US2294949A - Calculating machine - Google PatentsCalculating machine Download PDF
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- US2294949A US2294949A US2294949DA US2294949A US 2294949 A US2294949 A US 2294949A US 2294949D A US2294949D A US 2294949DA US 2294949 A US2294949 A US 2294949A
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- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06C—DIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
- G06C23/00—Driving mechanisms for functional elements
- G06C23/02—Driving mechanisms for functional elements of main shaft
- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06M—COUNTING MECHANISMS; COUNTING OF OBJECTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
- G06M1/00—Design features of general application
- G06M1/28—Design features of general application for zeroising or setting to a particular value
- G06M1/34—Design features of general application for zeroising or setting to a particular value using reset shafts
- G06M1/343—Design features of general application for zeroising or setting to a particular value using reset shafts with drums
slept-"8, H. T. AVERY 2,294,949
. CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Jan. 22, 1940 7 Shqets-Sheefc l- Flt-3-1- a 9E3 I INVENTOR. fi/wow 7.'Av:2v
Br W a A T-TORNEYS Sept. 8; 1942. H. "r. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE ori inal Filed Jan. 22. 1940 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVEN TOR. HAPOLP TAVEPY BY W A TTORNEY3 P 8, 1942- H. T. AVERY 2,294,949
CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Jan. 22, 1940 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 /9Z7 [928 M75 /26 we;
INVENTOR. HAwLo TAVEPY BY A W W Arm/615v:
Sept. 8, 1942. AVERY 2,294,949
CALCULAT ING MACHINE Original FiledulJanQ 22, 1940 '7 Sheets-Sheet 4 w I E- Z50 m7 260 @5- i;
' v 5 /a9/ ib" 4 INVENTOR. HAIP LD TAVEQY BY? 4v ATTORNEY.)
Sept. 8, 1942. H. T. AVERY 2,294,949
CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Jan. 22, 1940 '7 Sheets-Sheet 5 M0 J54 J55 ax INVEN TOR. hAP LD TA VEPY ATTORNEY.
p 8, 1942- H. T. AVERY 2,294,949
CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Jan. 22, 1940 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENTOR. HAPOLD TAVEPY ATTORNEYS p 8, 1942. H. T. AVERY 2,294,949
CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Jan. 22, 1940 .7 Sheets-Sheet '7 FIE.14.
INVENTOR. HAPOLD ZAVEQY A TTORNEYJ Patented Sept. 8, 1942 CALCULATING momma Harold T. Avery, Oakland, Calif., assignor to Marchant Calculating Machine Company, a corporation of California Original application January 22, 1940, Serial No. 315,055. Divided and this application January 27', 1941, Serial No. 376,172
into Patent Number 2,229,630, issued on January 28, 1941; the Avery patent application Serial Number 702,949, filed December 18, 1933 and since matured into Patent Number 2,211,736, issued on August 13, 1940; and the Avery patent application Serial-Number 84,927, filed June 12, 1936 and since matured into Patent Number 2,271,240, issued on January 27, 1942, to which application and patents reference may be had fora disclosure of the complete calculating machine including mechanism not specifically disclosed herein.
The principal object of the present invention is to provide a power operated mechanism for clearing the shiftable registers of calculating machines, which mechanism requires a minimum number of additional parts.
A more specific object of the invention is to utilize certain mechanical elements now-serving other purposes, for the purpose of clearing the shiftable registers of calculating machines without impairing the original function of such elements.
Other objects will appear during the following detailed description of a preferred form of the invention, reference being made to the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, in which:
Figure l is a top plan view of a machine embodying the present invention and showing the various control'keys and a shlftable carriage carrying accumulator and counting registers. .Figure2isafrontviewofthecarriage,aportion of the coverbeing broken away to show the registering mechanism therein.
Figure 3 is a transverse sectional view of the carriage and is taken on the line 8-3 of Figure 2, showing the mechanism'for rocking the clearing shafts of the carriage.
Figure 4 is a transverse sectional view taken on the line 4-4 of Figure 2.
Figures 5, 7, 8, and 9 are transverse sectional views taken through the carriage to illustrate the construction of the accumulator registering mechanism, the sections being taken so as to bring out the interaction and relationship between certain of the parts. I
Figure 6 is a fragmentary view illustrating the yieldable clear lever.
Figure 10 is an enlarged front view, partially in section, of two connected dial assemblies, 11- lustrating the manner of construction thereof.
Figure 11 is an exploded perspective view of the dial assembly.
Figure 12 is a right side view, partially in section, of mechanism for clearing the registering mechanism. f
Figure 13 is a rear view of a portion of the power transmission mechanism and its control and is taken substantially on the line l3--l3 of Figure 12.
Figure 14 is a schematic view showing the motor and its connection to the various clutches of the machine.
Figure 15 is a detailed sectional view of one of the irreversible clear clutches.
Calculating machines of the general type disclosed in the above mentioned application and patents, such as the commercially known Marchant calculating machines to which these application and patents relate, comprise a main frame in which keyboard controlled value selecting and actuatin mechanism is mounted, together with various-operation controlling keys, and a transversely shiftable carriage in which accumulator mechanism and counting mechanism is mounted.
Amounts set upon the keyboard are entered into the accumulator either additively or subtractively upon operation of the actuating mechanism, the number of times the set up amount is entered being totaled by the counting mechanism. At the conclusion of a computation either or both of these registers may be reset to zero, or "cleared" by the mechanism hereinafter described in detail.
Registering mechanism In the present machine the accumulator registerlng mechanism is mounted on a shiftable carriage 25. (Figures 1 and 2), transversely shiftable into different operating positions on the ward end by screws 254 which extend into the end plates.
