US2324971A - Wall - Google Patents

Wall Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2324971A
US2324971A US317167A US31716740A US2324971A US 2324971 A US2324971 A US 2324971A US 317167 A US317167 A US 317167A US 31716740 A US31716740 A US 31716740A US 2324971 A US2324971 A US 2324971A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
vapor
wall
sheathing
plaster
asphalt
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US317167A
Inventor
Hobart F Woodward
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Minnesota and Ontario Paper Co
Original Assignee
Minnesota and Ontario Paper Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Minnesota and Ontario Paper Co filed Critical Minnesota and Ontario Paper Co
Priority to US317167A priority Critical patent/US2324971A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2324971A publication Critical patent/US2324971A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S62/00Refrigeration
    • Y10S62/13Insulation

Description

H. F. WOODWARD July 20,I 1943.

WALL

Filed Feb. 5, 1940 ZJMM www1/Mm, H s, ma. 3. f J L WW y Y, mfg wm @www w w V MMV? Z y J f e f Y A p M, wm @www of.

INVENTOR ATTORNEY Patented July 20, 1943 WALL Hobart F. Woodward, Minneapolis, Minn., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Minnesota and Ontario Paper Company, a corporation of Minnesota Application February 3, 1940, Serial No. 317,167

2 Claims.

This invention relates to walls which are located where there is a temperature differential between opposite sides thereof and in which wall insulation is provided forretarding the transmission of heat through the Walls. The invention has special reference to winter insulation of buildings wherein a warm, more or less humid atmosphere normally exists on one side and where a freezing temperature may occur on the cold side.

It has been found in climates experiencing freezing weather that vapor in heated houses migrates into the walls and as it acquires a lower temperature from the outside, the vapor may condense depositing water. Theoretically condensation of vapor occurs at the dew point, and in the event the temperature is freezing, ice may form in the walls. At warmer temperatures the accumulated ice will melt. This usually results in injury and decay to wood frames and other structural parts and such injury may be'observed after a number of years of this action. Siding and sheathing in particular deteriorate, and such action appears to be hastened by conventional structures, which retard the passage of vapor and tend to prevent evaporation of water which accumulates. It has been found by experience that themigration of vaporl into a normalwall under many conditions is,

far too rapid to wall. y

There has. been much speculation about the theory relating to the migration of vapor through materials, and the application of the theory to building construction. The direction of vapor travel is Adetermined by the moisture equilibrium conditions for the two sides of the material and not the absolute vapor pressure difference. vIt may be said that in most practical cases where the vapor pressures are different on the two sides of a building wall, a vapor pressure gradient will be established through the wall, and the vapor will travel in the direction of vapor pressure drop. n

It is an object and purpose of vapor barriers to provide means which will either bar the migration of vapor into walls or so retard the migration of vapor that condensation Within the walls will not occur.

It is an object of this invention to provide a wall construction in which the warm side is of such construction as will prevent or retard to prevent condensationwithin the a great extent, the migration of vapor into the Q into the wall from the warm side will escape from the wall before condensation occurs.

Other objects of the invention are the independent or combined provisions of a heat insulated walland heat insulating material in which the cold side of the Wallis substantially not less than eight times more vapor-pervious than the warm side of the wall. f

Otherandl additional objects and advantages of the invention Will appear from the following explanation of the invention made in connection with the accompanying drawing in which:

Figure 1 is a diagrammatic representation of a wall of the open stud space type.

Figure 2 is a diagrammatic representation of a wall of the insulated stud space type.

Figure 3 is a diagrammatic representation of a wall of the so-called dry wall type.

Figure 4 is a sectional view of a wall of the type shown in Figure 1.

Figures 5, 6, and 7 are views of ber board having vapor barriers on one face thereof.

For successful construction attention must be given, to vapor barriers. In cold 'climates it is especially important to provide a vapor barrier to prevent or retard vapor from the interior of the house migrating through the inner wall panel and condensingtwithin the stud space. Vapor barriers should beappliedlon the Warm` side of` the wall (the inner panel,` In. a-construction where plaster is to be used the vapor barrier generally should be applied on the rear face of the plaster base. In a construction employing so-called dry wall the vapor ybarrier may be on either face of the inner panel, preferably on the room .side of the inner panel.

