate potential may be obtained from the rectangular wave generator 23. Alternatively a resistor in series with the cathode may be used and the proper rectangular wave applied across this resistor will permit conduction only during the short pulse period, during the long pulse period the tube being driven past cut-oft.

During the positive pulses of the rectangular wave I02 the tube I23 will act as a conventional two-stage resistance coupled amplifier causing the steep positive portion of the triangular wave to be reproduced as a corresponding wave portion I33 in a modified triangular wave I34, shown in larger scale in Fig. 412. During the negative pulses of the wave I02, however, the anode I21 is without voltage and the potential accordingly falls to the uniform value represented by the horizontal line 535 in the curve I34.

The three wave forms represented in Figs. 4a, 4b and 4c and in the curves I22, I04, and I00 are combined in the addition circuit to produce the waveiorm 01' Fig. 4, which is applied to the horizontal sweep-producing deflection plates I4 of the oscilloscope tube. Only the signal wave and the oil-setting rectangular wave are combined in the vertical amplifier 28 for application to the vertical deflection plates I5 01' the oscilloscope tube.

Referring again to Fig. 7, the portion I04 01 the inputsignal wave which is selected for expansion and corresponding in width to the positive pulse width of the curves I02 and I03 is expanded and oil-set to form the curve segment I36 shown in Fig. 8. This action results from the fact that the sweep wave shown in Fig. 4 rises along the steep portion I34 at a uniform rapid rate of speed from the minimum value of the sweep wave to the maximum value for producing the expansion. The sweep wave falls abruptly along the line I3'I from the segment III to zero or minimum before expansion starts. Then again, after the expanded portion of the signal wave has been produced by the sweep wave portion I I3, the sweep wave falls abruptly to the segment I I2, 1. e., to a value which it would have in case only a simple triangular wave, such as shown in Fig.'4c, were employed. The expanded segment I36 of Fig. 8 therefore has the full length of the time axis of the oscilloscope and is, in efiect, cut out of the center of the signal wave I05 by superposing the waves I22 and I34 of Figs. 4a and 4b, respectively, on the simple sweep wave I00 01' Fig. 40 to produce the composite sweep wave of Fig. 4.

I have herein shown and particularly described certain embodiments of my invention and certain methods of operation embraced therein for the purpose of explaining its principle and showing its application but it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that many modifications and variations are possible and I aim, therefore, to cover all such modifications and variations as fall within the scope of my invention which is defined in the appended claims.

What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

l. A wave-examining system comprising an oscilloscope having sweep and deflection signal circuits and a sweep wave generater comprising means for producing a rectangular wave, adjustable in frequency, means for synchronizing the rectangular wave with a signal to be observed, means for converting the rectangular wave into a triangular wave, means for producing a substantially sine wave synchronized with the rectangular wave, a phase shifter energized by the sinewave, means for producing a second rectangular wave of narrower pulse width than the first, a second means for converting said second rectangular wave into a second triangular wave, means for combining the two triangular waves and applying them in the sweep deflection circuit of the oscilloscope, and 'means for injecting a third rectangular wave synchronized with said second rectangular wave in the signal deflection circuit of the oscilloscope, whereby a portion of the signal wave to be observed is expanded and oiT-set with respect to the remainder of the wave.

2. A wave-examining system comprising an oscilloscope and a sweep wave generator, said oscilloscope having sweep and signal deflection circuits and a beam controllin electrode, and said sweep wave generator comprising means for producing a triangular wave synchronized with a signal wave to be observed, said triangular wave having a relatively long advancing portion and aasaess a relatively short fly-back portion, a block-out stage synchronized with the triangular wave producer and having a coupling to the beam controlling electrode for blocking out the beam during the fly-back portion of the sweep wave, means for producing a second triangular wave having a relatively short advancing portion and a relatively long return portion, means for superimposing the two waves, and means for varying the phase relationship between the two triangular waves, whereby a resultant sweep wave is produced having a relatively steep portion which may be varied in relative position with respect to the remainder of the sweep wave to enable the expansion of any selected portion of a signal wave to be observed in the oscilloscope.

