US2359811A - High-frequency electrical apparatus - Google Patents

High-frequency electrical apparatus Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2359811A
US2359811A US42869142A US2359811A US 2359811 A US2359811 A US 2359811A US 42869142 A US42869142 A US 42869142A US 2359811 A US2359811 A US 2359811A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
beam
grid
grids
electron
means
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Russell H Varian
William W Hansen
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Leland Stanford Junior University
Original Assignee
Leland Stanford Junior University
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US193268A priority Critical patent/US2272165A/en
Priority claimed from GB618139A external-priority patent/GB529771A/en
Priority to US31532440 priority patent/US2275480A/en
Priority to US42869142 priority patent/US2359811A/en
Application filed by Leland Stanford Junior University filed Critical Leland Stanford Junior University
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2359811A publication Critical patent/US2359811A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J25/00Transit-time tubes, e.g. klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons
    • H01J25/78Tubes with electron stream modulated by deflection in a resonator

Description

0d. 10, 1944. v R N ETAL 2,359,811

HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTRICAL APPARATUS Original Filed March 1, 1938' "lawman-w" INVENTOR. RUSSELL H. VARIAN WILLIAM w. HANSEN- THEIR ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 10, 19

2,359,811 men-mommy nmo'rmcsr.

APPARATUS Russell H. Varian, Bellmore, and William W. Hansen, Garden City, N. Y., assignors to The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University, Calif., a corporation of California Original application March 1, 1938, Serial No.

193,268, now Patent No. 2,272,165, dated February 3. 1942. Divided and this application January 29. 1942, Serial No. 428.691

Claims.

The present invention relates, generally, to the controlof electron beams by electromagnetic fields for the excitation of electric circuits, and

A has reference, in particular, to novel electrical high frequency apparatus in which electron beams are subjected to displacement by electromagnetic fields confined and maintained in hollow conductors.

The present invention is, a division of co-pending application, Serial No. 193,268, filed March 1, 1938, for High frequency electrical apparatus, Patent No. 2,272,165 issued February 3, 1942. The embodiment of the present invention utilizes some of the elements of Patent No. 2,190,712, February 20, 1940, William W. Hansen.

This invention has for its principal object the provision of a novel high frequency electrical apparatus adapted for the excitation of electric circuits by periodically transversely displacing an electron beam, the displacement of which requires less power than that rendered available as high frequency energy as the result of the deflection of the beam, whereby the energy of an electron all the principal functional operations ordinarily associated with the generation, amplification, modulation, and transmission of high frequency oscillations.

Other objects and advantages will become apparent from the specification, taken in connection with the accompanying drawing wherein the single figure is an embodiment in which an electron beam is initially given lateral displacement by a hollow resonator, and electric fields are then used to change the velocities of the electrons of the beam thereby converting transverse movement of the beam to density modulation of the electrons and then absorbing energy from the beam by use of a second hollow resonator.

In the drawing an electron source I emits a beam of electrons 2 that is accelerated toward the wall of a resonator 3 and into which it passes through a grid Ill in the resonator wall. A confined system of standing waves is produced between faces 4 and 4' of resonator 3. The resonator beam passes between the faces 4 and 4'. whereby an oscillating electric field is impressed upon the electron beam acting to deflect the electron beam first toward the face 4 and then toward the other face 4'. The beam traverses member 3 and exits through grid opening 5 where it enters an electrostatic field between grid 5 and an oblique grid 5 maintained by the battery shown. A second electrostatic field is maintained between another oblique grid I and a transverse grid 8. After leaving the field through grid 8 the electrons enter an alternating field between spaced grids I IV of a second resonator 9. The two resonators 3 and 3 are shown coupled together by coupling loops l2 and I3 in the manner indicated.

In operation, the electron beam is periodically shifted from side to side so that it moves in the way represented from right to left and reverse in the figure as it passes downward through grids 5 to 8. Grids 5 and 8 are both preferably positive with reference to the electron emitter. Grids 5 and I are both at a potential materially different from that of grids 5 and 8, preferably only slightly positive in reference to the electron emitter.

An electron entering the field between grids 5 and 8 is either accelerated or decelerated depending upon the relative polarity of grids 5 and 3. For convenience it will be assumed that grids 6 and I are negative in respect to grids 5 and 8. Then an electron will be decelerated in the space between grids 5 and 6. Its velocity will be unaffected between grids 6 and l and it will be accelerated between grids l and 8. The resultant change in velocity between grid 5 and grid 8 will be zero. However, thetime taken by an electron in transit from grid 5 to grid 8 will vary depending upon its transverse position in the fields the electron traverses. If it is toward the left side of the beam as represented in the drawing, and