Mounted at even intervals between the two end plates 25! are a series of carriage brace plates 255 (Figures 2 and 9) having lugs 25! projecting through spaced slots in the top plate 252.
The forward end of plate 252 is notched to interlock with notches in the brace plates 255 and to provide extensions 256 (Figure 8) fitting between adjacent brace plates 255. This forward end of plate 252 enters the notches in brace plates 255 in such a manner as to support the forward ends thereof. Screws 256 (Figure 5) secure ears on some of the brace plates to the top plate 252. Locked spacing combs 266 (Figures 5 and 7) extend through spaced slots in each brace plate and are locked in place by rods 254. A retaining comb 265 suitably secured to the top plate 252 spaces the rear edges of the plates 255 and underlies lugs 2556 on said plates in such a manner as to support the rear end of the plates 255.
Supported by the several brace plates 255, is a cross rod 262 which serves as a pivotal support for a series of plates 266 (Figure 5), one of which is mounted on said rod 262 adjacent each of the carriage brace plates 255. These plates 266 are spaced and braced adjacent their forward ends by two combs 261 interlocking with slots in each plate 255 and held in place by rods 266, and are connected at their rear ends by a common bail 266 known as the dipping bail," by means of which the entire body of plates 266 can be simultaneously rocked about shaft 262 during operations completely described in the above Avery Patent Number 2,271,240, in which description the mechanism supported by said plates 266 is referred to as the dipping carriage.
The units of the accumulator or product register are assembled on a shaft 216, supported by plates. 266, there being one of such plates 266 between each adjacent unit. Each unit is adapted to be driven by a gear I66 of the actuator gear units, also described in the aforesaid application, with which intermediate gears 21! (Figure 5) rotatably mounted on a shaft 212 and entrained with gears 213 of the several accumulator units, may be meshed by lowering the dipping carriage. Suitable clearances are provided on the several plates 266 to permit the necessary connections between the orders of the accumulator for efiecting tens transfer or carry operation.
Referring more particularly to Figures 10 and 11, it will be noted that each accumulator unit comprises a spider 214 which is rigidly secured to a sleeve 215, rotatably mounted on the shaft 216. This spider 214 carries an internal ring gear 216 on its right side, which is spot welded or riveted to an offset portion 211 formed on each of the spider arms. A right angular extension 216 of one of said arms projects toward the right from said spider, slightly beyond the right side face of a thin shell 216 fixed to the spider 214 and the internal gear 215 thereon, and serves to stop the dial in a zero position when it abuts the shelf 654 of a rockable lever 656 (Figure 7) during the resetting operations as described hereinafter. The periphery of the shell 216 is sufliciently wide to accommodate the digits ranging from "zero to nine, arranged as shown.
Integrally formed on the sleeve 215, surrounding said shaft 216, is a sun gear 266 abutting one of the brace plates 265, and interposed between said sun gear 266 and the spider 214, is a snail cam 261. The snail cam 26l and spider 214 may be relatively secured to rota e as a unit. It is preferable, however, that a limited relative movement of these elements be permitted. For this purpose the snail cam is secured on a sleeve 265 (Figure 10) which sleeve is mounted for rotation about a cut-away portion of the sun gear 266. A lateral extension 266 of the spider 214 projects through an enlarged aperture 266 in cam 26l to permit limited movement of the cam with respect to the spider. A small wire torsion spring 266 is disposed around sleeve 265 and extends between the projection 266 and pin 266 (Figure 8) on the cam, urging the cam to its extreme counter-clockwise position relative to the spider 214. This construction has the advantage that spring 266 may be temporarily overcome and the cam moved slightly without moving the rest of the functional unit just described.
The elements just described are assembled in a definite timed relation. The ring gear 216 is welded to the spider 214 after being properly located thereon by passing the lug 216 of the spider through a notch formed in the ring gear for its reception. The lug 266 locates the snail cam, and the relative position of the sun gear 266 on its integral sleeve 215 and the ring gear 216 may be found by a suitable assembly jig. Assembly by skilled mechanics is thus made unnecessary and the three units may be secured in their proper relation by riveting over the end of the sleeve 215 where it extends through the spider.
Located immediately to the right of the mechanism just described is a plate 262 fixed to the spur gear 216 which-is driven by the actuator mechanism through an intermediate gear 21l (Figure 5) when the plates 266 are dipped. Plate 262 and gear 216 are rotatably mounted on a sleeve 266 which in turn is rotatably mounted on a sleeve 264 rotatably mounted on shaft 216. The plate 262, which includes an apertured ear 265 (Figure 11) for use in timing, as will presently appear, is fixed to a plate 266 by studs 261 provided at each end of said plate, and on each of said studs is rotatably mounted a planet gear 266 meshing with the ring gear 216 carried by spider 214 and with another sun gear 266 formed integrally with sleeve 266. Thus, the spur gear 216, the plates 262 and 266, the planet gears 266, and the ring gear 216, constitute a planetary ly which rotates about the sun gear 266 and constitutes a means by which the numeral bearing shell 216 can be rotated by the actuating mechanism of the machine.
In order to perform any mathematical computation such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, mechanism must be provided for' advancing the higher registering element of a re ister one extra increment whenever the next lower element has made a complete rotation. This process is known as carrying the tens," in a machine operating according to the decimal system.
Secured to the right end of the above mentioned sun gear sleeve 266 is a spider 666 carrying an internal gear 66l, the spider and gear being provided with four lugs 662 (Figure 11) which serve as assembly guides and as stone, as will be hereinafter described. The spider also includes four apertured ears 666 for use in timing, as will appear.
