US2350490A - Sound recording apparatus - Google Patents

Sound recording apparatus Download PDF

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US2350490A
US2350490A US483712A US48371243A US2350490A US 2350490 A US2350490 A US 2350490A US 483712 A US483712 A US 483712A US 48371243 A US48371243 A US 48371243A US 2350490 A US2350490 A US 2350490A
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gear
shaft
turntable
feed screw
recording
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US483712A
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Herbert S Berliner
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Herbert S Berliner
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B3/00Recording by mechanical cutting, deforming or pressing, e.g. of grooves or pits; Reproducing by mechanical sensing; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B3/02Arrangements of heads
    • G11B3/10Arranging, supporting, or driving of heads or of transducers relatively to record carriers
    • G11B3/34Driving or guiding during transducing operation
    • G11B3/36Automatic-feed mechanisms producing progressive transducing traverse across record carriers otherwise than by grooves, e.g. by lead-screw

Description

June 6, 1944. H. s. BERLINER SOUND RECORDING APPARATUS Filed April 20, 1945 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Herbs/'2 6T Ber/mar Filed April 20, 1943 3 SheerLs-Sheei 2 INVENTOR Herbs/7 J. Ber/m er.
June 6, 1944. s BERUNER 2,350,490
SOUND RECORDING APPARATUS Filed April 20, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 /7 as 26 Y 46 2 :65 7
Haj
flvENToR Herber? J, Berliner BY Patented June 6, 1944 SOUND RECORDING APPARATUS Herbert S. Berliner, Westmonnt, Qnebeailanada Application April 2., 1943, Serial No. 483,712
7 Claims. (Cl. 274-13) This invention relates exclusively to the incorporation of change feed means in that type of phonograph disc recording machine wherein the iced screw for the recording head is driven in a positive manner from the top oi the recording machine turntable.
An object of the invention is to Provide in a phonograph disc recording machine including a turntable, a carrier arm swivelly mounted for po- 'sitioning over said turntable, a recording head on said carrier arm, a feed screw mounted by said carrier arm for feeding said recording head across a record blank disc on said turntable, and means for driving said feed screw from the upper side of said turntable, a mechanism for changing the regular speed at which said screw is driven from the top side 01 the turntable and hence the regular rate at which the. recording head is caused to travel across the turntable.
Another object is to provide a means 'for the purpose stated and which is of simple and inexpensive construction, easy and convenient to operate and which is positive in its results.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent from a consideration of the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein a satisfactory embodiment of the invention is shown. However, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the details disclosed but includes all such variations and modifications as fall within the spirit of the invention and the scope of the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a plan view of a recording machine having the change feed means 01 the invention incorporated therein;
Fig. 2 is a front elevational view of said machine;
Fig. 3 is a transverse vertical sectional view taken substantially along the plane of the line 3-3 oi Fig. l, with a portion of the housing broken away to show a worm and worm gear r Fig. 4 is a perspective view showing the general relation oi the parts of my variable speed drive;
Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional 'view taken substantially along the plane of the line 5-5 0! Fig. 3;
Fig. 6 is a detail sectional view taken substantially along the plane 01' the line H of Fig. 5, and showing a ratchet mechanism forming part 0! an overrunning clutch device with which the record, ing machine is equi ped: and
Fig. 7 is a vertical sectional view taken substantially on' the plane of the line 1-1 of Fig. 5, and showing a detail of the operating lever for the feed change device.
There are many reasons why it is desirable to have a sound recording machine include means for changing the regular rate of feed of the recording head across a disc record blank. An important,if not the principal, reason is to have the same machine capable of recording both commercial phonograph records and phonograph records especially made for electrical transcription purposes. Ordinary commercial phonograph records are recorded at approximately 78 revolutions per minute and with to grooves perv inch leaving a substantial wall between adjacent grooves while records tor electrical transcription purposes are usually recorded at 33% revolutions per minute and are made with their ound grooves closer together.
