US2359515A - Variable range projectile - Google Patents

Variable range projectile Download PDF

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Publication number
US2359515A
US2359515A US437733A US43773342A US2359515A US 2359515 A US2359515 A US 2359515A US 437733 A US437733 A US 437733A US 43773342 A US43773342 A US 43773342A US 2359515 A US2359515 A US 2359515A
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Prior art keywords
projectile
tail
rods
assemblage
gun
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Expired - Lifetime
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US437733A
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Herman J Fanger
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CLEVE F SHAFFER
HERBERT W ERSKINE
MARTIN C MOGENSEN
Original Assignee
CLEVE F SHAFFER
HERBERT W ERSKINE
MARTIN C MOGENSEN
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Priority to US437733A priority Critical patent/US2359515A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B10/00Means for influencing, e.g. improving, the aerodynamic properties of projectiles or missiles; Arrangements on projectiles or missiles for stabilising, steering, range-reducing, range-increasing or fall-retarding
    • F42B10/02Stabilising arrangements
    • F42B10/12Stabilising arrangements using fins longitudinally-slidable with respect to the projectile or missile

Description

Oct. 3,l 1944. 1, FANGER 2,359,515
VARIABLE RANGE PRQJECTILE Filed April s; 1942 INVENTOR. l V HERMAN JT ,9M/@ER BY t Y A TTOENEX Patented Oct. 3, 1944 UNITED S VARIABLE RAN PROJ ECTILE Application April .6, 1942, Serial No. 437,733
9 Claims.
This invention relates to explosive projectiles as used in warfare, and ,particularly to such projectiles as are shot from the mortar type of guns and where it is important to predetermine the distance the lprojectile will carry, and the principal object of the present invention is to provide an explosive shell or projectile which may be adjusted to carry various distances with a given angle of trajection and given propelling explosive charge.
Other advantages include'an improved flight guiding 1in arrangement, and a, collapsible construction Which greatly conserves space in storing and transportation. Other features and advantages of the invention will appear in the following description and accompanying drawing.
In the drawing:
Fig. 1 is a side view of my improved projectile shown in collapsed condition within the bore of a gun or mortar and with .parts of the projectile shown in section.
Fig. 2 is a View similar to that of Fig. l but with the projectile in extended condition and further out in the gun barrel as after firing.
Fig. 3 is a cross section of the extendible tail fm portion of the projectile as seen from the line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
Briey described the invention comprises an explosive projectile of the type adapted to be projected from a mortar, with the addition of an assemblage of tail ns connected to the body of the projectile by means of extendible arms so that the tail fm assemblage may -be pulled back, away from the projectile body and locked in any of several positions against return movement, yet free to pull back to the full limit by the effect of the firing charge as'the lprojectile passes along the barrel of the gun. By this means several things are accomplished:
1. A compact .projectile is automatically elongated with ight guiding ns stretched out in back to thereby give much better control of flight.
2. By pulling out the tail fln assemblage to various distances, before firing, the size of the explosion chamber in the gun beneath the projectile may be predetermined, and since a uniform expelling charge is always used, the size of the explosion chamber is inversely -related to the distance the projectile will @be hurled.
3. By having the tail fin assemblage at the rear end of a light set of arms and spaced a relatively long way in back of the body of the projectile, it is therefore much more effective in controlling the flight of the moving projectile.
In Fig. 1 of the drawing I indicates a gun or mortar barrel, 2 the bore, 3 the bottom or breech end of the bore, 4 a hub within the bore through which the firing pin 5 operates, while 6 indicates an annular depressed Iportion of the gun barrel forming a ring deposit receiving chamber.
, In Fig. 2 an advanced portion of the gun bar-A rel I is shown with the projectile also advanced as well as extended togreater length due to the act of firing. The projectile comprises a cylindrical shell or body 1 filled with any desired type of explosive 8, and having the usual percussion head 9 or its equivalent for ring the shell charge through suitable fuse means not shown as the shell internal construction may assume any of a variety of forms not involved in the present invention, though some of its external features are shown and claimed in my joint pending application for patent filed on April 18, 1942, under Serial No. 439,456, as will be more fully explained.
The shell is preferably of substantially smaller I diameter than the bore of the gun and is fitted exteriorly with spaced ribs I0 which doy fit the bore and centralize the shell therein. The base of the shell is outwardly flanged as at II and secured to the bottom of the ange is a soft metal cup-like member I2 preferably of very thin sheet metal fitting within the bore and supported within by a similar cup-like member I3 of thicker rigid metal, both secured to the base of the shell as by one or -more screws I4 or otherwise.
Spaced around the body of the shell are longitudinally extending grooves I5 lying in which are rods I6 which slidably extend through aligned holes in the margins of members II, I2 and I3 and passing' rearwardly through an assemblage of ight control fins Il. These ns I'I are each preferably formed of two sheets of metal suit' ably riveted, welded, or otherwise fastened together and confrontingly indented to tightly receive the rear ends of rods Iii which are preferably riveted over at their outer ends as at I6 and welded in place.
Fins I'I are radially disposed and shaped to form a centrally disposed cylinder I8 preferably reinforced by an inserted tube I9 and both are pierced by relatively large holes 26. The bore of the inner tube and its length being such as to receive a conventional shot gun cartridge shell 2| with its cap end flange 22 seated against the end of the tube as shown in Fig. 1 and its forward end just clearing screws I4 or plate I3 when the n assemblage is in collapsed or telescoped position.