For the purpose of carrying tens, means are provided for driving the spider 214 (Figure 10) and its assoc iated dial shell 216 by means of the spider'214 of the next lower order independently of any movement of gear 213. This means includes the aforementioned internal gear 391 and another unit subassembly now to be described. Sleeve 294 which, as previously described, supports the sleeve 293 on shaft 219,
l is provided with a double arm member 394, one
arm 395 (Figure 11) of which is apertured, while to the other, 396, is secured a bushing 396i in which is rotatably mounted'a stub shaft 331 with planet gears 393 and 399 fixed thereto. The planet gear 393 meshes with the internal gear "I on spider 399 while the other planet gear a mounted parallel to the shaft 219 in the plates 266. Lever 3I3 includes an ear 3 extending to the right through an aperture formed in the adjacent plate 266 and engaging a lever 313 (Figure 8) to the right of the plate, saidlever being mounted on shaft 212 and carrying a roller Lever 3I6 in the same plane as snail cam 28l. M3 is urged clockwise (as viewed in Figures 8 and 9) by a spring 3" so that the roller 3i6 carried by lever 3|! is urged thereby into contact with the adjacent snail cam 29!. In the units order the sleeve 293 may be secured directly to the plate 266 adjoining it at the right, inasmuch as there is no lower order from which tens must be carried. I
The units of the register are so designed that they may be simply and positively assembled in timed relationship. In assembling the register, the units shown in perspective in Figure 11, are assembled on the shaft 219 as it passed through the plates 255 (Figure 2), each one of the unit assemblies being positioned on the shaft as it is advanced. The previously described unit assemblies are quickly and easily brought into timed relationship with each other, by simultaneously, with the positioning of the successive units on shaft 219, passing a timing rod indicated by the dot and dash lines 323 through the aperture provided in each unit. Thus the timing rod is first passed through the aperture 323 in the snail cam 23I as appears in Figure 11. The unit assemblies of the planetary gears and gear 213', and rin gear 39l, are then placed on shaft 219. The
and tens transfer operations, and is therefore of a the type known in the art as duplexing."
In operation, the gear 213 is driven by theactuating mechanism and revolves planetary gears 293 about shaft 219 as a center. Where, as in the units order, the sleeve 293 with its sun ear 299 is fixed, this revolution of the gears 293 will, since they are in mesh with sun gear 299, cause them also to rotate about studs 291 and thus drive the ring gear 216 ahead in the direction in which gear 213 is being driven. Since ring gear 216 is fixed to the indicia bearing shell 219, this movement will bring a numeral into view beneath, a sight opening 3l3 in the carriage cover indicative of the portion of a rotation given gear 213.
Whenever a given amount is thus entered in any one unit of the accumulator, one-tenth of that amountwill be entered in the next higher unit by means of the carrying mechanism, providing member 394 be held in a fixed position, which -is accomplished during calculation in a manner hereinafter described. The carrying mechanism which transmits the movement to the higher unit comprises the sun gear 239 fixed to the spider 214 and which drives planetary ears 399 and 393; these, in turn, driving internal gear 39l fixed to sleeve 293 of the next higher unit in a direction opposite to that of spider 214 of the lower order, and, by rotating saidsleeve, drives sun gear 299 integral therewith. If gear 213 and studs 29'! are stationary, the movement of sun gear 299 rotates ring gear 216 in the same direction as that of the lower order dial transmitting the carry. If gear 213 is moving to introduce digltaticn, ring gear 216 will move by an amount equal to the resultant of that produced by the rotation of gear 299 and that produced by the rotation of gear 213, the movement of the ring gear 216, of course, being the resultant of the movement of the sun gear and the displacement of planetary centers. 'Thus, the movement of any higher order dal becomes the resultant of the digitation entry into its own order and the carry movement from the next lower order. The gear ratios are in usual practice, of course, such that the carry movement received by the higher order dial is one-tenth of that of the lower order dial.
In order that this tens-carrying movement may be properly transmitted to all units of the accu- Whemthe rod has been passed through mulator, it is desirable that digitation gears 213 duced into the register. To this end, means are provided to prevent movement of the gears 213 except as values are being introduced. This means comprises pawls 3l9 (Figure 5), freely mounted on a shaft 329 journaled in the various plates 266, each pawl being adapted to be engaged with the associated intermediate gear 21' in each order by a spring 3" tensioned between the lever 313 and the respective paw] 3l9 (Figure 9). As described above, the gears 21| mesh directly with the gears of each actuator unit and each pawl 3 I 9 therefore acts as a retaining means for one of said gears 2" to retain the respective numeral wheel, being released during actuation ofagears 211 as described in the application and patents identified above. Thus, from the foregoing description. it is apparent that rotation of a numeral wheel 219 in any order will cause the numeral wheels in' the higher orders or to the left thereof, to also rotate a certain amount successively either in additive or subtractive direction, depending upon the direction of rotation of gears 213, while in all the orders of a lower value or to the right of the last order in which digitation takes place, no such fractional values are By virtue of this continuous gearing between the various orders, the dials are advanced frac tions of positions so that the numerals are not in general, properly lined up at the sight openings 3I8 at the completion of the cycle of calculation, and, in order to overcome this condition and display a readable indication of the result, mechanisms have been provided which will turn every numeral wheel to proper alignment with said sight opening directly after an actuation.
