US2251468A - Rubber shoe sole - Google Patents

Rubber shoe sole Download PDF

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Publication number
US2251468A
US2251468A US266155A US26615539A US2251468A US 2251468 A US2251468 A US 2251468A US 266155 A US266155 A US 266155A US 26615539 A US26615539 A US 26615539A US 2251468 A US2251468 A US 2251468A
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United States
Prior art keywords
rubber
sole
shoe
cells
shoe sole
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US266155A
Inventor
Wesley L Smith
Original Assignee
Salta Corp
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Priority to US266155A priority Critical patent/US2251468A/en
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Publication of US2251468A publication Critical patent/US2251468A/en
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Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A43FOOTWEAR
    • A43BCHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF FOOTWEAR; PARTS OF FOOTWEAR
    • A43B13/00Soles; Sole and heel units
    • A43B13/14Soles; Sole and heel units characterised by the constructive form
    • A43B13/22Soles made slip-preventing or wear-resisting, e.g. by impregnation or spreading a wear-resisting layer

Description

Au@ 5, 1941 w. L. SMITH I l 2,251,468

. RUBBER suon soLE Fiiea Apri; 5, v1959 I Il Y lNVENTO R Patented Aug. 5, 1941 RUBBER SHOE SOLE Wesley L. Smith, Bedford, Va., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Salta Corporation, N. J., a corporation of Delaware Jersey City,

Application April 5, 1939, Serial No. 266,155

, 3 Claims.

-This invention relates to rubber shoe soles, and

, aims to provide a sole having good wearing qualities and capable throughout its life of on smooth and wet surfaces.

gripping Inaccordance with my invention, a shoe sole is made from wholly or partially collapsed, 'closed-cell, cellular rubber. Such rubber is made by expanding a mass of soft rubber compound by means of a usual blowing agent under conditions which retain the gases produced by th'e blowing agent in closed cells Within'the mass ofv compound, and then cooling the rubber mass after vulcanization. The cooling has the eiect of condensing or otherwise eliminating the gases produced by the blowing agent, so that the soft vulcanized rubber collapses substantially to the volume whichy it had before expansion. In its collapsed "form, it has about the same degree of resiliency and the same wearing qualities of solid unexpanded soft rubber. Such collapsed-cellular rubberhas been `made as an intermediate product in making sponge rubber, but has generally been regarded as of no value in itself.

i have discovered that when shoe-soles are made of collapsed cellular rubber, they are resillent, strong and durable and have the property of gripping on smooth surfaces vuntil they are completely worn away. This property arises from the fact that wear on the under-surface of a sole made of collapsed cellular rubber opens the collapsed cells near the wearing surface, relieving the vacuum in these cells so that they expand and serve by' a-vacuum cup action to prevent the sole from slipping on smooth surfaces. ThusB a1- thougl'l the sole has only thenormal resiliency of solid soft rubber, its under-surface, as wear continues, consists always of -a thin layer of expanded rubber containing opened cells which serve as vacuumcups.

To prevent the 'sole from slipping 1when it is new, indentatlons .may be molded in tlile undersurface to provide an initial. vacuum cup'iiactiona This is, however, not absolutely necessary-as \col lapsed' cellular rubber has an irregular surface as theresult of the collapsing of the cells, 'which is rough enough to provide some initial vacuum cup action up to the time that the cells begin to be opened by wear.

The accompanying drawing shows a shoe-sole embodying my invention: Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the sole applied to a shoe; Fig..2 is an enlarged diagrammatic vertical section ofthe sole when new, and Fig. 3 is a; similarV section of the sole after part of it has worn away.

The sole illustrated has a. body I of collapsed closed-cell cellular soft rubber and an under-surface which is indented. When the sole is new, slipping is prevented by the vacuum cup action of the Vindentations 3 in the lower surface shown in Fig. 2. After wear, slipping is prevented by the vacuum cup action of the opened and expanded cells 4 near the wearing surface, as shown in Fig. 3. The cells 5 in the body remain co1- lapsed until they are exposed by wear.

