US2355351A - Primary battery depolarizing system - Google Patents

Primary battery depolarizing system Download PDF

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Publication number
US2355351A
US2355351A US47488343A US2355351A US 2355351 A US2355351 A US 2355351A US 47488343 A US47488343 A US 47488343A US 2355351 A US2355351 A US 2355351A
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Prior art keywords
relay
stick
signal
battery
primary
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Joseph E Willing
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Alstom Signaling Inc
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Alstom Signaling Inc
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L1/00Devices along the route controlled by interaction with the vehicle or vehicle train, e.g. pedals
    • B61L1/18Railway track circuits
    • B61L1/181Details
    • B61L1/185Use of direct current
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T307/00Electrical transmission or interconnection systems
    • Y10T307/50Plural supply circuits or sources
    • Y10T307/615Substitute or emergency source

Description

Aug. 8, 1944. .1. E. WILLING PRIMARY BATTERY DEPOLARIZING SYSTEM Filed Feb. 5, 1943 y w fig-yam a; attorney Patented Aug. 8, 1944 UNITED PRIMARY BATTERY DEPOLARIZING SYSTEM Joseph E. Willing, Rochester, N. Y., assignor to General Railway Signal Company, Rochester,

Application February 5, 1943, Serial No. 474,883

11 Claims.

The present invention relates to apparatus for periodically and automatically depolarizing a primary battery used for controlling railway signal or other intermittently controlled signal lamps.

Primary batteries are often used as a stand-by current source. That is, they supply the load circuits when a transmission line transmitted source or" current fails. Batteries of this kind tend to become polarized resulting in greatly increased internal resistance if they stand either fully idle or if the current drawn therefrom more or less continuously is small. Such a primary battery may be depolarized if a rather heavy load is applied thereto for a short time. It has been found that a particular primary battery could be depolarized by applyinga load current of 20 amperes for minutes once per month and that this same battery could be kept in a depolarized condition by drawing off a load current of about 2 amperes for seconds twentyfour times daily. In railway signalling it is quite common to provide normaldark signals, that is, have a signal illuminated only when a train is approaching the signal, in that there is no need of lighting a signal when there is no one to observe its indication.

In accordance with the present invention it is proposed to employ in addition to a transmission line supplied scurce of current a primary battery as a reserve or a stand-by source and to provide timing means responsive a predetermined time after the si nal lamp is lighted from the pri mary battery in response to approach control to cause substitution of the transmission-line-supplied source for the primary battery.

More specifically it is proposed to employ a slow acting relay to measure the time that depolarizing action on the primary battery shall take place and to provide a stick relay, which is picked up after such time has expired and, by the shifting of its contacts, substitutes said transmission-line-supplied source for said primary battery and which stick relay is held energized until iliumination of the signal lamp is no longer required. When the invention is applied to railway signalling, as distinguished from other applications of the invention to intermittently illuminated signals, it is proposed to employ an approach relay which is actuated when a train approaches the signal in the direction in which such signal governs traffic, to employ a slow acting relay controlled by the approach. relay, to employ a stick relay controlled by both the slow acting relay and the approach relay and to use contacts of said stick relay to determine whether the primary battery or the transmissionline-supplied source shall supply energy to such signal lamp.

Other objects, purposes and characteristic features of the invention will appear as the description progresses and will in part appear from the accompanying drawing in which the single figure illustrates one embodiment of the invention applied to a railway signal.

Structures.-Referring to the drawing the track rails ID of a railway track have been shown divided into blocks by. insulating joints ll of which the adjacent ends of blocks M and N only have been shown. ,As illustrated the exit end of a block is provided with the usual track source including a track battery TB and the usual. series resistance l3, whereas the'entrance end of each block is provided with a track relay TR. .At the entrance of each block there is preferably a signal which for the blockN has been designated S4. Each signalis provided with a distant relay DR which relay may be'a neutral relay as illustrated and which is controlled by a circuit including front contacts of the track relays of two blocks in advance of the signal governed by such distant relay DR. This is irrespective of whether a block is provided with a single track relay or whether it is divided into sub-sections each including a track relay. At any rate, the distant relay DR is deenergized ii any portion of either of two blocks in advance of the signal with which such distant relay is associated is occupied. As illustrated. the distant relay DR, is energized over line circuits Ni and N2 whereas the next distant relay in'the rear is energized over line circuits MI and M2. In other words, the distant relay DR is controlled by apparatus at the signal in advance of the signal S4 in the same'manner as the line circuit Ml-M2 and the distant relay included therein is energized by apparatus associated with the signal S4.