grids 5 and I are negative with respect to grids 5' and 8, the electron is very'quickly decelerated and it travels at the reduced velocity the comparatively long distance from grid 6 to grid 1. Between grids I and 8 it is quickly accelerated to its original speed. If it is located toward the right side of the beam the electron will be more gradually decelerated in the space between grids 5 and 6. It will travel a. relatively short distance between grids 6 and I at the reduced speed and it will be relatively slowly accelerated to its original speed between grids l and 8. Thus, it will take less time for the electron to go from grid 5 to grid 8 in a region where grids G and I are close together than where they are farther apart. The

reverse is true if the outer grids are made negative and the inner ones positive. When the electron beam is oscillating laterally some electrons will get from the emitter to the region beyond grid 8 in less time than others. The result is that the transit time from grid to grid 8 is a function of beam deflection, and it is possible for electrons leaving grid 5, after some other electrons, to have a shorter travel time between the emitter I and grid 8 and to arrive at grid 8 at the same time as those that left the emitter earlier, thus forming a periodic electron concentration. This has the efiect of making the electron stream where it leaves grid 8 periodically non-uniform, that is, recurrently grouped or bunched. The electron beam travels on and enters the field between the spaced grids H of a hollow resonator 9 which is caused to oscillate by the bunched electron beam as explained by Patent No. 2,190,712. In the terminology used herein in apparatus of this kind, the means included between the emitter i and grid 8 is called a buncher. Its function is briefly set forth as that of converting a substantially uniform-electron beam, or one varying at low frequency, into one that varies in density, that is, grouped, at high frequency. The oscillating resonator 9 delivers energy to the buncher through the interconnected coupling loops l2 and I3.

As many changes could be made in the above construction and many apparently widely different embodiments of this invention could be made without departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawing shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

What is claimed is:

1. In apparatus of the kind described, means for producing a beam of electrons, means for effecting oscillating transverse displacement of said beam at a high frequency, a hollow resonator having a confined system of standing waves for receiving said electron beam, said apparatus embodying means for varying the transit time of the electrons of said beam in their passage to said system of standing waves in accordance with the transverse displacement of said electrons to thereby produce recurrent grouping of the electrons of said beam as they enter said hollow resonator due to said variable transit time.

2. In apparatus of the kind described, the

' combination of means for producing an electron beam, means for deflecting said beam transversely, and means for causin the time of flight of the electrons of said electron beam between their source and a plane perpendicular to the initial path of the beam surface to vary as a function of the transverse displacement of said beam and at the frequency of said transverse displacement.

3. In apparatus of the kind described, the combination of means for producing an electron beam, means for oscillating said beam transversely, a resonant circuit excited by said beam, and means interposed between said oscillating means and said circuit for varying the transit time of said electrons as a function of the transverse displacement of the beam from its central position.

4. Apparatus of the character described, the combination of emitter means, a. hollow resonator disposed in advance of said emitter means, means for driving a stream of electrons from said emitter means and through said hollow resonator, the field of said resonator acting to oscillate said stream transversely, a second hollow resonator spaced from said first hollow resonator, coupling means between said two hollow resonators, and a pair of obliquely inclined grids interposed between said hollow resonators and connected to said driving means for varying the transit time of electrons passing between said resonators in accordance with the transverse displacement of said electrons.

5. High frequency apparatus comprising means for producing an electron stream, means for oscillating said stream transversely, a resonant circuit spaced from said oscillating means and excited by said stream, and means interposed between said oscillating means and said circuit 'for causing recurrent grouping of the electrons of said stream in accordance with the transverse displacement of said stream as they excite said resonant circuit.

RUSSELL H. VARIAN.

WILLIAM W. HANSEN.

US42869142 1938-03-01 1942-01-29 High-frequency electrical apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2359811A (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US193268A US2272165A (en) 1938-03-01 1938-03-01 High frequency electrical apparatus
US31532440 US2275480A (en) 1938-03-01 1940-01-24 High frequency electrical apparatus
US42869142 US2359811A (en) 1938-03-01 1942-01-29 High-frequency electrical apparatus

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB618139A GB529771A (en) 1938-03-01 1939-02-24 Improvements in or relating to electrical oscillating systems
FR851022D FR851022A (en) 1938-03-01 1939-03-01 Improvements to electrical oscillatory devices
US31532440 US2275480A (en) 1938-03-01 1940-01-24 High frequency electrical apparatus
US42869142 US2359811A (en) 1938-03-01 1942-01-29 High-frequency electrical apparatus

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2359811A true US2359811A (en) 1944-10-10

Family

ID=27393175

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US31532440 Expired - Lifetime US2275480A (en) 1938-03-01 1940-01-24 High frequency electrical apparatus
US42869142 Expired - Lifetime US2359811A (en) 1938-03-01 1942-01-29 High-frequency electrical apparatus

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US31532440 Expired - Lifetime US2275480A (en) 1938-03-01 1940-01-24 High frequency electrical apparatus

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US2275480A (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2608669A (en) * 1948-02-06 1952-08-26 Marcel Wallace Cathode-ray tube wavemeter