3. An oscilloscope sweep wave generator comprising in combination, means for producing a triangular wave synchronized with a signal wave to be observed, said triangular wave having a relatively long advancing portion and a relatively short fiy-back portion, means for producing a second triangular wave having a relatively short advancin portion and a relatively long return portion, means for superimposing the two waves, and means for varying the phase relationship between the two triangular waves, whereby a resultant sweep wave is produced having a rela tively steep portion which may be varied in relative position with respect to the remainder of the sweep wave to enable the expansion of any selected portion of a signal wave to be observed in the oscilloscope.

4. An oscilloscope sweep wave generator comprising in combination, means for producing a rectangular wave adjustable in frequency, means for synchronizing the rectangular wave with a signal wave to be observed, means for converting the rectangular wave into a triangular wave, means for producing a second rectangular wave, a second means'for converting said latter rectangular wave into a second triangular wave with a relatively steep forward portion and a return portion, means for blocking out the return portion of the second-triangular wave, andmeans for combining the two triangular waves and the second rectangular wave whereby a resultant sweep wave is produced having a relatively steep portion, represented by the forward portion of the second triangular wave, enabling the expansion of a portion of the signal wave to the len th of the entire signal wave.

5. A wave-examining system comprising an oscilloscope and a sweep wave generator, said oscilloscope having sweep and signal deflection circuits and a beam controlling electrode, and said sweep wave generator comprising in combination, means for producing a triangular wave with an advancing portion relatively long in comparison with the return portion, and a block-out stage having a coupling to the beam-controlling electrode for blocking out the beam of an oscilloscope during the return portion of the trianigular' wave, means for producing a second triangular wave with a shorter advancing portion than the first triangular wave and with the returnportion blocked out, means for producing a rectangular wave with the same negative pulse width as said second-mentioned triangular wave, and means for combining the three-mentioned waves and applying them to the sweep deflection circuit to produce a sweep wave with a portion thereof steeper than the remainder of the sweep wave to expand a portion of the signal wave to be observed, said steeper portion of the sweep wave having the same minimum and maximum heights as the minimm and maximum heights of the remainder of the sweep wave, whereby the expanded portion of the signal wave to be observed is of the same length as the entire signal wave.

6. A wave-=examining system comprising an oscilloscope and a sweep wave generator, said oscilloscope having sweep and signal deflection circuits, and said sweep wave generator comprising in combination means for producing a sweep wave having an amplitude-time graph made up oi substantially linear segments, including sloping segments, one of said sloping segments being steeper than the remainder of the sweep wave for the purpose of expanding a portion of a signal wave to be examined in the oscilloscope, means for applying the sweep wave to the sweep deflection circuit, means for synchronizing the sweep wave with the signal wave and varying the phase relationship between the signal wave and the steep portion of the sweep wave for the purpose of selecting the portion of the signal wave to be expanded, means for producing a rectangular wave synchronized with the steep portion of the signal wave, and means for injecting said rectangular wave in the signal deflection circuit of the oscilloscope for off-setting and separating the expanded portion of the signal wave from the remainder of the signalwave.

'1. A wave-examining system comprising an oscilloscope and a sweep wave generator, said oscilloscope having sweep and signal deflection circuits, and said sweep wave generator comprising a pair of synchronizing terminals with means for applying a voltage thereto corresponding to the signal wave to be examined in an oscilloscope, means coupled to said synchronizing terminals for producing a sweep wave made up or,

substantially linear segments, including sloping segments, said means including means for producing one of such sloping segments steeper than the remainder of the sweep wave for the purpose or expanding a selected portion of a signal wave to be observed in the oscilloscope, means for applying the sweep wave to the sweep deflection circuit of the oscilloscope and means for producing a rectangular wave synchronized with the steep portion of the sweep wave and injecting it in the signal deflection circuit for combination with the signal wave for the purpose ofofl-setting and separating the expanded portion of the signal wave from the remainder of the signal wave.

8. A wave-examining system comprising an oscilloscopeand a sweep wave generator, said oscilloscope having sweep and signal deflection circuits and a beam controlling electrode, and said sweep wave generator comprising in combina-- tion means for producing a sweep wave having an amplitude time graph made up of substantially linear segments, including sloping segments, one of said sloping segments being steeper than the remainder of the sweep wave forthe purpose or expanding a portion ofa signal wave 'to be examined in the oscilloscope, means for the purpose to selecting the portion of the signal wave to be expanded, means for producing a rectangular wave synchronized with the steep portion of the sweep wave, and means for injecting said rectangular wave in the signal deflection circuit of the oscilloscope for oil-setting and separating the expanded portion of the signal wave from the remainder of the signal wave.