Referring in detail to the accompanying drawings, the recording apparatus as here shown includes a turntable l2 driven by any mechanism (not shown) usual in the art and contained and mounted on a suitable base I i. A recording head H equipped with a recording stylus i5 is supported by a carriage it which during operation of 'the apparatus is impelled across the turntable by a feed screw i1. Feed screw I1 is rotatably mounted in a carrier arm generally designated i2 and including end brackets 19 and 20 rigidly connected in spaced relation by elongated bearing means comprising tie rods 2|. In the particular embodiment shown there are two such bearing means having their axes parallel and spaced apart in substantially vertical relation as shown clearly in Fig. 3.
From a recording position over the turntable 12 the entire carrier arm I! and the parts mounted thereon may be swung vertically and laterally to clear the turntable for the placing of a new record blank thereon, and the like. To this end a base bearing member 22 is secured to the base II at one side of the turntable and receives a vertical standard or post 23 connected at its upper end with a horizontal shaft 24 to which is pivoted a housing means 25 comprising partpi the carrier arm ll. With this arrangement it will be clear that the carrier arm may be swung vertically about the horizontal shaft 24 and that then the entire assembly may be swung laterally, the post 22 turning in the base bearing 22, whereby to dispose the carrier arm and recording head and associated parts to one side or beyond one edge of the turntable.
A stub shaft 3! passes through the end bracket I6 and rotatably received in a hollow housing member 21 secured to such bracket as by screws 23 and comprising a handle means by which the entire assembly of the carrier arm may be lifted and swung to and from a recording position. Shaft 26 is secured against casual longitudinal movement by a set screw 29 passing radially through a wall of the housing'2l and entering an annular groove 36 in the shaft.-
The extreme inner end of shaft 26 is cone shaped as at 3| to function as a trunnion or bearing for one end of the feed screw ll as best shown in Fig. 5. At its other end the feed screw is supported .on the cone shaped inner end 32 of a shaft 33 mounted in a bearing sleeve 34 slidably disposed in a housing 35 located at the outer side of end bracket 26. The shaft 33 is freely turnable in sleeve 34 and the sleeve and shaft are both slidable in the housing 35- and through the end bracket 20 whereby the cone bearing 32 maybe moved to and from supporting relation with an end of the feed screw H to permit of the latter being removed and replaced. A thumb screw av .or .the like passes through end bracket 2|! and may be tightened against the sleeve 34 for the purpose of securing'tl e latter and the shaft 33 p in position.
Feed screw 11 is driven from the top of the turntable l2. For this purpose the carrier arm I! at its inner endis provided with a driving flange 36 having a center hole and having holes 31 radially spaced from said center-hole. The
center hole (not shown) receives the usual cen- V terins p n of the turntable and when the carrier arm is in recording position the holes 31 receive driving studs 38 provided on the turntable whereby as the turntable is rotated it drives the flange 36. It will be understood that any record blank 35 on the turntable has the usual center opening and openings radially spaced from said center mounts a gear 53 constantly meshing with the I idler gear 494 The purpose of the idler gear 43 is to cause gear 53 to rotate inthe same direction as gear 41.
Gear 53 may be attached to or formed integral with a relatively long gear 54 shown as of somewhat less diameter than the gear 53. Gears 53 and 54 are held in place on the shaft 52 in any suitable manner, as, for example, by a screw 55 entering the inner end of the shaft. Gears 53 and 54 being integral or attached to one another are turnable as a unit on the shaft 52.
Slidable and turnable on the fixed shaft 52 at the outer side of the plate 5| is a collar 56 provided with a thumb screw 51 by means of which the collar may be secured in the desired fixed position on said shaft. Attached to the inner end of the collar 56 is a radially extending arm 58 to which is fixed one end portion of a rod 53 disposed in parallel relation to the shaft I2 and passing through an arcuate slot 66 provided in the plate 5|. Clearly on loosening of screw 51 the collar may be moved along and about the shaft 52 and corresponding movements will be imparted to the rod59 but in spaced parallel relation to the shaft 52.
' Attached to the inner end of rod 53 is a bracket arm 6|, shown as arcuate, and the lower end of which supports a shiftable idler gear 62. With the described arrangement on loosening of screw 51 the idler gear 62 may be shifted back and forth being understoodthat said collar constitutes the opening to receive one or more of the turntable carried studs or pins 38.
