US2273878A - Gun recoil damping structure - Google Patents

Gun recoil damping structure Download PDF

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Publication number
US2273878A
US2273878A US203500A US20350038A US2273878A US 2273878 A US2273878 A US 2273878A US 203500 A US203500 A US 203500A US 20350038 A US20350038 A US 20350038A US 2273878 A US2273878 A US 2273878A
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Prior art keywords
gun
barrel
piston
tubes
housings
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US203500A
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Gervase M Magrum
Frank M Salisbury
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Bell Aircraft Corp
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Bell Aircraft Corp
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A25/00Gun mountings permitting recoil or return to battery, e.g. gun cradles; Barrel buffers or brakes
    • F41A25/16Hybrid systems
    • F41A25/18Hydroelastic systems

Description

HP0/m47 SAMJz//ey Ww@ F eb. 24, 1942.

G. M. MAGRUM ETAL GUN RECOIL DAMPING STRUCTURE Filed April 22, 193s Patented Feb. 24, 1942 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE GUN RECOIL DAMPING STRUCTURE Gervase M. Magrnm and Frank M. Salisbury,

Buffalo, N. Y.; said Magrum assignor to Houde. Engineering Corporation, Buffalo, N. Y., a corporation of New York, and said Salisbury assignor to Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application April 22, 1938, Serial No. `203,500

3 Claims.

This invention relates to the dampening or the absorption of the shock of recoil in guns, particularly guns of the machine or rapid fire type, such as guns mounted on airplanes.

In guns of the type referred to, the barrel structure is 'axially movable relative to the gun mounting, and the gunner grips the mounting adjacent to the breech endof the barrel structure for directioning and aiming of the barrel structure and for manipulation of the trigger mechanismfor firing of the gun. When the gun is red, the barrel structure recoils and moves back toward the operator, and unless such recoil movement is dampened or` absorbed, directioning, aiming and firing of the gun will be materially interferred with, with corresponding loss in accuracy as well as unnecessary discomture to the gunner and unnecessary strain on the gun.

An important object of our invention is to provide simple and efficient structure on the gun for dampening and absorbing the recoil shock, said structure being preferably of the hyjdraulictype.

A further object is to provide shock absorbing structure which can be readily applied to a gun without material increase of the gun size or bulk and which will not interfere with the balanced and eflicient manipulation and firing of the gun. The abovev and other features of our invention are incorporated in the structure disclosed on the accompanying drawing, in which drawing:

Figure 1 is a plan view, more or less diagrammatic, of a gun structure showing our improved shock absorbing means applied thereto;

Figure 2 is an enlarged section on plane II-II of Figure 1; and

Figure 3 is an enlarged section of the hydraulic fluid flow controlling valve structure.

Referring to Figure 1, the gun structure support may be in the form of`a post or pedestal I0 having at its lower end a pin II for journaling in the socket of a suitable base (not shown) which may be stationarily mounted, as on an airplane or which base may have a tripod or other support so that the gun structure may be portable. The post or pedestal I0 may be U- shaped and between its side walls I2 and I3 the gun barrel body i4 is received and guided, the zgn barrel I5 extending forwardly from said At the breech end of the gun barrel structure is a cross-frame I6 supporting grips I1 and I'I and the trigger mechanism I8 between the grips. A projection from the breech end of the gun barrel structure extends through a cap I9 secured tothe frame I6.

At its end the frame I6 has socket extensions 2D and 20 for receiving the inner ends of tubes 2| and 2l respectively, these tubes extending forwardly parallel with the gun barrel structure. Secured on the tubes 2l and 2|' are brackets 23 and 23 receiving trunnion pins 24 and 24 supported by and extending laterally from the walls I2 and I3 of the pedestal I0. The frame IB and the tubing extending therefrom thus form a framework which may be swung in a vertical plane on the trunnion pivot and which can be swung in a lateral direction with the post I0 on the axis of the pivot pin II.

In accordance with our invention we provide shock absorbing structures S and S' whose stationary or cylinder elements C are the outer ends of tubes 2l and 2| respectively and Whose piston elements P are connected to the forward end of the barrel structure body I4 so that this structure is vertically supported at its forward end, the barrel structure being thus axially shiftable under recoil but under control of the shock absorber structure.

The-details of construction of the shock absorber mechanism is shown in Figures 2 and 3. The outer ends of the tubes 2| and 2 I are reamed to form the cylinder element C, and a plug 25 secured by a rivet 28 forms the inner cylinder head. In order to seal this end of the cylinder, a soft gasket 21 is tightly squeezed against the head by a washer 28 held by a screw 29.