As illustrated the signal S4 is a signal of the multiple aspect color light type provided with three signalling units designated G, Y and R which emit color beams colored green, yellow and red respectively. As is shown by the circuits the green unit G is energized only if both the track relay TR and the distant relay DR are energized, the yellow unit Y is illuminated when the track relay TR is energized and the distant relay DR is deenergized, and the red unit R is illuminated when the track relay TR is deenergized. The apparatus thus far described has been illustrated to show a system to which the present invention may be applied and does not constitute any part of the present invention.

The present invention includes an approach relay AP, a stick relay SR, and a time element relay TH which latter relay in the present instance is a relay of the thermal bi-metallic type which will not close its normally open contact until its heating element has been energized for a predetermined period of time, say 10 seconds, by current of a predetermined value. It will be observed that the approach relay AP is included in series in the line circuit for the distant relay DR (not shown) associated with the signal next in the rear of the signal S4, from which it is readily seen that when a train moving from left to right enters the block M and deenergizes the track relay associated with that block the line circuit Ml-M2 will be broken at a front contact corresponding to the front contact l5 of the track relay TR but associated with the track relay at the entrance of the block M. In other words, the approach relay AP will be deenergized when a train approaches the signal S4.

The apparatus of the present invention also includes a primary battery PB and an alternating current source AC which energizes the transformer T for supplying alternating current to the lamps R, Y and G of the signal S-l under certain conditions and which may also furnish the energy for controlling the line circuit MlM2. To get an understanding of the present invention it is believed desirable to consider operation of the apparatus embodying the invention.

Operation.Under normal conditions, as illustrated, the track relay TR, the distant relay DR and the approach relay AP all assume their energized condition whereas the stick relay SR and the thermal relay TH are normally deenergized. The primary battery PB supplies energy to the line circuit including the approach relay AP and a distant relay DR (not shown) associated with the entrance end of the block M, but this current is of such small value that the primary battery PB would eventually become polarized resulting in an increase of its internal resistance to a point where the current delivered would be insufiicient. It is therefore desirable and proposed in accordance with the present invention to intermittently draw a comparatively large cur trance of the block M, thereby opening the line circuit including the approach relay AP and causing this approach relay to assume its deenergized condition. Dropping of the approach rela AP results in the closure of its back contact l5 thereby closing two energizing circuits one of which includes the back contact I! of the stick relay SR, the back contact I6 of the approach relay AP, and the heating coil [8 of the thermal relay TH, the adjustable resistance R, whereas the other circuit includes the back contact I! of the stick relay SR, the back contact I6 of the relay AP, the green lamp G of the signal S4 (assuming favorable track conditions in. ad- Vance), the front contact IQ of the distant relay DR, front contact 20 of the track rela TR, and the back contact 2| of the stick relay SR.

The closure of the circuit for the thermal relay TH will cause heating element N3 of this thermal relay to be heated. The closure of the other circuit causes the green lamp of signal S4 to be illuminated. This puts a rather heavy drain on the primary battery PB which is sufficient to cause depolarizing action upon the plates of the primary battery to take place. After a rather short interval of time, of say 10 seconds, the thermal relay TH will have closed its front contact 23 thereby closing a pick-up circuit for the stick relay SR which may be traced from the upper terminal of the secondary winding of transformer T, through the winding of the stick relay SR, through the contacts 23 of the thermal relay TH, and back to the lower terminal of the secondary winding of the transformer T. Closure of this circuit results in the picking up of the stick relay SR, and with the stick relay SR once picked up a stick circuit including the stick contact ll' of the stick relay and the back contact N5 of the approach relay AP and including the secondary winding of the transformer T is closed. The stick relay SR will now remain energized so long as the approach relay AP remains in its deenergized condition.

With the stick relay SR now energized the primary battery PB only supplies current to the line circuit extending to the next signal in the rear, the energizing current for the green lamp G of the signal S4 being derived from the secondary winding of the transformer T through a circuit including front contacts I! and 2| of the stick relay SR, and back contact I6 of the approach relay AP. The thermal relay TH is of course deenergized as soon as the back contact H of the stick relay SR opens so that this thermal relay TH may return to its normal contactopen position.

The heating coil 18 of the thermal relay TH has included in series therein an adjustable resistance R which may be adjusted to determine the pick-up period of this thermal relay TH. In practice, this adjustable series resistance will be adjusted to a value depending upon a number of train movements.

If there are only a few train movements a day the resistance R will be increased to a value where the thermal relay TH will be extremely slow to pick up thereby causing the depolarization current to flow for a longer time for each train whereas if there are many trains per day the series resistance R will be adjusted to a low value causing comparatively quick pickin up of the thermal relay TH. In other words, the series resistance R is adjusted to a value where the depolarization current flowing per day is of the proper amount of ampere hours, it having been experienced that two ampere hours per month, not counting the ampere hours flowing in the line circuit M|M2, is sufficient.