The mechanism for attaining this lineup operation of said dials comprises the snail cam "I (Figure 11) which is connected to its respective spider 214, and which cooperates with and serves to position the indirectly spring tensioned lever 3I5 pivoted at 212 as shown in Figure 8. In this figure the snail cam 28I and lever 3I5 are shown in a position in which the roller SIG on said lever contacts the point of greatest radius of said snail cam, which condition represents the zero position of its associated dial wheel 219. The contour of said snail cams is proportioned in such a manner that, as the dial or dial wheel 219 displays each higher digit up to nine, the radius of the cam to the point of roller contact becomes successively smaller until the lowest radius on said cam represents the digit 9 on said numeral wheels. The values increase on the dials as well as on the cams in clockwise direction, so that for addition the dials and cams are rotated in counter-clockwise direction and for subtraction in clockwise direction, when viewing the machine from the right hand side.
It will be evident that if the dials were displaying a larger digit, roller I6 would contact a shorter radius of cam 20I, thereby resulting in the roller lever 3I5 and the segment lever in standing in a position somewhat further clockwise than the positions in which they are shown in Figures 8 and 9. Thus, as the size of the digit displayed by any dial increases, the segment lever 3I3 to the left thereof is advanced successively further clockwise, so that the upwardly extending arm 340 thereof comes successively closer to a shaft 339 which is supported in the carriage braces 255.
In starting a calculation, the dipping carriage comprising the plates 255 and mechanism carried thereby is rocked down about the shaft 252 until the accumulator gears 21I are brought into mesh with the respective actuator gears I00 (Figure As the dipping carriage is rocked down about shaft 262 into its lowered pos tion extension arm 340 of segment lever 0I3 engages shaft 339 thereby rocking segment lever III in a counter-clockwise direction as it moves downwardly, terminating with its slot 0| embracing shaft 339. In this terminal position segment lever 3l3 is rocked just slightly further counterclockwise than the position which it normally occupies when the dial to the right of it registers zero. It will therefore, in this position, permit roller 3I6 to stand just slightly clear of the maximum radius of cam 20L Thus, if the dials 219 display zero, levers 3I3 are scarcely displaced by this operation, but if any dial displays a higher digit, its segment is rocked counter-clockwise by an amount substantially proportional to the digit displayed.
With the carriage thus dipped, member 004 (Figures 9 and 11) is held in its rearmost position during the ensuing operation and planetary pinions 308 and 300 revolve on a fixed center, so that each dial is, in general, advanced .to a partial position depending on the digitation it has received and the carry from all orders to the right. For instance, if the resultant value entered is 2,375," the first dial stands between a "2 and a "3" registration being 0.375 of the way from the 2 to the 3" registration. The next dial stands 0.75 of the way from a 3 to 4" registration, and the next 0.5 of the way from a "7" to an "8" registration, and the next dial squarely at a 5 registration.
When the calculation is completed, the dipping carriage is raised, and it is desired to back up each dial by the fractional amount it stands ahead of an even registration to secure a clear registration in the sight openings. To this end, each lever 0I5 (Figures 8 and 9) is allowed to rock clockwise under the tension of the spring 0I1 until roller 3I6 rests against snail cam III which, with the cam shaped as already described. allows lever 3I5 to rock clockwise by an amount proportional to the registration on the dial to which the cam is attached. This rocking of each lever 0I5 rocks each associated member 304 in a counter-clockwise direction, carrying,
stub shaft 301 forward by an amount proportional to the registration on the dial to the right of it, thus rocking ring gear "I by a corresponding amount proportional to the registration of the next lower order dial, which is the amount by which the dial stood ahead of an even position. The arrangement is therefore such. that each increment of carry received from a lower order will be backed out, upon completion of the calculation, unless the increment mounts to an entire position, in which case the high portion of the snail cam standing under the roller prevents such backing out. The result is that when the dipping carriage is raised, each dial is controlled by the snail cam on the next lower order dial so that the proper flgure will be squarely lined up with its sight opening.
The above described planetary tens-carrying system combined with the resilient connections between the numeral wheels and their respective snail cams "I is disclosed and claimed in the copending Avery application Serial Number 159,523, filed August 17, 1939, and since matured into Patent Number 2,222,164, issued on November 19, 1940.
A counter register is provided for counting machine cycles as disclosed in detail in the Avery application and patents mentioned at the beginning of this specification and includes a plurality of dials I015 which may be observed through sight openings I014 (Figures 1 and 2) in the carriage cover. The construction of these dials is similar to that of the product or accumulator register to the description of which reference may be had for a detailed description of the construction thereof.
In the present case, the dials I015 are mounted upon a shaft I061 (Figures 5 and '1) extending through and supported by the end plates 25I and the brace plates 255. Each order of the counter unit includes a gear I011 rotatably mounted upon a shaft I010 being engaged with a gear I010 and its cooperatively associated counter dial I015. Gear I011 is also in mesh with a gear I000 which, in each actuated order may be driven by an actuating finger as described in the aforesaid Avery application and patents.
Immediately prior to each operation of the counter dials, either clockwise or counter-clock- .wise, roller carriers IO0I (Figure 8), rockable about the shafts I018, are freed from spring tension to permit rollers I882, carried thereby and corresponding to rollers 8I8, to move out of cone tact with and out of the path of snail cams I808. This occurs, upon each dip of the dipp carriage, only in the operated order and all orders to the left thereof, and obviates the strain on the mechanism which would result if the rollers had to be backed up the steep rise of the cam I888 in additive operations.