As shown in detail in Figs. 2 and 3 the flange 36 is secured to or made integral with the lower end of a vertical shaft 40 which carries a worm 4| constantly meshing with a worm gear 42 tumable about the stub shaft 26. According to the present invention the worm gear 42 drives the feed screw 41 through a change speed mechanism later to be described in detail.
To the desired end, worm gear 42 has rigidly secured thereto a housing 43 receiving a pawl;
and ratchet mechanism as clearly shown in Fig. 6.
Such'mechanism includes a pawl 44 normally forced inwardly toward the axis of the housing under the urging of a coil spring 45 set in a recess in the housing and at one end bearing ainst the pawl. The pawl engages a ratchet wheel 46 within the housing and fixedly secured to the stub shaft 26 on which the worm gear is tumable. Withthe described construction it will be clear that as the worm gear 42 is rotated by the worm 4| it acts through the housing 43, pawl 44 and ratchet wheel 46 to rotate the stub shaft 26 -at.a fixed speed relative to the rate of rotation of the turntable l2. j I
A gear 41 is fixed to the inner end portion of the stub shaft 26 as by means of a set screw or the like 46. An idler gear 49 meshes with gear 41 and is supported by a stud 53 projecting from the inner face of a plate 5| which may comprise an integral extension of end bracket l9 or may be fixed thereto as desired. A shaft 52 is fixedly carried by platejl and projects at each side thereof andat theinner side thereof rotatably supporting means for the arm 53, rod 53, bracket 6| and the idler gearv and supports such elements from the outer end portion of the fixed shaft 52.
A stepped gear 63 is fixed on the inner end portion of the feed screw l'l adjacent the inner end of the stub shaft 26. As shown gear 63 has varying diameters or steps I, 2, 3, 4 and 5 although it will be understood that such gear may have greater or'lesser number of steps as may be desired. The manner in which the gear is attached to the feed screw is not of prime importance and here a set screw 64 is shown as passing through the gear and into a milled slot in the unthreaded end portion of the feed screw.
The gear 63 is so positioned on the feed screw l1 that when the latter issecured in place or mounted on the cone-shaped ends of the shafts 26 and 33 the steps of said gear are adapted to be selectively engaged by the shiftable idler gear 62.while the latter is meshing with the relatively long gear 54. Thus from Figs. 4 and 5 it will be clear that upon loosening of thumb screw 51 and manual adjustment of collar 56 along and about the outer end portion of shaft 52 the idler gear 62 while remaining in mesh with gear 54 may be brought into meshing relation with any of the steps of gear 63. v
For example, when the idler is meshing with gear 54 and step I of gear 63 the idler is'disposed somewhat toward one side of the gear 54. As the idler is shifted to successively connect gear 54 in driving relation with the steps 2, 3, 4 or I of gear 63 the idler is moved not only along the gear 54 but also downwardly about the same, the
axis about which the idler is moved being the shaft 52 which is also the axis of gear 54. Thus is substantially under gear II as. suggested by the dotted lines in 184. 7
After idler gear has been adjusted to a desired position with a desired step of gear 33 geared to gear 54 the thumb screw is again tightened to secure the parts against casual relative movement.- It will be clear that depending on which step of gear 63 is geared with the gear the feed screw II will be driven at a greater or lesser rate relative to the rate of rotationof the turntable. Thus with the structure described it will be clear that the ratio between the rate of rotation of the turntable and that of the feed screw il may be almost instantaneously changed by the operator. The change is made without disassembling or removing any parts or otherwise disrupting the mechanism and without loss of time.
The change speed gearing described is preferably enclosed in a suitable housing 'or gear box 86 and indicating means is provided in order to give an external indication of the position of the idler gear 62 within said gear box. For the mentioned purpose a fingerpiece 61 is secured to the arm 58 and extends upwardly therefrom as shown. A stepped'bracket 68 is secured to the plate iii and provided with a series of slots 69 into which the finger piece 61 enters as the idler gear 62 is moved from one engagement with one of the steps (i, 2, 3, i or 5) into engagement with another thereof. Bracket 68 may be provided with suitable indicia (not shown) associated with each of the steps 69 thereof. For example, such indicia might be in terms of the number of lines or grooves per inch of record surface to be made.