The sole which has been described may be made by utilizing4 the rst part of a method which has been used formaking sponge rubber. This method consists in expanding a mass of rubber compound by means of sodium bicarbonate or a similar blowing agent which is mixed with the compoundbefore vulcanization. During the rst part ofthe vulcanization, the rubber compound is conned in a mold having an internal volume no greater than the volume of the compound'. This prevents any substantial evolution of gas within the rubber compound during the first part of the vulcanization and until the rubber compound has acquired a consistency and tensile strength suiiicient to prevent entrapped gas from rupturing it. During the latter part of the vulcanization, the rubber compound is placed f in a larger mold, On release from the first mold,

or during the nal vulcanization from the larger mold, or at both these times, the mass is expanded by gas produced by the blowing agent, so that, at the end of the vulcanization, there is produced a closed-cell cellular soft rubber article having the shape and size of the second mold.

Since the gas produced from sodium bicarbonate or similar blowing agents is of an unstable character, the gasA is condensed or in some way .chemically eliminated from the cells when the expanded article is cooled, so that it collapses and returnsnearly to the size which the compound had before expansion.

In using this method to make a shoe-sole embodying my invention, the mold used in the first part of the 'vulcanization has a thickness substantially equal to that desired in the shoe-sole. The second mold has a thickness several times as great as that of the first mold and, most desircontained in each cell is eliminated on cooling will be apparent to those skilled in the art. while the above-described specitlc embodiment of my invention is the sole of an ordinary shoe,my inventiorl may, without departing from the spirit thereof as defined in the appended claims, be inf y'after expansion. It is to be understood that, as

conlalnlng almost wholly collapsed closed cells.

2. A shoe sole having'a. tread portion adapted to be exposed by wear comprlsins a ylayer oi.' substantially solid rubber containing almost wholly collapsed closed cells. y

3. A shoe tread comprising a layer adapted to be exposed by wear consistlngvof substantially solid rubber containing almost wholly collapsed closed cells. l

WESIEYLSMITH.

US266155A 1939-04-05 1939-04-05 Rubber shoe sole Expired - Lifetime US2251468A (en)