Levers I884 (Figure 9), having the lugs I896 thereon extending beneath their corresponding levers IOI, are rocked against the tension of their springs I885 about the shaft I818, upon each carriage dipping, by a bar I890 carried by bell cranks I 89I on a rockable shaft 542 (Figure 9). Bar I890 is aligned only with the order being operated and all orders to the left. The lower arms of the bell cranks lie beneath the clipping ball 209 so that each time the dipping carriage dips, bar I890 rocks downwardly to rock levers I898 about a shaft I894. Levers I898 have ears I098 which engage tails formed on the levers I884 and thereby rock those levers I884 which are opposite such of the levers I898 as are engaged by bar I890. Roller carrier levers I88I (Figure 8), being held against the snail cams only by springs I885, are thus'freed from this tension and do not interfere with actuation of the counter in either direction.
Product register clearing mechanism i It may be seen from the foregoing, that if ring gears 80I (Figures 10 and 11) are stopped against movement while segments 8I8 are rocked, the
teeth 3I2, meshing with teeth III, will act to rock arms 804 and rotate planetary pinions 8 08 wheels to prevent them from being driven beyond zero position, the pawls 8I9 may be restored to pawling positions and the stopping means withdrawn from ring gears 80I, leaving the numeral wheels 219 aligned in zero position.
This mode of operation is used to reset the product dials to zero, by means of the following mechanism. Mounted for rocking movement with the shaft 820 (Figure 7) supported in plates 288, are rocking levers 850. The shaft 820 is rocked by the automatic clearance mechanism presently to be described, and movement of rocking levers 850 is transmitted to pawls 8I9 (Figure 9), each pawl having a lateral projection 85I thereon which may be engaged by a shoulder formed on the associated lever 850 to free the associated gear 21 I.
.The lever 850 (Figure '7) also acts to effect locking of the ring gears 80I and place zero stops for the numeral wheels in eflective position, and
for this purpose is provided with an extension 852 engaging an elongated notch within the lever 858 rockably mounted on a shaft 212, so that,
' upon clockwise rockiifg of lever 850, lever 858 is 'in the path of lugs 218 carried on said numeral engage the zero stop projections 218 .on the respective dial assembly as well as to engage one of the four projections 802 on the spider800 and gear I and limit the latter against movementpast zero position during clearing of the a register, thus providing the aforementioned stopping means.
It should be noted that there is enough space between each lever 850 and the lateral projection I of its respective pawl 8I9 to allow the lever 858 to start to be moved into stopping position before the pawl is raised from engagement with its respective gear 2". This design provides a convenient way of adjusting the various pawls to obtain correct timing-which may be accomplished by merely bending the projection 85I backward or forward so that the lever 850 will contact the projection 85I just as the lever 858 is being rocked to its stopping position,
'lever 858, which latch engages the other side of projection 2.18 on each dial assembly from that engaged by projection 854, and positively retains each dial shell against rebound. Latch 858 is pivoted at I850 to the lever 858 and is urged into the position shown in Figure 7, relative to the lever 858, by a spring I85I interposed between a pin on lever 858 and an ear .on latch 855 which overlies the forward edge of the lever and thus serves as a stop to limit counter-clockwise movement of latch 855 beyond that shown.
The clear lever 850 is provided with a yieldable connection to shaft 820, as shown in Figures 6 and 7, so that if the lug 854 should fall on top of one of the projections 802 on gear 80I the shaft could complete its stroke without damaging the parts. In viewing Figure 6, it will be seen that a member 842 is keyed to shaft 820 whilethe lever 850 is free on the shaft. A torsion spring 848 is tensioned between a stud 845 secured to the clear lever 850 and a nose 844 on member 842, so as to urge thelever 850 counter-clockwise (Figure '1) relative to the member 842 until the end of stud 845 abuts the underneath side of nose 844 and serves as a limit stop for the clear lever 850. It will be seen that if shaft 820 is rocked clockwise, as'viewed in Figure 7, and the clear lever 850 isheld, the spring will be merely tightened further and no damage to the parts will ensue. The-yieldable connection between the shaft 820 andeach clear lever 850 also provides tolerance for a slight misalignment between the various clearing assemblies individual to different ones of the numeral wheels 219. This is of considerable importance, since the clearing or zeroizing of the various numeral wheels is'accomplished with only a small increment of angular movement of shaft 820 and, therefore, a very slight amount of misalignment might otherwise prove detrimental.
The dials are returned to zero position upon rocking of shaft 820 first clockwise and then counter-clockwise, by ;,mechanism comprising lateral projections 858 on the segments 8I8 (Figure 9), which are engaged by extensions 851 on the respective pawls 8 I 9 when rocked by the shaft 820 to rock the levers 8I8 counter-clockwise on the shaft 212 against the pull of springs '8I1. Teeth 8I2 on the segments 8I8 mesh with the teeth 8i I on the arms 804to rock arms 804-clockwise and rotate planetary pinions 808 and 809 (Figures 10 and 11), by feeding the-former over the teeth of the-ring gears 80I which, by this time, are stopped by the stop lugs 854. Since gears 2 are free to rotate, rotation of planetary pinions 333 and 333 drives sun gears 233 to rotate spiders 214, and their attached numeral wheels 213, backwardly to the position in which the zero digits register with sight openings 313.-
The shaft 323 is then rocked in a counterclockwise direction back to its normal illustrated position and during this movement lever 333 on shaft 323 first permits spring 311 to reseat pawls 313 (Figure between the teeth of gears 2H and thus permit the segments 313 (Figures 8 and 9) to return under tension of the springs 3| 1 until the engagement of the roller 3I3 with the periphery of the snail cam 23! blocks further movement of the segment 3l3 by engagement of the lug 3 l4 thereon with the roller carrying lever 3|3. For this purpose, the shaft 323 has keyed thereto a lever 333 (Figure 4) which is pulled by a spring 333 in a counter-clockwise direction so that, when the shaft 323 is rocked clockwise to clear the dials, the spring is tensioned. As the. power clearance mechanism, to be described, is centralized, this spring returns the shaft 323 to the position shown in Figure 4, wherein the lever 333 abuts a pin I353, leaving all the zero numerals on the dials aligned with the sight openings. After pawls 313 (Figure 5) have engaged between the teeth of gears 211, the latches 333 and stop lugs .354 (Figure 7) are withdrawn from lugs 213 and projections 332, this sequence of operation insuring against displacement of the dials from zero position during return of shaft 323 to its normal position.