Referring to Figures 1, 2,.3and 4, it is assumed that suchwalls are employed in a house wherein the room or inside temperature is about '70 F.,

anda relative humidity of about 40%, and the outsidertemperature is about F. The inside yair will contain about 3.86Igrains per cubic foot of water asvapor. As air cools its capacity for holding moisture decreases. For example, at 15 F. one cubic footr of air can hold only about .218,grain. As the air from the warm room migrates into the wall and cools there may be condensation and a deposition of water.

In Figures 1, 2 and 3 the numeral Il] represents plaster and II represents a' plaster receiving base. The plaster receiving base may be and preferably is fiber board although plaster board and similar material can be employed. Associated Withthe plaster base is vapor barrier I2. Various forms of vapor barriers may be used so long as they retard the passage of vapor to about .5 gram or less per square foot in 24 hours when the interior temperature is about 70 F. at 40% humidity and the outdoor temperature is about 15 F. below.

Numeral I 3 represents a sheathing of such composition and formation that vapor will migrate therethrough at a rate of at least 8 times faster than through the vapor barrier. A sheathing that will permit vapor to pass at least grains per square'footin 24 hours under conditions above indicated will give a successful wall construction.

A sheathing that willproduce these results is a vegetable ilber board having a density of from about 16 to 25 pounds per cubic foot. Generally the sheathing should be about 25/az" in thick-` ness, but generally it may be said that sheathing should have a thickness of about 75" to' 1*/2".

In Figure 2,the stud spaces I5' are in part at least filled with insulating material I6. It is preferred that a dead air space be provided in the stud space, this dead air space preferably is adjacent to the sheathing.

Il.' a plaster receiving base is employed it is desirable to lock the joints between adjacent sheet or board forming vthe plaster base. The locking of such joint may be accomplished In various ways, but such an arrangement as disclosed in Figure 2 gives excellent results. The edges of the boards forming the plaster base are provided with an interlocking or over-lapping construction and secured to one of the abutting boards is lock I8 which extends across the joint and contacts the surface of the adjacent board.

In Figure 3 the warm side or inner panel is to be used without the addition of plaster. The vapor barrier may be used on either face but preferably on the room face side.

Heretofore, in many constructions the sheathing was seal coated or Va coated building paper was employed between the sheathing and the iinishing material. Such a construction prevents or tends to prevent the passage of vapor and moisure from the stud spaces. If it is desired to employ a paper between the sheathing and the finishing material. it should vbe-of a porous construction such as does not act as a vapor barrier. Coated paper should not be used as it retards the escape of vapor and moisture from the stud space.

The best and desirable result is obtained by employing a fiber insulating inner panel With a vapor barrier associated therewith and an outer insulating sheathing which permits vapor to pass therethrough at a relatively fast rate. Many modifications may be used which' give satisfactory results. For example, the inner panel may be plaster board having associated therewith a vapor barrier.

A vapor barrier may be provided with many materials and the following are the most economical to use and the most economical to apply.

A fiber board Il is coated with an asphalt or other bituminous compound by spreading over one surface melted asphalt. If only one coat of asphalt is used care must be used to see that there are substantially no air or pin holes therein. Generally, one coat of asphalt as heretofore ap- D plied does not prevent vapor passage. If only asphalt is to be used as a vapor barrier, to insure a safe vapor barrier at least two coats of asphalt should be employed.

In Figure l is disclosed a very successful vapor barrier which consists of a coating of asphalt I2 and a sheet of kraft paper 2|. To produce this kind of vapor barrier the base material II, such as for example fiber board, is coated with hot asphalt and when the asphalt becomes tacky the kraft sheet is applied and then the composite body passed through a hot calendering process. The calenderlng insures that substantially all of the small holes in the asphalt will be closed.

In Figure 5 is 'disclosed another form of vapor barrier that is highly eicient. The base material such as fiber board is coated with asphalt or other bituminous compound and -metallie granules are preferably applied while the compound is in a soft state. The Whole is then preferably rolled to evenly imbed the granules in the surface of the body layer. It has been found that the substance commercially known as bronzing powder may be used and the material preferably used is aluminum bronze powder which imparts a silver-like appearance. The grade of aluminum powder known as ne is well adapted for the purpose, although coarser grades may be used, and as little as 3 pounds of it is sufficient to coat one surface of athousand square feet, although a greater quantity is preferred.