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Cited By (47)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2527414A (en) * 1944-08-22 1950-10-24 Hallgren Karl Simon Rubber sole for footwear
US2757461A (en) * 1954-07-30 1956-08-07 Us Rubber Co Floatable slip-resistant shoe
DE968597C (en) * 1951-12-28 1958-03-06 Romika Kg Lemm & Co Shoe sole, in particular for sports shoes
US3031777A (en) * 1961-06-15 1962-05-01 Al Lehman Bowling shoes
DE977268C (en) * 1951-11-10 1965-09-09 Lonza Ag A method of producing Zellkoerpern closed cell made of thermoplastics
US3590410A (en) * 1968-07-26 1971-07-06 Walk On Corp Boot tree
US3726028A (en) * 1970-06-04 1973-04-10 H Stokes Device for negotiating inclined surfaces
US4398357A (en) * 1981-06-01 1983-08-16 Stride Rite International, Ltd. Outsole
US4494320A (en) * 1982-11-18 1985-01-22 8-Track Shoe Corp. Shoe outsole
US5247741A (en) * 1992-03-06 1993-09-28 Suave Shoe Corporation Footwear having a molded sole
US5542196A (en) * 1994-04-15 1996-08-06 Donna Karan Shoe Company Insole
US5909948A (en) * 1990-11-05 1999-06-08 Ellis, Iii; Frampton E. Shoe sole structures
US6115945A (en) * 1990-02-08 2000-09-12 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures with deformation sipes
US6591519B1 (en) 1989-08-30 2003-07-15 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures
US6609312B1 (en) 1990-01-24 2003-08-26 Anatomic Research Inc. Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US6662470B2 (en) 1989-08-30 2003-12-16 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoes sole structures
US6668470B2 (en) 1988-09-02 2003-12-30 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole with rounded inner and outer side surfaces
US6708424B1 (en) 1988-07-15 2004-03-23 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe with naturally contoured sole
US6763616B2 (en) 1990-06-18 2004-07-20 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures
US20040250447A1 (en) * 1990-01-24 2004-12-16 Ellis Frampton E. Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US6877254B2 (en) 1988-07-15 2005-04-12 Anatomic Research, Inc. Corrective shoe sole structures using a contour greater than the theoretically ideal stability plane
US20060032086A1 (en) * 1988-09-02 2006-02-16 Ellis Frampton E Iii Shoe sole with rounded inner and outer surfaces
US7127834B2 (en) 1988-07-15 2006-10-31 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US7174658B2 (en) 1990-01-10 2007-02-13 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures
US7287341B2 (en) 1989-10-03 2007-10-30 Anatomic Research, Inc. Corrective shoe sole structures using a contour greater than the theoretically ideal stability plane
US7310894B1 (en) * 2005-05-12 2007-12-25 Schwarzman John L Footwear for use in shower
US7546699B2 (en) 1992-08-10 2009-06-16 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures
US8141276B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2012-03-27 Frampton E. Ellis Devices with an internal flexibility slit, including for footwear
US8256147B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2012-09-04 Frampton E. Eliis Devices with internal flexibility sipes, including siped chambers for footwear
US8291618B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2012-10-23 Frampton E. Ellis Devices with internal flexibility sipes, including siped chambers for footwear
US8670246B2 (en) 2007-11-21 2014-03-11 Frampton E. Ellis Computers including an undiced semiconductor wafer with Faraday Cages and internal flexibility sipes
US8732230B2 (en) 1996-11-29 2014-05-20 Frampton Erroll Ellis, Iii Computers and microchips with a side protected by an internal hardware firewall and an unprotected side connected to a network
US20150075033A1 (en) * 2013-09-18 2015-03-19 Nike, Inc. Auxetic Structures and Footwear with Soles Having Auxetic Structures
US20150230548A1 (en) * 2013-09-18 2015-08-20 Nike, Inc. Footwear Soles With Auxetic Material
US20150237957A1 (en) * 2013-09-18 2015-08-27 Nike, Inc. Multi-Component Sole Structure Having an Auxetic Configuration
US20150245686A1 (en) * 2013-09-18 2015-09-03 Nike, Inc. Sole Structure With Holes Arranged in Auxetic Configuration
US9456656B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2016-10-04 Nike, Inc. Midsole component and outer sole members with auxetic structure
US9474326B2 (en) 2014-07-11 2016-10-25 Nike, Inc. Footwear having auxetic structures with controlled properties
US9549590B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2017-01-24 Nike, Inc. Auxetic structures and footwear with soles having auxetic structures
US9554620B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2017-01-31 Nike, Inc. Auxetic soles with corresponding inner or outer liners
US9635903B2 (en) 2015-08-14 2017-05-02 Nike, Inc. Sole structure having auxetic structures and sipes
US9668542B2 (en) 2015-08-14 2017-06-06 Nike, Inc. Sole structure including sipes
US9854869B2 (en) 2014-10-01 2018-01-02 Nike, Inc. Article of footwear with one or more auxetic bladders
US9861161B2 (en) 2014-04-08 2018-01-09 Nike, Inc. Components for articles of footwear including lightweight, selectively supported textile components
US9861162B2 (en) 2014-04-08 2018-01-09 Nike, Inc. Components for articles of footwear including lightweight, selectively supported textile components
US10064448B2 (en) 2014-08-27 2018-09-04 Nike, Inc. Auxetic sole with upper cabling
US10070688B2 (en) 2015-08-14 2018-09-11 Nike, Inc. Sole structures with regionally applied auxetic openings and siping