The above described arrangement of the pawls 3l3, levers 313, stop members 353 and levers 333 relative to the shaft 323, as well as the double function of springs 3|1, not only provides a simplified mechanism for releasing the numeral wheels and for returning and stopping them at their zero positions, but also enables a compact construction of the carriage 233.
Power operation of product register clearing mechanism To clear the previously described product registering mechanism it is necessary to rock the clearing shaft 323 the requisite amount, as has been previously described. Power for rocking the clearing shaft is transmitted through a one revolution clutch 333 (Figures 12, 13, and 15) rotatably mounted on a shaft 343 (Figures 12 and 13). As shown diagrammatically in Figure 14, the driving side of the clutch 333 is driven by an electric motor 343 through a coupling 342 and a train of enmeshed gears 343, 343, 341, 332, and 331.
The clutch 333 is controlled by a middle dial clear key 313 situated on the keyboard provided on the stationary body portion of the machine (Figures 1 and 12). The clear key 313 is secured to the upper end of a key stem 313, which is slldably mounted on a stationary rod 314, and pivotally connected at its lower end to a bail 343, by means of a pin 31!. This bail is pivotally mounted on a shaft 344 and has a depending arm pivotally attached to the left end of a link 341. A bell crank 313 is pivoted on a stud 311 and has a downwardly extending arm pivoted to the right end of link 341, and on the upwardly extending arm of said bell crank is a shoulder stud 313 which is embraced by the bifurcated forward end of a clutch control lever 313 rockable on a stationary shaft 333. A clutch control dog 33l is made integral with the control lever 313 being connected thereto by a bail 313a (Figure 13), and is normally held in the position illustrated ratchet wheel 313 (Figure 15) is keyed to the shaft 343 and constitutes the driving member for the clutch. To the clutch housing 334 is secured a stud 333 on which is pivoted a dog 3" to form the connection between the ratchet wheel and the clutch housing, and effect disengagement of the clutch by contact of its tip 312 with the clutch control dog 331 (Figure 12). The dog 31l is urged toward engagement with the ratchet wheel 313 by a torsion spring 333, and a stud 335 is located on the clutch housing to serve as a limit stop for the dog 3 when rocked by the control dog 33 I. The design of the ratchet wheel I 313 differs from the one disclosed in the Friden Patent Number 1,643,710, referred to in the above Avery application Serial Number 84,927, in that each of the notches provided to receive the clutch dog 311 (Figure 15) has two faces, instead of one, so that when the dog 31! is rocked about its pivot 333 and seats in one of the notches, it cannot be backed out, as for instance, when a cam follower 334 (Figures 12) under pressure of the spring clearance would otherwise force earn 333 (connected intermediate the clear clutch 333 and the linkage for rocking shaft 323) to rock from a high point of contact to a low point of contact, and thus cause the cam to overrun the clutch. This clutch construction thereby provides a positive control of the movement of the earn 333 and the mechanism actuated thereby.
Motor operation is instituted by closing a pair of switch contacts 3! (Figure 12) located in the motor circuit. To close these-contacts, a depending projection 333 is formed on the lever 313 which, when the lever is rocked downwardly to retract dog 33l to engage the clutch 333, engages an extension 334 formed on a bell crank 333 to rock the bell crank about a shaft 333 in a clockwise direction from the position shown in Figure 12. The lower arm of bell crank 333 is connected to a lever 333 by a pin and slot connection 331 whereby to rock the lever 333 about a stud 333 and remove a tip 333 thereon away from the rearmost switch contact I, thus allowing the contacts to close. On return of the clearing linkage and key 313 to normal inoperative position by spring 332, the switch contacts 33l are again allowed to open by the action of a spring 332 which then rocks the bell crank 333 and parts connected thereto, back to the position indicated in Figure 12.
It will be seen from the foregoing that upon depression of key 313, the clutch control dog 331 will be rocked rearwardly against the action of spring 332 to cause clutch engagement, the effect of which will rotate a cam 333 (Figures 12 and 13) keyed on a sleeve I334 integral with the driven side of the clutch 333 and adapted to impart clockwise rocking movement to a cam follower 334, pivoted at 333 and held against the cam by a spring 333. A link 331 is connected between the upper end of cam follower 334 and a main machine body or frame I53 in a manner not shown in detail. Shaft 259 is, therefore, first rocked counter-clockwise by operation of the clutch 363 and thereafter rocked clockwise no matter what the transverse position of the carriage may be at the time.