Secured to the .outer end of cylinder tube, as by welding, is 'a flange 30 to which is detachably secured, as by screws 3l, the outer head or body 32, the head end 32' extending a distance into the cylinder tube, the head 32 being thus rigidly secured to the cylinder tube co-axial therewith.

The head 32 has the inner bore 33 communicating with the space within the cylinder tube 2|, and an outer bore 3) lof less diameter. The piston rod 35 extends through these bores and in the bore 34 is a bearing bushing 36 of suitable metal for the rod. The outer end of the body 32 is expanded to form a recess for suitable packing assembly 31 around the piston rod to prevent leakage. vSecured to the outer end of the rod 35 is an eye 38, the gun barrel body structure I4 having laterally extending lugs 39 and 39 to which the outer ends of thel piston rods of the shock absorber structures are connected as by screws extending through the apertures of the eyes 38.

At its inner end, each piston rod has a reduced piston 42. The piston is lscrewed tightly against f theshoulder 43 and the piston rod and is locked Ythe piston rod 35 has the bore 48 extending through the neck 4| for communication with the space within the valve housing chamber. At its outer end, the bore 48 is connected by passages 63S with the cylinder space at the outer side of the, piston. The connection of the bore 48 with the cylinder'space at the inner side of the piston is controlled by a valve 50 which, as shown, is a thin metal disc having a metering orifice a spring 52 within the valve housing tending to hold the valve disc seated against the inner end of the piston rod across the end of the bore 48.

Seating against the shoulder between the bores 33 and 34 of the head 32 is a washer 53 and on the piston rod is an annular flange or collar 54. A spring 55 within the cylinder wall 2l abuts the washer 28 and the base 44 of the valve housing, the spring being centered by the valve housing and by a boss'or lug 5B on the washer 28. The

spring forms part of the shock absorber action and tends to resist inward movement of the piston 'structure and to hold the piston structure in outerposition with the flange or collar 54 in abutment with the washer 53.

Each shock absorber body structure 32 has a top extension 51 providing a filling and expansion chamber for hydraulic iiuid, the chamber being closed by a cover 59.` A ller screw 6D allows filling of the shock absorber working.

Aportion or neck 4| threaded for reception of a back into firing position, and during outward movement of the piston structure the suction created in tle inner or high pressure working chambers will unseat the valve discs for comparatively free flow from the low pressure working chambers to the high pressure working chambers. The increasing length of piston rod entering the low pressure chamber will create a volume differential between the working chamber but the excess uid may flow into the chambers 58 to be returned to the working chambers during outward stroke of the piston structures so that both low and high pressure working chambers will be refilled with hydraulic fluid.

The valve discs may be very thin so that the orices 5| would be of the sharp edge type so as to compensatejor change in the viscosity of the hydraulic fluid' and the hydraulic shock absorber resistance will remain uniform independently of viscosity variation, By providing shock absorbers at opposite sides of the gun barrelr structure and parallel therewith, the shock ab-V l inspection, adjustment or repair, and with the piston forms the high pressure working chamber.

When the gun is red, it recoils, or in other words moves back toward the operator and, un-

less the recoil were checked or dampened, accurate firing would be prevented. However, when the shock absorber structure is applied to the gun and the gun barrel structure recoils, the

shock absorber piston structure will be shifted inwardly in the cylinder structure, and the spring will'be compressedand will resist and cushion such'inward movement. At the same time, the uid in the inner or high pressure working chamber of each shockVv absorber is displaced by the piston andthe pressure against the valve disc r5|) will keep the disc seated so that the displaced iiuid can escape only through the restricted ori- IVfice 5| for' ow through' the piston bore 48 and passages 49 to the outer or low pressure working chamber 33, the resistance to iiow through shock absorbers applied as shown they will add very little to the bulk of the gun and will not interfere with the proper directioning, aiming, firing or other manipulations of the gun.

We have shown a practical and efllcient embodiment and application of our invention but we do not desire to be limited to the exact construction, arrangement and operation shown and described as changes and modifications may be made without departing from the scope of the invention.

We claim as follows:

l. A gun structure comprising a barrel body having a gun barrel extending from the forward end thereof, means to support said body for tilting, said means comprising a U-shaped support, a frame comprising a pair of elongated tubes disposed extending one along each side of said body, respectively, and connected adjacent the breech end of said body by' a crossmember connected with the breech end of said body, said tubes being each pivotally connected to a free armof said U-shaped support and adjacent the forward end of said tubes, means connecting said frame with the forward end of said barrel body for controlled longitudinal movement of said body with respect to saidframe', said means comprising pistons entered)A slidable in the forward end of said tubes, respectively, piston rods connected to said pistons and Apivotally connected at their forward ends to the forward end of said body, each of said tubes being provided with a kplug abutment member therein and secured thereto, and being provided with compression spring means disposed extending between said pistons and said plugs, housings defining an oil reservoir and also defining guides for said piston rods, said housings each compris'- ing a tubular body having a reduced portion entered in the forward end ofa tube and having an enlarged portion in abutting relation to the forward end of a tube, and means on said housing forming a sealed connection with a piston rod slidable therein. y