Cited By (76)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2527414A (en) * 1944-08-22 1950-10-24 Hallgren Karl Simon Rubber sole for footwear
DE977268C (en) * 1951-11-10 1965-09-09 Lonza Ag A method of producing Zellkoerpern closed cell made of thermoplastics
DE968597C (en) * 1951-12-28 1958-03-06 Romika Kg Lemm & Co Shoe sole, in particular for sports shoes
US2757461A (en) * 1954-07-30 1956-08-07 Us Rubber Co Floatable slip-resistant shoe
US3031777A (en) * 1961-06-15 1962-05-01 Al Lehman Bowling shoes
US3590410A (en) * 1968-07-26 1971-07-06 Walk On Corp Boot tree
US3726028A (en) * 1970-06-04 1973-04-10 H Stokes Device for negotiating inclined surfaces
US4398357A (en) * 1981-06-01 1983-08-16 Stride Rite International, Ltd. Outsole
US4494320A (en) * 1982-11-18 1985-01-22 8-Track Shoe Corp. Shoe outsole
US7127834B2 (en) 1988-07-15 2006-10-31 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US6708424B1 (en) 1988-07-15 2004-03-23 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe with naturally contoured sole
US6877254B2 (en) 1988-07-15 2005-04-12 Anatomic Research, Inc. Corrective shoe sole structures using a contour greater than the theoretically ideal stability plane
US20060032086A1 (en) * 1988-09-02 2006-02-16 Ellis Frampton E Iii Shoe sole with rounded inner and outer surfaces
US6668470B2 (en) 1988-09-02 2003-12-30 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole with rounded inner and outer side surfaces
US7093379B2 (en) 1988-09-02 2006-08-22 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole with rounded inner and outer side surfaces
US6662470B2 (en) 1989-08-30 2003-12-16 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoes sole structures
US6729046B2 (en) 1989-08-30 2004-05-04 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures
US20040134096A1 (en) * 1989-08-30 2004-07-15 Ellis Frampton E. Shoes sole structures
US7168185B2 (en) 1989-08-30 2007-01-30 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoes sole structures
US6591519B1 (en) 1989-08-30 2003-07-15 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures
US7287341B2 (en) 1989-10-03 2007-10-30 Anatomic Research, Inc. Corrective shoe sole structures using a contour greater than the theoretically ideal stability plane
US7334356B2 (en) 1990-01-10 2008-02-26 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures
US7174658B2 (en) 1990-01-10 2007-02-13 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures
US6609312B1 (en) 1990-01-24 2003-08-26 Anatomic Research Inc. Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US6748674B2 (en) 1990-01-24 2004-06-15 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US20040250447A1 (en) * 1990-01-24 2004-12-16 Ellis Frampton E. Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US7082697B2 (en) 1990-01-24 2006-08-01 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US6115945A (en) * 1990-02-08 2000-09-12 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures with deformation sipes
US6763616B2 (en) 1990-06-18 2004-07-20 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures
US5909948A (en) * 1990-11-05 1999-06-08 Ellis, Iii; Frampton E. Shoe sole structures
US5247741A (en) * 1992-03-06 1993-09-28 Suave Shoe Corporation Footwear having a molded sole
US7546699B2 (en) 1992-08-10 2009-06-16 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures
US7647710B2 (en) 1992-08-10 2010-01-19 Anatomic Research, Inc. Shoe sole structures
US5542196A (en) * 1994-04-15 1996-08-06 Donna Karan Shoe Company Insole
US8732230B2 (en) 1996-11-29 2014-05-20 Frampton Erroll Ellis, Iii Computers and microchips with a side protected by an internal hardware firewall and an unprotected side connected to a network
US8494324B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2013-07-23 Frampton E. Ellis Wire cable for electronic devices, including a core surrounded by two layers configured to slide relative to each other
US8205356B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2012-06-26 Frampton E. Ellis Devices with internal flexibility sipes, including siped chambers for footwear
US8256147B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2012-09-04 Frampton E. Eliis Devices with internal flexibility sipes, including siped chambers for footwear
US9339074B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2016-05-17 Frampton E. Ellis Microprocessor control of bladders in footwear soles with internal flexibility sipes
US8141276B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2012-03-27 Frampton E. Ellis Devices with an internal flexibility slit, including for footwear
US8561323B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2013-10-22 Frampton E. Ellis Footwear devices with an outer bladder and a foamed plastic internal structure separated by an internal flexibility sipe
US8567095B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2013-10-29 Frampton E. Ellis Footwear or orthotic inserts with inner and outer bladders separated by an internal sipe including a media