9. In a cathode ray oscilloscope arranged for deflection of a wave-tracing beam in the directions 01' a sweep axis and a signal wave axis, transverse thereto, a sweep generator for producing a normal deflection along the sweep axis with alternate forward and return sweeps, means for increasing the velocity of the sweep deflection during a fraction of the time duration of the forward sweep to provide expansion of the wave, viewed in the oscilloscope, during said fraction of the forward sweep, and means for producing a substantially constant change in the deflection of'the wave-tracing beam along the signal wave axis during said fraction of the forward sweep, for the purpose of separating the expanded portion of the wave from the remainder of the wave viewed in the oscilloscope.

10. Apparatus of the character set forth in claim 9 with means for varying the phase relationship between the increased velocity portion of the sweep and the remainder of the sweep.

11. In a cathode ray oscilloscope arranged for deflection of a wave-tracing beam in the directions of a sweep axis and a signal wave axis, transverse thereto, a sweep generator for producing a normal deflection along the sweep axis with alternate forward and return sweeps, means for increasing the velocity of the sweep deflection during a fraction of the time duration of the forward sweep for providing expansion of the wave, viewed in the oscilloscope, during the said fraction of the forward sweep, means for sufllciently changing the sweep deflection abruptly at the beginning or end of the said fraction of the forward sweep to retain the same sweep deflection outside said fraction of the forward sweep aswould be obtained without said increase in sweep velocity, and means for changing by a substantially fixed amount the deflection of the wave-tracing beam along the signal wave axis during the increased velocity portion of the forward sweep for separating the expanded portion of the wave, viewed in the oscilloscope, from the remainder of the wave.

12. A wave-examining system comprising an oscilloscope and a sweep wave generator, said oscilloscope having sweep and signal deflection circuits, and said sweep wave generator comprising, in combination, means for producing a sweep wave with an amplitude time graph made up of substantially linear segments including sloping segments, means included therein for producing one of said wave segments with relatively steep slope in comparison with the remainer oi the sweep wave for the purpose 01' expanding a portion of the signal wave to be examined in an oscillopscope, means for applying the sweep wave to the sweep deflection circuit, means for producing a rectangular wave synchronized with the steep-slope wave segment produced by said last-mentioned means, and means for injecting said rectangular wave in the signal deflection circuit of the oscilloscope for offsetting and separating the expanded portion of the signal wave from the remainder of the signal wave.

ELLSWORTH D. COOK.

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Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2420516A (en) * 1944-06-15 1947-05-13 Gen Electric Pulse producing system
US2428926A (en) * 1943-06-04 1947-10-14 Rca Corp Modified sweep circuit for cathoderay tubes
US2440263A (en) * 1942-09-18 1948-04-27 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Monitoring circuit
US2453711A (en) * 1942-07-30 1948-11-16 Sperry Corp Cathode-ray tube control circuit
US2454782A (en) * 1942-12-08 1948-11-30 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Adjustable expanded sweep for radar oscilloscopes
US2467208A (en) * 1943-12-30 1949-04-12 Gen Electric Pulse echo system
US2471903A (en) * 1941-12-31 1949-05-31 Rca Corp Vertical blanking circuit for television transmitter systems
US2480837A (en) * 1940-03-30 1949-09-06 Int Standard Electric Corp Scanning device for cathode-ray oscillographs
US2492700A (en) * 1944-02-24 1949-12-27 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Cathode-ray tube circuit
US2517558A (en) * 1942-09-18 1950-08-08 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Radio obstacle detection system
US2518461A (en) * 1946-04-17 1950-08-15 Josiah J Godbey Panoramic receiver frequency marker system
US2522957A (en) * 1942-06-27 1950-09-19 Rca Corp Triangular signal generator
US2523288A (en) * 1944-08-09 1950-09-26 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Direction finder system
US2542032A (en) * 1942-07-30 1951-02-20 Sperry Corp Radio tracking system
US2552009A (en) * 1943-08-27 1951-05-08 Nat Res Dev Expanded sweep and calibrated cathode-ray tube trace
US2572975A (en) * 1945-08-20 1951-10-30 France B Berger Radio antenna scanning and azimuth marking means
US2602136A (en) * 1947-04-10 1952-07-01 Sperry Corp Modulating and transmitting apparatus
US2623196A (en) * 1950-02-28 1952-12-23 Products And Licensing Corp Television apparatus and method for phase-shift scanning
US2646503A (en) * 1945-11-29 1953-07-21 Us Navy Balanced sweep circuit
US2680210A (en) * 1945-09-18 1954-06-01 Us Navy Triple sweep scope
US2714656A (en) * 1945-09-18 1955-08-02 Thomas W Hopkinson Audio frequency sweep system
US2758247A (en) * 1951-09-21 1956-08-07 Gilfillan Bros Inc Gated video amplifier circuitry
US2874378A (en) * 1945-11-30 1959-02-17 Andrew B Jacobsen Data transmission system
US2951181A (en) * 1958-11-25 1960-08-30 Robert M Sugarman Sampling oscilloscope
US2962625A (en) * 1958-10-06 1960-11-29 Dresser Ind Oscillograph deflection circuit
US3005335A (en) * 1957-05-01 1961-10-24 Electrocircuits Inc Ultrasonic nondestructive testing apparatus and control therefor
US3011164A (en) * 1957-07-25 1961-11-28 Research Corp Digital expansion circuit
US3783398A (en) * 1972-09-01 1974-01-01 Int Video Corp Fm pulse averaging demodulator

Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2480837A (en) * 1940-03-30 1949-09-06 Int Standard Electric Corp Scanning device for cathode-ray oscillographs
US2471903A (en) * 1941-12-31 1949-05-31 Rca Corp Vertical blanking circuit for television transmitter systems
US2522957A (en) * 1942-06-27 1950-09-19 Rca Corp Triangular signal generator
US2453711A (en) * 1942-07-30 1948-11-16 Sperry Corp Cathode-ray tube control circuit
US2542032A (en) * 1942-07-30 1951-02-20 Sperry Corp Radio tracking system
US2440263A (en) * 1942-09-18 1948-04-27 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Monitoring circuit
US2517558A (en) * 1942-09-18 1950-08-08 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Radio obstacle detection system
US2454782A (en) * 1942-12-08 1948-11-30 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Adjustable expanded sweep for radar oscilloscopes
US2428926A (en) * 1943-06-04 1947-10-14 Rca Corp Modified sweep circuit for cathoderay tubes
US2552009A (en) * 1943-08-27 1951-05-08 Nat Res Dev Expanded sweep and calibrated cathode-ray tube trace
US2467208A (en) * 1943-12-30 1949-04-12 Gen Electric Pulse echo system
US2492700A (en) * 1944-02-24 1949-12-27 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Cathode-ray tube circuit
US2420516A (en) * 1944-06-15 1947-05-13 Gen Electric Pulse producing system
US2523288A (en) * 1944-08-09 1950-09-26 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Direction finder system
US2572975A (en) * 1945-08-20 1951-10-30 France B Berger Radio antenna scanning and azimuth marking means
US2680210A (en) * 1945-09-18 1954-06-01 Us Navy Triple sweep scope
US2714656A (en) * 1945-09-18 1955-08-02 Thomas W Hopkinson Audio frequency sweep system
US2646503A (en) * 1945-11-29 1953-07-21 Us Navy Balanced sweep circuit
US2874378A (en) * 1945-11-30 1959-02-17 Andrew B Jacobsen Data transmission system
US2518461A (en) * 1946-04-17 1950-08-15 Josiah J Godbey Panoramic receiver frequency marker system
US2602136A (en) * 1947-04-10 1952-07-01 Sperry Corp Modulating and transmitting apparatus
US2623196A (en) * 1950-02-28 1952-12-23 Products And Licensing Corp Television apparatus and method for phase-shift scanning
US2758247A (en) * 1951-09-21 1956-08-07 Gilfillan Bros Inc Gated video amplifier circuitry
US3005335A (en) * 1957-05-01 1961-10-24 Electrocircuits Inc Ultrasonic nondestructive testing apparatus and control therefor
US3011164A (en) * 1957-07-25 1961-11-28 Research Corp Digital expansion circuit
US2962625A (en) * 1958-10-06 1960-11-29 Dresser Ind Oscillograph deflection circuit
US2951181A (en) * 1958-11-25 1960-08-30 Robert M Sugarman Sampling oscilloscope
US3783398A (en) * 1972-09-01 1974-01-01 Int Video Corp Fm pulse averaging demodulator

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