2. In a gun structure which includes a -frame comprising a'pair of vspaced elongated tubes and a gun barrel body disposed between said tubes, means connecting said frame and said barrel body for support of said bodyand for controlled relative movement of said body and frame, said means including a pair of tubular housings, one

, for each of said elongated tubes, with each oi' said housings having a portion thereof entered in the forward end of a tube, a rst flange on the forward end of each tube, respectively, a second ange on each of said housings, respectively, and removably secured to a first ange, each of said housings being providedwith a piston rod slidable therein and extending therethrough, with each piston rod being pivctally connected at one end to the forward end of said barrel body and having a piston on its other end entered in said tube, and means in each of said tubes and in each of said housings arranged cooperable with said pistons to/,control relative movement of said barrel body and said frame.

3. In a gun structure which includes a. frame comprising a pair of spaced elongated tubes and a gun barrel body disposed between said tubes,

means connecting said frame and said barrel body for support of said body and for controlled relative movement of said body and said frame, said means comprising a pair of tubular housings, one for each of said elongated tubes, with each of said housings having a portion thereof entered in the forward end of a tube, a first flange on the forward end of each tube, respectively, a second flange on each of said housings, respectively, and removably secured to a rst ilange, each of said housings being provided with a piston rod slidable therein and extending therethrough, with each piston rod being' pivotally connected at one end to the forward end of said barrel body and having a piston on its other end entered in a said elongated tube, each of said housings being provided with a bored side boss arranged providing an oil reservoir in fluid communication with a said elongated tube to which the housing is connected, each of said piston rods carrying a valve housing entered in a said tube, and a valve in each of said valve housings, respectively.

' GERVASE M. MAGRUM. FRANK M. SALISBURY.

US203500A 1938-04-22 1938-04-22 Gun recoil damping structure Expired - Lifetime US2273878A (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3418880A (en) * 1965-07-29 1968-12-31 Oerlikon Buehrle Holding Ag Automatic firearm with breech casing free to recoil on a support
EP0388305A1 (en) * 1989-03-17 1990-09-19 Etienne Lacroix - Tous Artifices Sa Weapon system equipped with a damping device
US5159148A (en) * 1987-04-28 1992-10-27 Vinghogs Mek. Verksted As Recoil suppressing mount for a manually operated automatic weapon
US6347568B1 (en) * 1999-07-26 2002-02-19 Giat Industries Guide system for the recoiling mass of a gun
US8434252B2 (en) 2011-01-18 2013-05-07 Gregory J. Holmberg Recoil absorbing stock
US10627192B1 (en) 2019-01-18 2020-04-21 American Defense Manufacturing, Llc Detented pivoting mount for attaching an accessory to a weapon
US10627191B1 (en) * 2019-01-18 2020-04-21 American Defense Manufacturing, Llc Pivoting mount for attaching an accessory to a weapon
US10634456B1 (en) 2019-01-18 2020-04-28 American Defense Manufacturing, Llc Mount for attaching an accessory to a weapon

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3418880A (en) * 1965-07-29 1968-12-31 Oerlikon Buehrle Holding Ag Automatic firearm with breech casing free to recoil on a support
US5159148A (en) * 1987-04-28 1992-10-27 Vinghogs Mek. Verksted As Recoil suppressing mount for a manually operated automatic weapon
EP0388305A1 (en) * 1989-03-17 1990-09-19 Etienne Lacroix - Tous Artifices Sa Weapon system equipped with a damping device
FR2644571A1 (en) * 1989-03-17 1990-09-21 Lacroix E Tous Artifices Weapon system provided with a shock absorber
US6347568B1 (en) * 1999-07-26 2002-02-19 Giat Industries Guide system for the recoiling mass of a gun
US8434252B2 (en) 2011-01-18 2013-05-07 Gregory J. Holmberg Recoil absorbing stock
US10627192B1 (en) 2019-01-18 2020-04-21 American Defense Manufacturing, Llc Detented pivoting mount for attaching an accessory to a weapon
US10627191B1 (en) * 2019-01-18 2020-04-21 American Defense Manufacturing, Llc Pivoting mount for attaching an accessory to a weapon
US10634456B1 (en) 2019-01-18 2020-04-28 American Defense Manufacturing, Llc Mount for attaching an accessory to a weapon

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