US9681696B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2017-06-20 Frampton E. Ellis Helmet and/or a helmet liner including an electronic control system controlling the flow resistance of a magnetorheological liquid in compartments
US10021938B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2018-07-17 Frampton E. Ellis Furniture with internal flexibility sipes, including chairs and beds
US9271538B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2016-03-01 Frampton E. Ellis Microprocessor control of magnetorheological liquid in footwear with bladders and internal flexibility sipes
US8873914B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2014-10-28 Frampton E. Ellis Footwear sole sections including bladders with internal flexibility sipes therebetween and an attachment between sipe surfaces
US8925117B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2015-01-06 Frampton E. Ellis Clothing and apparel with internal flexibility sipes and at least one attachment between surfaces defining a sipe
US8959804B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2015-02-24 Frampton E. Ellis Footwear sole sections including bladders with internal flexibility sipes therebetween and an attachment between sipe surfaces
US9642411B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2017-05-09 Frampton E. Ellis Surgically implantable device enclosed in two bladders configured to slide relative to each other and including a faraday cage
US9107475B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2015-08-18 Frampton E. Ellis Microprocessor control of bladders in footwear soles with internal flexibility sipes
US8732868B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2014-05-27 Frampton E. Ellis Helmet and/or a helmet liner with at least one internal flexibility sipe with an attachment to control and absorb the impact of torsional or shear forces
US8291618B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2012-10-23 Frampton E. Ellis Devices with internal flexibility sipes, including siped chambers for footwear
US7310894B1 (en) * 2005-05-12 2007-12-25 Schwarzman John L Footwear for use in shower
US8670246B2 (en) 2007-11-21 2014-03-11 Frampton E. Ellis Computers including an undiced semiconductor wafer with Faraday Cages and internal flexibility sipes
US9568946B2 (en) 2007-11-21 2017-02-14 Frampton E. Ellis Microchip with faraday cages and internal flexibility sipes
US9549590B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2017-01-24 Nike, Inc. Auxetic structures and footwear with soles having auxetic structures
US9456656B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2016-10-04 Nike, Inc. Midsole component and outer sole members with auxetic structure
US9820532B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2017-11-21 Nike, Inc. Auxetic structures and footwear with soles having auxetic structures
US9538811B2 (en) * 2013-09-18 2017-01-10 Nike, Inc. Sole structure with holes arranged in auxetic configuration
US9402439B2 (en) * 2013-09-18 2016-08-02 Nike, Inc. Auxetic structures and footwear with soles having auxetic structures
US9554620B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2017-01-31 Nike, Inc. Auxetic soles with corresponding inner or outer liners
US9554622B2 (en) * 2013-09-18 2017-01-31 Nike, Inc. Multi-component sole structure having an auxetic configuration
US20150230548A1 (en) * 2013-09-18 2015-08-20 Nike, Inc. Footwear Soles With Auxetic Material
US20150237957A1 (en) * 2013-09-18 2015-08-27 Nike, Inc. Multi-Component Sole Structure Having an Auxetic Configuration
US20150245686A1 (en) * 2013-09-18 2015-09-03 Nike, Inc. Sole Structure With Holes Arranged in Auxetic Configuration
US20150075033A1 (en) * 2013-09-18 2015-03-19 Nike, Inc. Auxetic Structures and Footwear with Soles Having Auxetic Structures
US9554624B2 (en) * 2013-09-18 2017-01-31 Nike, Inc. Footwear soles with auxetic material
US9861161B2 (en) 2014-04-08 2018-01-09 Nike, Inc. Components for articles of footwear including lightweight, selectively supported textile components
US9861162B2 (en) 2014-04-08 2018-01-09 Nike, Inc. Components for articles of footwear including lightweight, selectively supported textile components
US9872537B2 (en) 2014-04-08 2018-01-23 Nike, Inc. Components for articles of footwear including lightweight, selectively supported textile components
US9474326B2 (en) 2014-07-11 2016-10-25 Nike, Inc. Footwear having auxetic structures with controlled properties
US10064448B2 (en) 2014-08-27 2018-09-04 Nike, Inc. Auxetic sole with upper cabling
US9854869B2 (en) 2014-10-01 2018-01-02 Nike, Inc. Article of footwear with one or more auxetic bladders
US9635903B2 (en) 2015-08-14 2017-05-02 Nike, Inc. Sole structure having auxetic structures and sipes
US10070688B2 (en) 2015-08-14 2018-09-11 Nike, Inc. Sole structures with regionally applied auxetic openings and siping
US9668542B2 (en) 2015-08-14 2017-06-06 Nike, Inc. Sole structure including sipes

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