by the recording stylus with the finger piece 61 in each step of the bracket or the indicia might be such as to give any other useful information in connection with the location of the finger piece in any one of the steps of the bracket. In addition, the various steps of the bracket 88 00- operate with finger 61 to limit movement of gear 52 as it is moved into mesh with the respective ing a slot Ii. milled in the outer end portion-of I the feed screw 81 as shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
In this way a driving connection is established between the shaft 33 and the feed screw. A crank disc I: is rigidly attached to or is formed integral with the outer end of the shaft 33 and is provided with a handle 13 by means of which the shaft 33 and accordingly the screw I! may be manually rotated. By virtue of the overrunning clutch mechanism previouslydescribed it will be seen that by manual operation of the crank I3 the feed screw I! can be rotated at a speed greater than that normally imparted to it by the tum-table drive mechanism so that the recording head carrier can be moved across the surface of the tum-table at a correspondingly greater-than-normal speed to provide a high pitch cross over groove from one recorded zone to the start of another or from a recorded zone to a terminal circle or the like.
Recording head carriage I6 is for convenience and by way of illustration supported upon the upper of the two elongated bearings II to which reference has already been made. The carriage is adapted for relatively rotary movement about the axis of the upper bearing II, it being supported in operating position against the lower bearing 2! in the usual manner. Carriage lO-is provided with a thread-engaging plate 14 (Fig. 2) which, during operation of the device, enters between the threads of feed screw ll, so that by rotation of the latter the carriage l6 carrying the recording head is driven inwardly or outwardly across the tum-table in a direction depending upon whether it is desired to cut the record from the outside toward the center, or from'the center toward the outside. In the case of a left-hand threaded feed screw the carriage will travel across the tum-table from the outside of the record blank toward the inside, and conversely in the case of a right-hand threaded feed screw.
Carriage i6 is provided with means to retract plate 14 from operative engagement with the feed screw. Thus, for instance, the plate It is connected to thumb-screw 15, through an operating shaft (not shown) extending through the.
carriage. Thumb-screw 15 and the shaft to which it is attached is caused to rise on rotation of the thumb-screw in one direction. This upward motion continues until plate H is withdrawn from contact with the threads of the feed screw ll, thus stopping the travel of the carriage across the tum-table despite the continuous rotation of the feed screw.
For convenience, the apparatus may include a scale which may take the form of a square rod 13, Figs. 2 and 3. This rod is rotatable and contains a number of scales graduated in any desired manner to show the position of the carriage with respect to the record, or it may carry any other desired indicia. A pointer 11 (Fig. 2) having pointed ends 18. may be attached to the carriage It for use in connection with the scale i6.
As will be apparent from the foregoing description, the mechanism described comprises means for varying the ratio between the rate of rotation of the turn-table (the driving element) and the rate of rotation of the feed screw (the driven element), thereby permitting the recording stylus ii to be driven across the record blank in a radial direction at desired predetermined speeds for any given tum-table speed. By this means the spacing between the sound grooves on the record can be varied in a predetermined manner.
More particularly, and merely by way of further illustration, in one specific embodiment of my invention I have constructed apparatus in ac- 4 step of largest. diameter (step I) there will be porduced 152 record grooves or lines per inch (measured in a radial directionacross the record), the next smallest step will produce 129 lines per inch, the next smallest 118 lines-per inch, the next smallest 97 lines perinch, and the smallest of all 86 lines per inch.
These spacings are given only as illustrations. The groove spacings which are generally found to be most desirable for ordinary commercial records are those ranging from about to lines per radial inch, with 96 to 98 most frequently employed. For electrical transcription purposes the records are usually designed to operate at 33% M. and have the sound grooves much closer together.