In Figure 4 the plaster base I I is coated with plaster I9 or other interior nishing material. Associated with the plaster base I I is vapor barrier I2. Breathing sheathing I3 forms a part oi the coldside of the wall and secured thereto is finishing material 20.

What I claim is:

1. A wall construction comprising inner ber board panels having an `asphalt coating and a sheet of paper over the coating on one face of each panel, said coated panels having a vapor porosity of about 0.004 to 0.5 gram per square foot in 24 hours when indoor temperature is about F. at 40% humidity and the outdoor temperature is about -15 F., studding supporting the panels, liber board sheathing of about 16 to 25 pounds density per cubic foot and a vapor porosity of about at least 5 grams per square foot in 24 hours under conditions indicated, and siding material secured over said sheathing.

2. A wall construction comprising an inner fiber board panel having an asphalt coating and a sheet of paper over the coating on one face of each panel, means for locking the joint between adjacent panels, said coated panels having a vapor porosi-ty of about 0.004 to 0.5 gram per square in 24 hours when indoor temperature is about 70 F. at 40% humidity and the outdoor temperature is about 15 F., studding supporting the panels, liber board sheathing of about 16 to 25 pounds density per cubic foot and a vapor porosity of about at least 5 grams per square foot in 24 hours undertconditions indicated, and siding material secured over said sheathing HOBART F. WOODWARD.

US317167A 1940-02-03 1940-02-03 Wall Expired - Lifetime US2324971A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US317167A US2324971A (en) 1940-02-03 1940-02-03 Wall

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US317167A US2324971A (en) 1940-02-03 1940-02-03 Wall

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2324971A true US2324971A (en) 1943-07-20

Family

ID=23232415

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US317167A Expired - Lifetime US2324971A (en) 1940-02-03 1940-02-03 Wall

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2324971A (en)

Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2451286A (en) * 1944-08-11 1948-10-12 Wood Conversion Co Refrigerator construction having means to restrict moisture in the walls of the cabinet
US2483896A (en) * 1945-03-09 1949-10-04 Frazer W Gay House heating system
US2497713A (en) * 1946-05-17 1950-02-14 Roger K Becker Indirect cooling system for buildings
US2541762A (en) * 1943-12-04 1951-02-13 Wood Conversion Co Dry-wall construction
US2639593A (en) * 1944-11-06 1953-05-26 Electrolux Ab Refrigerator insulation
US2899716A (en) * 1959-08-18 Woodward
US3001613A (en) * 1952-07-24 1961-09-26 Robert K Mcberty Interlocking metal building panel
US3160548A (en) * 1959-08-18 1964-12-08 American Felt Co Wall covering
US3313072A (en) * 1956-04-05 1967-04-11 Cue Thompson & Company Ventilated wall construction
US4031681A (en) * 1976-02-04 1977-06-28 Joseph Charniga Wall construction
US4852314A (en) * 1986-12-11 1989-08-01 Moore Jr Thomas W Prefabricated insulating and ventilating panel
US5134831A (en) * 1989-01-06 1992-08-04 Avellanet Frank J Method of improving the energy efficiency of a building
US20070084139A1 (en) * 2005-10-17 2007-04-19 Stender Mark L Exterior wall assembly
US20070094964A1 (en) * 2005-10-17 2007-05-03 Stender Mark L Dynamically ventilated exterior wall assembly
US20100287863A1 (en) * 2009-05-18 2010-11-18 Moisture Management, Llc Building envelope assembly including moisture transportation feature
US20100287861A1 (en) * 2009-05-18 2010-11-18 Moisture Management, Llc Exterior wall assembly including moisture transportation feature
US20100287862A1 (en) * 2009-05-18 2010-11-18 Moisture Management, Llc Exterior wall assembly including dynamic moisture removal feature
US20110277407A1 (en) * 2008-10-10 2011-11-17 David Masure Composite Panel for a Wall and Method for Making Same
US8813443B2 (en) 2009-05-18 2014-08-26 Moisture Management, Llc Building envelope assembly including moisture transportation feature
US9702152B2 (en) 2011-06-17 2017-07-11 Basf Se Prefabricated wall assembly having an outer foam layer