As soon as the east-bound train under consideration passes out of the block M the track relay or relays of the block M will return to normally energized condition, but the approach relay AP will still remain deenergized because the front contacts 25 and 26 of the rela TR associated with the block N are still open. If this east-bound train now passes entirely out of the block N these contacts 25 and 26 will reclose and cause reenergization of the relay AP. Picking up, and the opening of the back contact I 6 of the approach relay AP, will break the stick circuit for the stick relay SR thereby causing this stick relay SR to return to its normal deenergized position. The lamps G and R of the signal S4 which were energized in succession during movement of the east-bound train will of course now be .both deenergized, as will also the lamp Y; because the approach contact |6.is now open.

It, maybe pointed out here that fit has been the practice to have an employee of the railroad go from primary battery to primary battery once each month to apply'the necessary depolarizing load to the primary battery to cause depolarization thereof. Inaccor-dance with the present invention such manual depolarization is no longer necessary and by proper adjustment of the resistance R used for timing the thermal relay TH, in connection with the other apparatus of the present invention, will cause automatic depolarization of the primary battery. This automatic depolarization of the primary battery is just as reliable and probably more satisfactory than the former manual method, in hattbc depolarizing current is applied man times per month instead of being applied onlyonce per month. I

Even though the invention has been shown applied to primary batteries used for railway signalling purposes it should be understood that the invention may be used anywhere where signal lamps are intermittently energized and where a primary battery is used as a reserve or standby battery for the control of such intermittently "controlled signals.

Having thus shown and described one rather specific embodiment of the present invention and "having shown the apparatus constituting the invention rather conventionally it should be understood that various changes, modifications and additions may be made to adapt the invention to the particular problem encountered in practicing the same without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention so long as these changes come within the scope of the following claims.

What I claim as new is:

l. A system for depolarizing a primary battery used for railway signalling purposes comprising; a primary battery; another source of current; a stick relay; an approach relay'and a slow pick-up relay; a railway signal; means for actuating said approach relay when a train approaches said signal in the direction saidsignal governs traffic; a circuit for said slow pick-up relay including a back contact of said stick relay and a contact closed when said approach relay is Y;

in its actuated condition; a pick-up circuit for said stick relay including a front contact of said slow pick-up relay; a stick circuit for said stick relay including a contact of said approach relay closed when said approach relay is in its actuated.

condition; and two circuits for said signal one including said primary battery and a back con tact of said stick relay, and the other including said other source of current and a front contact of said stick relay; whereby said signal is energized by current from said primary battery each time said approach relay is actuated and for the pick-up duration of said slow pick-up re ay.

2. A system for depolarizing a primary battery used for railway signalling purposes comprising; a primary battery; another source of current; a stick relay; an approach relay and a slow pick-up relay; a railway signal; means for actuating said approach relay when a train approaches said signal in the direction said signal governs trafiic; a circuit for said slow pick-up relay including a back contact of said stick relay and a contact closed when said approach relay is in its actuated condition; a pick-up circuit for said stick relay including a front contact of said slow pick-up relay; a stick circuit for said stick "'relayincluding a contact of said approach relay closed when said approach relayiis in its actuated condition; and two circuits for said signal one including said primary battery, a back contact of said; stick relay and a contact closed when said approach relay is in its actuated condition, and the other including said other source of current and a front contact 'of said stick relay,

whereby said signal is energized by current from said primary battery each time said appoach relay isactuated and for the time required for said slow pick-up relay to pick up.

3. A system for depolarizing a primary battery used for railway signalling purposes comprising;

a primary battery and another source of current;

a stick relay; an approach relay and a slow pick-up relay; a railway signal; means for actuating said approach relay when a train approaches said signal in the direction said signal governs traflic; a circuit for said slow pick-up relay including a back contact of said stick relay and a contact closed when said approach relay is in its actuated condition; a pick-up circuit for said stick relay including a front contact of said slow pick-up relay; a stick circuit for said stick relay including a contact of said approach relay closed when said approach relay is in its actuated condition; and two circuits for said signal one including said primary battery, a back contact of said stick relay and a contact closed when said approach relay is in its actuated condition, and the other including said other source of current, a front contact of said stick relay and a contact of said approach relay closed when such approach relay is in its actuated condition, whereby said signal is energized by current from said primary battery each time said approach relay is actuated and for the pick-up duration of said slow pick-up relay.