Considering now the operation of the apparatus as a whole, after a blank record disc 39 is placed in recording position upon. the turn-table be moved along the bearing rods 2| until the recording stylus is over the record at the point where it is desired to begin'recording. With a left-hand feed screw II as shown in Fig. 2, this point will-be near the outer periphery of the disc record blank 39. At the desired point screw I! may then be turned in the opposite direction, thereby-permitting plate ll to drop-downwardly .into engagement with the feed-screw I'I. The apparatus having been set for the desired gear ratio by placing ,the movable idler 62 in mesh with the particular step of gear 63 which will produce the desired groove spacing on the record, as shown for example, by appropriate indicia inscribed upon bracket 69 in line with each of the slots provided therein for finger 61, the apparatus is ready to begin recording. The pressure exerted by the recording stylus l5 upon the blank record disc 39 may be controlled as desired by means of'spring 19 (Fig. 2), means being also provided for adjusting'the tension of this spring, such as an adjusting screw 99.
After the turn-table is rotated a few times the recording may be begun, and continued until the recording of the particular selectionor excerpt is completed. Assuming that a series of relatively short sound effects are to be recorded on a single record disc, after each individual sound eifect has been recorded, the recording head carriage I6, with or without an additional few revolutions for the turn-table, may be rapidly moved inwardly to a new recording position by manually turning crank 13. This will simultaneously produce a spiral run-out groove between the recorded sound effects on the record. The
next sound effect may then be recorded as be-.
fore,and so on. When in making a recording the plate "reaches a recessed groove 8| at the inner end of the' feed screw II, the recording head will remain stationary, despite the continued rotation of the feed screw.
While I have described my invention in connection with the overrunning clutch mechanism 7 shown more particularly in Fig. 6. it is obvious that itris not restricted to use therewith, but may be employed in recording apparatus where there are no particular means provided for producing a spiral run-out groove of. increased pitch between recorded portionson the-same record disc. Furthermore, whilev the particular feed screw I'I illustrated in the drawings carries a left-hand thread it is obvious that by providing the lead screw with a right-hand. thread the apparatus may be readily converted to one in which the recordis cut and played from the inside out.
I am aware that other modifications may be made by those skilled in the art in accordance with the foregoing description. Therefore it is to be' understood that changes, omissions, additions, substitutions and/or modifications may be made within the scope of the following claims without departing from the spirit of my invention.
Having thus 'set forth the nature of my invention, what I claim is:
gear,- a crank at the outer end of the carrier arm and connected with said feed screw, and a-change speed gearing interposed between said overrunning clutch and said feed screw whereby the latter is rotatable from the top of the tum-table .at'a selected one of a plurality of available predetermined speeds.
2. In a disc recording apparatus comprising a tum-table, a recording head, a swiveled removable carrier mounting said recording head and adapted to position the same over a record blank on said tum-table, means for feeding said head on said carrier across a record blank, said means comprising a feed screw in operative engagement with said recording head and gear mechanism for driving said feed screwfrom the top of said turn-table, means mounting said feed screw and gear mechanism on and for movement with said carrier, said gear mechanism including driving and driven gears of which one is a stepped gear, and a movable ear manually shiftable to gear said driving and driven gears together through a chosen step of said stepped gear.
/ 3. In an apparatus for recording sound on a disc, a turntable, a ,carrier, a recording head on said carrier, a feed screw on said carrier and operable to feed said head across a record blank on said turntable, a gear drive from the top of said turntable to said feed screw and including a worm driven from said turntable, a shaft, a
. worm gear meshing with said worm and driving said shaft, a spur gear onsaid shaft, 2. second shaft spaced from the first shaft and parallel with the feed sc'rew'and fixed in position, a relatively long gear on the second shaft, an idler gear between said spur gear and said relatively long gear, a collar movable along and turnable about said shaft, a radially extending arm fixed to said collar, a rod fixed to said arm in spaced relation to the second shaft and extending in parallel relation to said relatively long gear, a bracket on' the inner end of said rod, a movable idler gear supported by said bracket on an axis parallel with that of said long gear, a stepped gear secured to said feed screw in spaced relation to the relatively long gear but parallel therewith, and said collar adjustable about, and along said second shaft to shift said arm, rod and bracket along said relatively long gear and about. the
same on the axis thereof to mesh the movable idler gear with the relatively long gear and a' to visually indicate the location of said movable idler gear within said housing.