As shown in Figure 3, the rocking movement of shaft 259 is transmitted to the clear shaft 323 by means of an arrangement comprising identical levers 319 fixed on opposite ends of the shaft 259, and carrying rollers 3" adapted to cooperate with cam surfaces on levers 312 fixed on opposite ends of the shaft 323. The camming surface on each lever 312 is so designed as to cause the shaft 323 to rock at a rate substan-' tially equal to that of shaft 259 at the beginning of a clearing stroke, but to gradually decelerate the shaft 323 to substantially no movement at the end of said stroke. A greater deceleration of shaft 320 is, however, accomplished by forming the cam 363 with the contour shown in Figure 12, in which it rises, at a rapid rate, through approximately 'one-half its total radial camming range or rise in the first one-eighth of rotation thereof in the direction of the arrow A, while the other half of the rise is distributed over an additional one-half of the periphery, to its maximum rise, at a diminishing rate. Approximately the first one-eighth revolution of cam 363 is effective merely to take up all loose connections between the cam and the shaft 323, to raise the pawls 3I9, and to lower stop lever- 353, which operation is performed mostly at an accelerated rate. ,Therefore, during the clearance, the dials are returned to zero by the mechanism described hereinbefore at such a diminishing rate that no appreciable jar or noise results therefrom. Furthermore, due to the greater leverage obtained during the latter portion of the stroke, the increased resistance of the tension springs 3I1 and possibly of the torsion springs 343 may be'easily overcome. Also, the particular interaction between the levers 313 and 312 reduces the tendency of the cam follower 364 to drive the cam 333 ahead of it on its return stroke due to the comparatively large amount of tension applied by the various springs 3I1, 359, 333, et cetera, especially at the beginning of such return stroke, to rock the shaft 323 back to its starting position. The shaft 259 and a like shaft 263 support the weight of the entire carriage and in order to minimize frictional resistance to the movement of the shafts in their bearings, and resultant and torques applied to the clearing shafts at different points in the clearing movement, as desired, whereas the gearing connections necessary to rotate such shafts will not provide similar flexibility in varying ratios and torques.
Power clearance of the counter register In a machine of this general class, it is necessary to provide means to zeroize the counter register, as well as the product or accumulator register; therefor, an upper dial clear key I9III (Figures l and 12) is juxtaposed the middle dial clear key 313 to set into operation mechanism similar to thatdescribed in connection with the automatic clearance of the dials 219, for selectively clearing the counter register dials I315. A clear clutch. I9II (Figures 12 and 13) similar to that illustrated in Figure 15 is controlled by a clutch dog I9I2 carried by a lever I9I3 rockable about the shaft 333. Lever I9I3 is connected to key I9I3 by linkage identical to that connecting the lever 319 to its associated key 313.
Clutch I9I I, when engaged, serves to rotate a cam I9I5 to rock a cam follower I9I3. This cam follower is also pivoted at 335 and is pivotally connected at the upper end thereof to an arm I9I1, which is splined'to a shaft 263. Shaft 263 supports the rear part of the carriage 253 in the same manner that shaft 259 supports the forward part. For this purpose, shaft 233 is journaled in the end plates 25I of the carriage and is slidably and rockably' supported in bearings formed in stationary plates, one of which is shown at I54 (Figure 4) extending from opposite sides of the machine body or frame I53. The
rocking of the shaft 233 rocks a lever I9I3 (Figure 3), keyed thereto,'to move an associated cam lever I923 pinned to a shaft I 92I in the same decelerating manner described in connection with wear, the keyways 259a and 2630. (Figure 4) are normally disposed horizontally so that they do not lie in the lower or bearing portions of the shafts and bearings. Further, the angle through which the shafts arecapable of being rocked during the zeroizing operation is reduced to such an extent that the keyways do not move entirely through the pressure region or area of the bearing and, therefore, the edges of the keyways do not tend to cut the main portion of the supporting film of lubricating oil between the bearings and the shaft as would be the case if the shafts were completely rotated. A further advantage obtained by the application of a rocking motion, instead of a rotation, to the supporting shafts 259 and 263 is that a simple camming mechanism as provided by the levers 310 and 312 (Figure 3) may be utilized to vary the rates of movement levers 313 and 312. Levers I922, similar to levers 353, are mounted on and yieldably connected to shaft I92I (Figure 7) and each includes a projection I923 lying in a notch'I924 of a rocking lever I925 supported on the shaft I313. The rocking of lever I922 brings a latch I923, pivotally mounted on the lever I925, into the path of a zero stop projection I921 on each dial assembly, and also positions a projection I923 on lever I925 into the path of one of the-four projections I929 of each dial unit, as well as projection I921." Rocking of lever I922 also results in an ear I930 thereon engaging a projection I93I on a pawl I932 (Figure 5) to lift the pawl free of a gear I311 provided in the counter drive gear train for the respective dial wheel. Further movement of the pawl I932 into engagement with an ear I934 of the lever I334. This lever rocks a planetary gear carrier I335 about a supporting shaft I331 to return the respective dial I315 to zero position where it is engaged by the latch I926 (Figure '7) to prevent rebound from said zero position. This latter zeroizing movement is carried out in a manner identical with that described in connection with the dial wheels 219 of the product register.
Although I have described and illustrated my invention in a preferred form as embodied ina commercially known Marchant calculating ma chine, it is to be understood that the present disclosure-has been made only by way of example and that numerous changes in construction may be resorted to without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as hereinafter claimed.
1. In a calculating machine having a frame, and a shiftable carriage having a register thereon; the combination of carriage supporting means comprising a shaft rockably mountedrin said carriage and hearings on said frame supporting said shaft for longitudinal movement thereon; means for rocking said shaft comprising a keyway on said shaft, a member slidably keyed thereon for transmitting rocking movement to said shaft in different shifted positions of said carriage, and mechanism mounted on said frame for rocking said member; said keyway normally extending substantially at right angles to the direction of bearing pressure of said shaft and said rocking movement thereof being insufficient to move said keyway completely through the pressure areas of said bearings; means comprising a second shaft carried by said carriage for zeroizing said register, and a pair of members each connected to one of said shafts and forming coacting cam surfaces, said members coacting to operate said second shaft at a rate of speed varying from that of said first mentioned shaft.