The radial portions Il of the ns are flanged outwardly at their ends as at 23 and riveted or welded to a ring or collar 24 of sheet metal which slidably fits into the bore 2 of the gun or mortar, and the forward ends of the slidable rods I6 are bent slantingly downwardly or inwardly as at 25 in a manner to engage successively a row of sockets or notches 2B extending inwardly and slantingly forward as shown best in Fig. 1, all so -that from the collapsed or forward position of the tail n assemblage shown in Fig. 1, the assem-v blage may be pulled back to snap the rod ends 25 into any of the. sockets 26 to thus` space theV n assemblage at any desired distance outward or in back of the base of the shell, and of course carry the shot gun shell back also. To move the assemblage forward again if inadvertently pulled back too far the rods would have to be. Dried upout of their sockets. Y
Cup members l2 and I3 are exposed; to the exa plosion gases of the cartridge shell' so as tor be expanded snugly against the wall of the gunbore,
the rear ends of said rodsv each embraced between the sheet metal layers of one of said radial ns and secured against withdrawal.
4. A projectile of the character described having an. elongated cylindrical body, a plurality of grooves. extending longitudinally of the body,
v a plurality of rods slidably positioned in said similarly to the action of the cup leather` of a f pump, and therefore provide a seal' as the pro-v jectile is ejected.
In use, shot gun shells with a powder charge but without shot are used to create the expelling pressure, and holes in the confining tube facilitate its quick release through the disrupted wall of the paper case.
As the rearward spacing of the iin assemblage results in a forward spacingof the projectile b ase it of course enlarges the explosion chamber of the gun accordingly, andlikewiselowers the effective pressure produced, and reduces the range of the projectile. Therefore the use of a stand? ard powder charge, and a predetermined spacingy of the sockets 26 made after firing tests at various gun angles, makes it easy to provide; a printed table, or rule for adjusting the telescopic tail nsf to secure the proper size explosion chamber forl the range desired. However, whether or not the tail n assemblage is drawn outward, it will always automatically pull back to the limit after firing before leaving the gun due to the fact that` the major force of the explosion is directed against the base of the projectile body` and the inertia and friction of the fin assemblage makes` it lag sumcient to pull the rodsback until their` inwardly bent ends strike flange Il, and thus` the value of a ight guiding tail n'assemblage spaced a considerable kdistance behind the body of the projectile is alwayssecured.
In considering the construction it is. evidenti that the sockets or notches -26 may just aswell be in the sides of the grooves l5 instead of the bottom if desired. Also that as the rods in fact form a plurality of ratchet bars, any yequivalent type of ratchet bars, rods, or wires may be used.
Having thus described my inventionand the. manner of its use what I claim in the present, application is:
1. A projectile of the character described having an elongated cylindrical body closed at itsl front and rear ends, a plurality of grooves .extending longitudinally ofthe body, aplurality of rods slidably positioned 'in said kgrooves and extending rearwardly beyond'the a flight the rear 0f the body, and stop means prevent-v ing total withdrawal of said rods, and means locking the rods when withdrawn against, for'v ward movement with respect-to the body.
2. In a construction as set outin claim 1.av flange on the base of the proj-ectilehaving-,holes through which saidfrods slidably extend tosaid tail fin assembly. l
3. In a construction as set out in claim 1 said tail n assembly including a central tubular hub.. 'adapted to receive a cartridge shell,- a plurality of radial ns projecting `from the hub,v said .radialflns being of two layers of sheet imetal and with grooves and extending rearwardly beyond the body; a flight; guiding tail finassembly secured tothe rear ends*v of said rods whereby the tail flnassembly may be moved from a position close tov the Vbody to'an extended position spaced to the rear of the body, and stop means"preventing total withdrawal of said rods, and means locking the rods at various degrees of rearward extension against.. forward movement with respect to the body.
5. Ina construction as set out in claim 4 th means locking the rods, against forward move-` ment .comprising spacednotches extending late. erall'y from said grooves, and the ends of said rods bent in a manner to spring into said sockets successively as they are drawn rearwardly. t
'6. In a projectile of the character described, a flight guiding tail iin freely accessible at the rear end of the projectile, and means slidable withy respect to the projectile extendibly connectingsaid tail 1in to the projectile whereby the tail fin may be manually positioned adjacent to the rear end of the projectile or extended and spa/ced rearwardly therefrom, and means for locking said tail iin when Withdrawn against forward movement, relative to said projectile, said tail fin being an assemblage including a. centraly cartridge supporting socket adapted to align a. cartridge with the firing pin of a gun in which theY projectile is placed. y
'7. Ina construction as set out in claim 6 stop means limiting the total extension of the tail fin assemblage, and the means extendibly connecting the tail iin assemblage to the projectile being free enough in its operation to permit the assemblage to lag and draw out the connection to the limit of said stop means as the projectile, is red from agun.
8. In a projectile of the character described a flight guiding tail n at the rear end of the projectile, and ratchet rods extendibly connect-` ing said tail fin to the projectile whereby the tail iin may be positioned adjacent to the rear end ofA the projectile or extended and spaced rear, wardly'atv'ari'ous distances therefrom and locked by said ratchet rods against forward movement relative to the projectile while permitting. refverse movement to full extension after they projectile is` fired, said tail fin comprising a central tubular hub adapted to receive a cartridge shell and radial fins extending from said hub.
9. In a projectile of the characterv described, a flight guiding tail iin at the rear end of the` projectile, and ratchet rods extendibly connett-Y ing said tail fin to the projectile whereby the tail fin may be pOSitionedadjacent to the rear end -A ofthe projectile or extended and spaced rearwardly atvario-us distances therefromandlocked by said rachet rods against forwardV movement relative to the projectile while Ypierrrlitgting re,-
verse movement to full extensionafter the D IQfjectile is fired, saidtail fin comprising a tral tubular hub adapted to receive a cartridge endsoi the radial ns Iand secured thereto.'
HERMAN J. t
US437733A 1942-04-06 1942-04-06 Variable range projectile Expired - Lifetime US2359515A (en)