4. Apparatus for depolarizing a primary battery; including, in combination, a primary bat tery and another source of current which may at times fail; a railway signal; a stick relay; a slow pick-up relay and an approach relay which is actuated when a train approaches said signal in the direction in which said signal governs traf- -c; an energizing circuit for said slow pick-up relay including said primary battery, a back contact of said stick relay and a contact closed when said approach relay assumes its actuated condition; a pick-up circuit for said stick relay including said other source of current and a contact closed when said slow pick-up relay is in its picked-up condition; a stick circuit for said stick relay including a contact of said approach relay closed when said approach relay is in its actuated condition; and two circuits for energizing said signal one including a back contact of said stick relay and said primary battery and the other including a front contact of said stick relay and said other source of current; whereby if said other source of current fails said stick relay will not pick up and only said one circuit for said signal will be closed.

5. In apparatus for depolarizing a primary battery; the combination. with a primary battery and another source of current which may at times fail; and a railway signal; of a stick relay; a slow pick-up relay and an approach relay which is actuated when a train approaches said signal in the direction in which said signal governs traffic; an energizing circuit for said slow pick up relay including said primary battery, a back contact of said stick relay and a contact closed when said approach relay assumes its actuated condition; a pick-up circuit for said stick relay including said other source and a contact closed when said slow pick-up relay is in its picked-up condition; a stick circuit for said stick relay including a contact of said approach relay closed when said approach relay is in its actuated condition; and two circuits for energizing said signal one including a back contact of said stick relay, a contact closed when said approach relay is in its actuated condition and said primary battery and the other including a front contact of said stick relay and said other source of current; whereby the current for actuating said slow pick-up relay and the current supplied to said signal during the pick-up time of said slow pick-up relay, is supplied from said primary battery.

6. In apparatus for depolarizing a primary battery; the combination, with a primary battery and another source of current which may at times fail; and a railway signal; of a stick relay; a slow pick-up relay and an approach relay which is actuated when a train approaches said signal in the direction in which said signal governs trafiic; an energizing circuit for said slow pickup relay including said primary battery, 2. back contact of said stick relay and a contact closed when said approach relay assumes its actuated condition; a pick-up circuit for said stick relay including said other source and a contact closed when said slow pick-up relay is in its picked-up condition; a stick circuit for said stick relay including a contact of said approach relay closed when said approach relay is in its actuated condition; and two circuits for energizing said signal one including a back contact of said stick relay and said primary battery and the other including a front contact of said stick relay, a contact closed when said approach relay is in its actuated condition and said other source of current; whereby the current for actuating said slow pick-up relay and the current supplied to said signal during the pick-up time of said slow pickup relay, is supplied from said primary battery.

'7. In a system for depolarizing a primary battery used for railway signalling purposes; the combination with a primary battery and a source of current which may at times fail; of a railway signal; an approach relay which is actuated when a train approaches said signal in the direction said signal governs traflic; an energizing circuit for said signal including said primary battery and a contact closed when said approach relay assumes its actuated condition, and means eifective a predetermined time after said aproach relay has assumed its actuated condition, and provided said source of current has not failed for substituting said source of current for said primary battery.

8. In a system for depolarizing a primary battery used for intermittent control purposes; in combination, a primary battery and a second source of current; an intermittently controlled load; a normally inactive electroresponsive control means; an energizing circuit for said load including said primary battery and closed when said control means assumes its active condition and means effective a predetermined time after said control means has assumed its active condition for substituting said second source of current for said primary battery.

9. In a system for depolarizing a primary battery used for railway signalling purposes; the combination with a primary battery and a source of current which may at times fail; of a railway signal; an approach relay which is actuated when a. train approaches said signal in the direction said signal governs traflic; an energizing circuit for said signal including said primary battery and a contact closed when said approach relay assumes its actuated condition, and a stick relay actuated a predetermined time after said approach relay has assumed its actuated condition, and provided said source of current has not failed for substituting said source of current for said primary battery.

10. In a control system, in combination, a control member, a main source of energy and a standby source of energy, controlling means operative upon intermittently recurring conditions to supply energy to the member from the standby source, and change-over means operable from the main source and eiiective a predetermined time after the control member is energized from the standby source to disconnect the control member from the standby source and connect it to the main source.

11. In a control system, in combination, a control member, a main source of energy constituted by a primary battery and a standby source of energy, controlling means operative upon intermittently recurring conditions to supply energy to the member from the standby source, and change-over means operable from the main source and efiective a predetermined time after the control member is energized from the standby source to disconnect the control member from the standby source and connect it to the main source.

JOSEPH E. WILLING.

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2490427A (en) * 1947-11-20 1949-12-06 Union Switch & Signal Co Power supply means
US4935688A (en) * 1989-03-13 1990-06-19 Bell Communications Research, Inc. Electrical storage cell life extender

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2490427A (en) * 1947-11-20 1949-12-06 Union Switch & Signal Co Power supply means
US4935688A (en) * 1989-03-13 1990-06-19 Bell Communications Research, Inc. Electrical storage cell life extender

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