2. In a calculating machine having a frame, and a shiftable carriage having a. register thereon; the combination of carriage supporting means comprising a shaft rockably mounted in said carriage, and hearings on said frame supporting said shaft for longitudinal movement therealong; means for rocking said shaft comprising a keyway on said shaft, a member slidably keyed thereon for transmitting said rocking movement to said shaft in different shifted positions of said carriage, and mechanism mounted on said frame for rocking said member; said keyway normally extending substantially at right angles to the direction of bearing pressure of said shaft and said rocking movement thereof being insuilicient to move said keyway completely through the pressure areas of said bearings; means comprising a second shaft carried by said carriage for zeroizing said register, and means for transmitting movement from said first men? tioned shaft to said second shaft at a rate of speed varying from that of said first mentioned shaft.
3. In a calculating machine having a frame, and a shiftable carriage having a register thereon; the combination of carriage supporting means comprising a shaft rockably mounted in said carriage; bearings on said frame supporting said shaft for longitudinal movement therealong, actuating means on said frame for rocking said shaft in one direction; means comprising a keyway on said shaft and a member slidably keyed thereon for transmitting said-rocking movement from said actuating means to said shaft in different shifted positions of said carriage; said keyway normally extending substantially at right angles to the direction of bearing pressure of said shaft and 'said rocking movement thereof being insufficient to move said keywaycompletely through the pressure areas of said bearings; means comprising a second shaft carried by said carriage for zeroizing said register, a pair of members each connected to one of said shafts and forming coacting cam surfaces; said members coacting to operate said second shaft at a rate of speed varying from that of said first mentioned shaft, and yieldable means for returning said first mentioned shaft to normal position.
4. In a calculating machine having a frame, and a shiftable carriage having a. register thereon; the combination of carriage supporting means comprising a shaft rockably mounted in said carriage; bearings on said frame supporting said shaft for longitudinal movement therealong; actuating means on said frame for rocking said shaft in one direction; means comprising a keyway on said shaft and a member slidably keyed thereon for transmitting said rocking movement from said actuating means to said shaft in different shifted positions of said carriage; said keyway normally extending substantially at right angles to the direction of bearing pressure of said shaft and said rocking movement thereof being insufficient to move said keyway completely through the pressure areas of said bearings; means comprising a second shaft carried by said carriage for zeroizing said register; :means transmitting movement from said first mentioned shaft to said second shaft at a rate of speed varying from that of said first men- .tioned shaft, and yieldable means for returning said first mentioned shaft to normal position.
5. In a calculating machine having a frame, and a shiftable carriage having a register thereon; the combination of carriage supporting means comprising a shaft rockably mounted in said carriage, and bearings on said frame supporting said shaft for longitudinal movement therealong; means for rocking said shaft comprising actuating mechanism mounted on said frame and a keyed connection between said shaft and said actuating means for transmitting said rocking movement from said actuating means to said shaft in different shifted positions of said carriage; a second shaft carried by said carriage and rockable from one position to a second position for zeroizing said register, and a pair of members each connected to one of said shafts and forming coacting cam surfaces; said members coacting to rock'said second shaft at a rate of speed varying from that of said first mentioned shaft.
6. In a calculating machine having a frame, and a shiftable carriage having a register thereon; the combination of carriage supporting means comprising a shaft rockably mounted in said carriage; bearings on said frame supporting said shaft for longitudinal movement therealong; means for rocking said shaft, comprising actuating mechanism mounted on said frame and a keyed connection between said shaft and said actuating means for transmitting said rocking movement from said actuating means to said shaft in different shifted positions of said carriage; a second shaft carried by said carriage and rockable from one position to a second position for zeroizing said register; and means for transmitting rocking movement from said first mentioned shaft to said second shaft.
7. In a calculating machine having a frame, and a shiftable carriage having a register thereon; the combination of carriage supporting means comprising a shaft rockabiy mounted in said carriage; bearings on said frame supporting said shaft for longitudinal movement therealong; actuating means on said frame for rocking said shaft; means comprising a keyed connection between said shaft and said actuating means for transmitting said rocking movement from said actuating means to said shaft in different shifted positions of said carriage; a second shaft carried by said carriage and rockable from one position to a second position for zeroizing said register; means for transmitting rocking movement from said first mentioned shaft to said second shaft at a rate of speed varying from that of said first mentioned shaft, and yieldable means for returning the said first mentioned shaft to the position from which it has been rocked by operation of said actuating means.
8. In a calculating machine having a frame,
and a shiftable carriage having a register thereon; the combination of carriage supporting means comprising a shaft rockably mounted in said carriage; bearings on said frame supporting said shaft for longitudinal movement therealong; actuating means on said frame for rocking said shaft; mean comprising a keyed connection between said shaft and said actuating means for transmitting said rocking movement from said actuating means to said shaft in different shifted positions of said carriage; a zeroizing device for said register; means operable by said shaft upon said rocking movement thereof for actuating said zeroizing device, and yieldable means for returning said shaft to the position from which it has been rocked by operation of 10 said actuating means.
HAROLD T. AVERY.
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|US2294949A true US2294949A (en)||1942-09-08|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|US2294949D Expired - Lifetime US2294949A (en)||Calculating machine|
Country Status (1)
|US (1)||US2294949A (en)|
- US US2294949D patent/US2294949A/en not_active Expired - Lifetime
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