Families Citing this family (33)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2511860A (en) * 1950-06-20 Frequency modulation system
US2458223A (en) * 1939-07-03 1949-01-04 Albert G Thomas Electronic tube
US2452561A (en) * 1940-02-06 1948-11-02 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Electron discharge apparatus using velocity modulated beams
FR873967A (en) * 1940-07-11 1942-07-24 Philips Nv Device comprising a cathode ray tube equipped with deflector members and for generating oscillations of very high frequency
US2415349A (en) * 1940-09-05 1947-02-04 Harries John Henry Owen Electron discharge tube for ultra high frequencies
GB583024A (en) * 1941-05-02 1946-12-05 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Improvements in electron beam tube arrangements
US2438954A (en) * 1941-11-12 1948-04-06 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Electronic oscillator of the cavity resonator type
US2462496A (en) * 1942-04-24 1949-02-22 Rca Corp Electron discharge device
US2433044A (en) * 1942-04-24 1947-12-23 Rca Corp Electron discharge device
US2475652A (en) * 1942-08-03 1949-07-12 Sperry Corp High-frequency tube structure
US2449569A (en) * 1943-01-18 1948-09-21 Sperry Corp Electron beam apparatus
US2530373A (en) * 1943-05-04 1950-11-21 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Ultra high frequency electronic device
US2543082A (en) * 1943-06-22 1951-02-27 David L Webster Cavity resonator device for production of high-speed electrons
US2415749A (en) * 1943-06-30 1947-02-11 Rca Corp Electron discharge device with beam deflecting resonator
US2488320A (en) * 1943-06-30 1949-11-15 Rca Corp Electron discharge device employing cavity resonators
US2464229A (en) * 1943-11-10 1949-03-15 Univ Leland Stanford Junior High-frequency apparatus and method
US2463632A (en) * 1944-08-11 1949-03-08 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Variable electronic capacitance device
US2559136A (en) * 1945-02-23 1951-07-03 Jarnhs Elek Ska Aktiebolag Rontgen tube
FR962877A (en) * 1945-03-15 1950-06-22
US2534537A (en) * 1945-08-25 1950-12-19 Rca Corp Electron discharge device of the velocity modulation type
NL73693C (en) * 1945-10-08
NL76330C (en) * 1945-11-03
GB628806A (en) * 1945-11-14 1949-09-06 Gen Electric Co Ltd Improvements in apparatus for accelerating charged particles, especially electrons, to very high velocity
NL84676C (en) * 1947-11-04
US2656483A (en) * 1948-08-02 1953-10-20 Apstein Maurice Electron discharge device of the resonator type
US2728019A (en) * 1951-06-27 1955-12-20 Rca Corp Velocity modulation tubes
US2781474A (en) * 1951-07-16 1957-02-12 Radiation Res Corp Beam deflection electrometer amplifier tubes
US2832001A (en) * 1954-08-27 1958-04-22 Zenith Radio Corp Electron discharge systems
US3005128A (en) * 1957-10-18 1961-10-17 Edgerton Germeshausen And Grie Electron-beam deflection system
US2993141A (en) * 1958-02-10 1961-07-18 Richard F Post Producing bunched electron beams
US2956199A (en) * 1958-07-24 1960-10-11 Sylvania Electric Prod Frequency discriminator
NL264681A (en) * 1960-05-13
CA1044374A (en) * 1976-05-17 1978-12-12 Joseph Mckeown Charged particle beam deflector

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2608669A (en) * 1948-02-06 1952-08-26 Marcel Wallace Cathode-ray tube wavemeter

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US2275480A (en) 1942-03-10

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Birdsall Electron dynamics of diode regions
US2250511A (en) Oscillator stabilization system
US2240183A (en) Electric discharge device
US2687777A (en) Thermionic tube for ultrashort waves
US2280824A (en) Radio transmission and reception
USRE23369E (en) Diode oscillator
US2259690A (en) High frequency radio apparatus
US2233126A (en) Device for and method of controlling high frequency currents
US2790902A (en) Ion accelerator beam extractor
US2683238A (en) Microwave amplifier
US2541843A (en) Electronic tube of the traveling wave type
US1948384A (en) Method and apparatus for the acceleration of ions
US2408425A (en) Instrument landing system
US2294942A (en) Fixed frequency difference stablilization system
US2289756A (en) Electron tube and circuits employing it
Whittum et al. Electron-hose instability in the ion-focused regime
US2287845A (en) Thermionic vacuum tube and circuits
Naumova et al. Formation of electromagnetic postsolitons in plasmas
US2227372A (en) Tunable efficient resonant circuit and use thereof
US2103362A (en) Ultrahigh frequency magnetron oscillator
Friedman et al. Microwave emission produced by the interaction of an intense relativistic electron beam with a spatially modulated magnetic field
US2284751A (en) Resonant cavity device
US2402184A (en) Ultra high frequency electronic device contained within wave guides
US2622158A (en) Microwave amplifier
US2233779A (en) Electron discharge device