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Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2538333A (en) * 1946-10-30 1951-01-16 Schermuly Conrad David Signal or smoke rocket
US2584826A (en) * 1946-05-31 1952-02-05 Gulf Research Development Co Aerodynamic surface for dirigible bombs
US2637241A (en) * 1949-12-31 1953-05-05 Powder Power Tool Corp Stud for explosive installations
US2666915A (en) * 1949-12-31 1954-01-26 Powder Power Tool Corp Stud driving tool
US2722003A (en) * 1949-12-29 1955-11-01 Powder Power Tool Corp Method of stud driving power control
US2775762A (en) * 1951-09-10 1957-01-01 Hilti Martin Explosively actuated fastener driving tool
US3047873A (en) * 1953-01-24 1962-08-07 Walter E Schulz Explosively actuated driving tool
US3416401A (en) * 1956-05-09 1968-12-17 Army Usa Mortar and ammunition
FR2371666A1 (en) * 1976-11-23 1978-06-16 Alsetex Stabilising fins for mortar fired grenade - has tube carrying fins bolted to explosive head with gun barrel seal between
US4561357A (en) * 1982-09-15 1985-12-31 General Dynamics Pomona Division Steering mechanism for an explosively fired projectile
US5668341A (en) * 1995-06-12 1997-09-16 Reynolds; George L. Silent mortar propulsion system
US20050224631A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2005-10-13 The Boeing Company Mortar shell ring tail and associated method

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2584826A (en) * 1946-05-31 1952-02-05 Gulf Research Development Co Aerodynamic surface for dirigible bombs
US2538333A (en) * 1946-10-30 1951-01-16 Schermuly Conrad David Signal or smoke rocket
US2722003A (en) * 1949-12-29 1955-11-01 Powder Power Tool Corp Method of stud driving power control
US2637241A (en) * 1949-12-31 1953-05-05 Powder Power Tool Corp Stud for explosive installations
US2666915A (en) * 1949-12-31 1954-01-26 Powder Power Tool Corp Stud driving tool
US2775762A (en) * 1951-09-10 1957-01-01 Hilti Martin Explosively actuated fastener driving tool
US3047873A (en) * 1953-01-24 1962-08-07 Walter E Schulz Explosively actuated driving tool
US3416401A (en) * 1956-05-09 1968-12-17 Army Usa Mortar and ammunition
FR2371666A1 (en) * 1976-11-23 1978-06-16 Alsetex Stabilising fins for mortar fired grenade - has tube carrying fins bolted to explosive head with gun barrel seal between
US4561357A (en) * 1982-09-15 1985-12-31 General Dynamics Pomona Division Steering mechanism for an explosively fired projectile
US5668341A (en) * 1995-06-12 1997-09-16 Reynolds; George L. Silent mortar propulsion system
US20050224631A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2005-10-13 The Boeing Company Mortar shell ring tail and associated method
US7262394B2 (en) * 2004-03-05 2007-08-28 The Boeing Company Mortar shell ring tail and associated method

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