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2899716A (en) * 1959-08-18 Woodward
US2541762A (en) * 1943-12-04 1951-02-13 Wood Conversion Co Dry-wall construction
US2451286A (en) * 1944-08-11 1948-10-12 Wood Conversion Co Refrigerator construction having means to restrict moisture in the walls of the cabinet
US2639593A (en) * 1944-11-06 1953-05-26 Electrolux Ab Refrigerator insulation
US2483896A (en) * 1945-03-09 1949-10-04 Frazer W Gay House heating system
US2497713A (en) * 1946-05-17 1950-02-14 Roger K Becker Indirect cooling system for buildings
US3001613A (en) * 1952-07-24 1961-09-26 Robert K Mcberty Interlocking metal building panel
US3313072A (en) * 1956-04-05 1967-04-11 Cue Thompson & Company Ventilated wall construction
US3160548A (en) * 1959-08-18 1964-12-08 American Felt Co Wall covering
US4031681A (en) * 1976-02-04 1977-06-28 Joseph Charniga Wall construction
US4852314A (en) * 1986-12-11 1989-08-01 Moore Jr Thomas W Prefabricated insulating and ventilating panel
US5134831A (en) * 1989-01-06 1992-08-04 Avellanet Frank J Method of improving the energy efficiency of a building
US20070094964A1 (en) * 2005-10-17 2007-05-03 Stender Mark L Dynamically ventilated exterior wall assembly
US20070084139A1 (en) * 2005-10-17 2007-04-19 Stender Mark L Exterior wall assembly
US8833023B2 (en) * 2008-10-10 2014-09-16 Arcelormittal Construction France Composite panel for a wall and method for making same
US20110277407A1 (en) * 2008-10-10 2011-11-17 David Masure Composite Panel for a Wall and Method for Making Same
US20100287863A1 (en) * 2009-05-18 2010-11-18 Moisture Management, Llc Building envelope assembly including moisture transportation feature
US20100287861A1 (en) * 2009-05-18 2010-11-18 Moisture Management, Llc Exterior wall assembly including moisture transportation feature
US8001736B2 (en) 2009-05-18 2011-08-23 Moisture Management, Llc Exterior wall assembly including moisture transportation feature
US8074409B2 (en) 2009-05-18 2011-12-13 Moisture Management, Llc Exterior wall assembly including moisture removal feature
US8316597B2 (en) 2009-05-18 2012-11-27 Moisture Management, Llc Method of removing moisture from a wall assembly
US8813443B2 (en) 2009-05-18 2014-08-26 Moisture Management, Llc Building envelope assembly including moisture transportation feature
US20100287862A1 (en) * 2009-05-18 2010-11-18 Moisture Management, Llc Exterior wall assembly including dynamic moisture removal feature
US9353498B2 (en) 2009-05-18 2016-05-31 Moisture Management, Llc Building envelope assembly including moisture transportation feature
US9702152B2 (en) 2011-06-17 2017-07-11 Basf Se Prefabricated wall assembly having an outer foam layer

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US10227773B2 (en) NP-EIFS non-permissive exterior insulation and finish systems concept technology and details
CA1155748A (en) Foamed plastics laminates
CA1341084C (en) Coated fibrous mat-faced gypsum board resistant to water and humidity
CN103174226B (en) All with the external heat insulating wall of the inorganic modified flame-retardant foam plate of mechanical anchor reinforcement
US5091235A (en) Laminated sill wrap assembly for providing an air infiltration barrier
US4274239A (en) Building structure
US6737156B2 (en) Interior wallboard and method of making same
CA2125504C (en) Low thermal conducting spacer assembly for an insulating glazing unit and method of making same
US2091918A (en) Insulating material
CA1187262A (en) Insulated roof construction
US3455076A (en) Roofing membrane with fibrous reinforcing material
US6711872B2 (en) Lightweight panel construction
US5685124A (en) Wall, ceiling or roof elements with heat insulation properties on one side and sound insulation properties on the other
US20050144906A1 (en) Vented furring strip
CA2670509C (en) Continuously insulated wall assembly
US4507901A (en) Sheet metal structural shape and use in building structures
RU141334U1 (en) Flat finishing element
US20070015424A1 (en) Building material having adaptive vapor retarder
US20030129330A1 (en) Cell insulation blanket with phase change material, and method of making
US5231811A (en) Storage structures with layered thermal finish covering
US3387420A (en) Ventilating covering element for built-up roofing
ES2289238T3 (en) Thermal insulation method.
US4048777A (en) Building deck structure
US3555758A (en) Panel and sealed joint structure
US3955031A (en) Flame resistant building material