by said carrier in operative relation to re- 5. In an apparatus i'orjrecording sound on a disc, a turntable, a carrier, a recording head on said carrier, a feed screw on said carrier and operable to feed said head across a record blank on said turntable, a gear drive irom'the top of c'ordingj head to feed the'latter across'a record bl x nsaidtumtabl means'to drive saidfeed screw -iromltiife' top oflsaid turntable, and said worm gear meshing with said worm and driving said shaft, a spur gear on said shaft, a second shaft spaced from the first shaft and parallel with the feed screw, a relatively long'gear on the second shaft, an idler gear between said spur gear and said'reiatively-long gear, a movabl'e'idler gear mounted on an axis parallel with that of 7 said long gear, a st pped-gear secured to said feed screw in spaced relation to the relatively long gear but parallel therewith, and means i'orshiftingsaid movable idler gear along said relaa chosen predetermined speed.
6.'In an apparatus forre'cording sound on aremovable carrier mounting, said recording head and adapted to position the same over a record. blank on saidturntable,- a feed screw ,mounted' "last means eluding-a shattparallel with said said turntable to said feedscrew and including 1 a worm driven 1min said turntable, a shaft, a
stepped-.gearf-and another gear said shai't and the other in driving relation'withsaid teed screw. means to drive the gear on said'shait'from the turntable, and a movable gear-j manually shii'table to gear said other gear with f a i'chosen step of -sai d"stepped gear.
7. In an apparatus for recordingsound on a disc, a turntable, a recording head,.a 'swiveled removable carrier mountin aid r o din l and adapted to vposition the sameover a record blank on said'turntable. a feedscrew-mounted by said carrier in operative relation to said recording head to feedthe latter-across a record blank on said turntable; means to drive said teed screw from the 'top "otsaid turntable, and said last. means including a stepped gear concentric with and in driving relation-to said feed screw,
ajgear driven from the top '01 said turntable, and disc, a turntable, a recording head,f a swiveledthe top of said turntalile; a
' nrm aurt'ra srmnmrza.
means to drive said stepped gear-through a chosen. step thereof. 1mm said geardriven from
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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2513441A (en) * 1944-09-19 1950-07-04 Celanese Corp Recording head carriage guiding means
US2528190A (en) * 1947-12-13 1950-10-31 Richard D Thayer Recording stylus feed means
US2553392A (en) * 1945-01-31 1951-05-15 Fred Van Eps Recording head feeding device
US2803466A (en) * 1950-08-12 1957-08-20 Soundscriber Corp Means for indexing recorded material upon record members in phonographic recording machines
US2840642A (en) * 1951-11-15 1958-06-24 Armour Res Found Magnetic transducing assembly
US3622163A (en) * 1969-11-21 1971-11-23 Columbia Broadcasting Phonograph record player
US3871426A (en) * 1973-10-15 1975-03-18 Eldex Lab Fraction collecting apparatus
WO1982002273A1 (en) * 1980-12-29 1982-07-08 Louis Cushing Souther Linear tracking tone arm
US9019806B1 (en) * 2014-03-17 2015-04-28 Thomas Lloyd Bowden, Sr. Low friction linear tracking tone arm

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2513441A (en) * 1944-09-19 1950-07-04 Celanese Corp Recording head carriage guiding means
US2553392A (en) * 1945-01-31 1951-05-15 Fred Van Eps Recording head feeding device
US2528190A (en) * 1947-12-13 1950-10-31 Richard D Thayer Recording stylus feed means
US2803466A (en) * 1950-08-12 1957-08-20 Soundscriber Corp Means for indexing recorded material upon record members in phonographic recording machines
US2840642A (en) * 1951-11-15 1958-06-24 Armour Res Found Magnetic transducing assembly
US3622163A (en) * 1969-11-21 1971-11-23 Columbia Broadcasting Phonograph record player
US3871426A (en) * 1973-10-15 1975-03-18 Eldex Lab Fraction collecting apparatus
WO1982002273A1 (en) * 1980-12-29 1982-07-08 Louis Cushing Souther Linear tracking tone arm
US4346467A (en) * 1980-12-29 1982-08-24 Souther Louis C Linear tracking tone arm
US9019806B1 (en) * 2014-03-17 2015-04-28 Thomas Lloyd Bowden, Sr. Low friction linear tracking tone arm

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