US2239423A - Iron-glass seal having nickel-iron contact prongs - Google Patents

Iron-glass seal having nickel-iron contact prongs Download PDF

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Publication number
US2239423A
US2239423A US266603A US26660339A US2239423A US 2239423 A US2239423 A US 2239423A US 266603 A US266603 A US 266603A US 26660339 A US26660339 A US 26660339A US 2239423 A US2239423 A US 2239423A
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United States
Prior art keywords
iron
conductors
glass
header
nickel
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Expired - Lifetime
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US266603A
Inventor
Albert W Hull
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General Electric Co
Original Assignee
General Electric Co
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Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by General Electric Co filed Critical General Electric Co
Priority to US266569A priority Critical patent/US2220741A/en
Priority to US266603A priority patent/US2239423A/en
Priority to US266604A priority patent/US2272747A/en
Priority to US318061A priority patent/US2254726A/en
Priority to US362263A priority patent/US2254727A/en
Priority to GB2393/41A priority patent/GB546543A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2239423A publication Critical patent/US2239423A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C29/00Joining metals with the aid of glass
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C27/00Joining pieces of glass to pieces of other inorganic material; Joining glass to glass other than by fusing
    • C03C27/02Joining pieces of glass to pieces of other inorganic material; Joining glass to glass other than by fusing by fusing glass directly to metal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C3/00Glass compositions
    • C03C3/04Glass compositions containing silica
    • C03C3/076Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight
    • C03C3/102Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight containing lead
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C3/00Glass compositions
    • C03C3/04Glass compositions containing silica
    • C03C3/076Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight
    • C03C3/102Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight containing lead
    • C03C3/108Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight containing lead containing boron
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C3/00Glass compositions
    • C03C3/04Glass compositions containing silica
    • C03C3/076Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight
    • C03C3/11Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight containing halogen or nitrogen
    • C03C3/112Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight containing halogen or nitrogen containing fluorine
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C3/00Glass compositions
    • C03C3/04Glass compositions containing silica
    • C03C3/076Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight
    • C03C3/11Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight containing halogen or nitrogen
    • C03C3/112Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight containing halogen or nitrogen containing fluorine
    • C03C3/115Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight containing halogen or nitrogen containing fluorine containing boron
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J19/00Details of vacuum tubes of the types covered by group H01J21/00
    • H01J19/42Mounting, supporting, spacing, or insulating of electrodes or of electrode assemblies
    • H01J19/50Spacing members extending to the envelope
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J5/00Details relating to vessels or to leading-in conductors common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
    • H01J5/32Seals for leading-in conductors
    • H01J5/40End-disc seals, e.g. flat header
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J7/00Details not provided for in the preceding groups and common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
    • H01J7/14Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the vessel
    • H01J7/18Means for absorbing or adsorbing gas, e.g. by gettering
    • H01J7/186Getter supports
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2893/00Discharge tubes and lamps
    • H01J2893/0001Electrodes and electrode systems suitable for discharge tubes or lamps
    • H01J2893/0002Construction arrangements of electrode systems
    • H01J2893/0005Fixing of electrodes
    • H01J2893/0008Supply leads; Electrode supports via rigid connection to vessel
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2893/00Discharge tubes and lamps
    • H01J2893/0033Vacuum connection techniques applicable to discharge tubes and lamps
    • H01J2893/0034Lamp bases
    • H01J2893/0035Lamp bases shaped as flat plates, in particular metallic
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S228/00Metal fusion bonding
    • Y10S228/902Metal fusion bonding using flame
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S228/00Metal fusion bonding
    • Y10S228/903Metal to nonmetal

Description

April 22, 1941. A. w. HULL 2,239,423

IRON-GLASS SEAL HAVING NICKEL-IRON CONTACT PRONGS Filed April 7, 1959 Inventor: Albert W. Hui I,

His Attorney.

Patented Apr. 22, 1941 IRON-GLASS SEAL HAVING NICKEL-IRON CONTACT PRONGS Albert W. Hull, Schenectady, N. Y., asslgnor to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York Application April 1, 1939, Serial No. 266,603

3 Claims.

The present invention relates to improvements in lead-in arrangements, and while not limited thereto, is especially applicable in connection with metal enclosed vacuum tubes.

In the manufacture f metal radio tubes and the like, considerations of economy make it desirable that the envelope structure be constituted in so far as possible of iron or, more specifically, of a commercial grade of steel. However, where the entire wall structure of the tube consists of iron, difliculty is encountered in the formation of satisfactory seals for the lead-in conductors. For example, where glass is used as the sealingin material it is an important requirement that the glass employed be matched to the expansion characteristics of the envelope material and that the lead-in conductors themselves be equally well matched to the glass.

This requirement can be met in one way by making both the conductors and the header of iron and utilizing an iron-matching glass such as described in A. W. Hull and Louis Navias application Serial No. 266,604, filed April 7, 1939. However, where, as above specified, it is desired to have the external portions of the conductors serve as contact prongs for engagement with a tube socket, the use of iron occasions some difilculty. In particular, it is found that .the tendency of the iron to oxidize makes the establishment of a good contact with the socket uncertain. I

In accordance with my present invention this dlfliculty is overcome by forming the header of a commercial grade of iron or steel and the leadin conductors of an alloy comprising from '70 to 80 per cent-nickel with remainder iron. Such alloys are highly resistant to oxidation so that contact surfaces which embody them tend to remain clean for normal conditions of use. On the other hand, their expansion characteristics substantially match those of iron so that a glass which seals to one will also seal to the other.

The features which I desire to protect herein are pointed out with particularity in the appended claims. The invention itself, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following description taken in connection with the drawing in which Fig. 1 shows a vacuum tube suitably embodying the invention; Fig. 2 is a bottom plan view of the tube of Fig. 1; and Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary detail of one of the lead-in seals used in the tube.

Referring particularly to Fig. 1, there is shown a metal vacuum tube comprising an elongated metal cylinder l which is closed at both ends.

The envelope encloses appropriate electrode structure of which only the lead conductors H are illustrated. The lower end of the envelope is closed by means of a circular headerl3 which is peripherally joined to the cylinder ID, for example, by soldering, and through which the leadin conductors i2 project. The header is provided centrally with a projecting tubulation I l which serves as a guide pin for assisting the location of the tube in an appropriate socket. 'The plan view given in Fig. 2 shows the relative arrangement of the tubulation i4 and the lead-in conductors l2.

For making connections between the internal electrode structure and suitable external circuits, use is made of the outwardly extending portions of the lead-in conductors l2. To this end they are shaped and otherwise adapted to be used as contact prongs for engagement with cooperating socket terminals. In particular they are made of suflicient stiffness so that they will not bend unduly when subjected to the pressure necessary to engage them with a socket of the usual type.

In the arrangement of Fig. l, the contact pins or prongs are illustrated as passing through insulating socket plates 45 and it which are adapted to support appropriate terminals. One such terminal is shown at i8 as comprising a metallic part shaped to engage its associated contact pin in good electrical contact.

In order to retain the lead-in conductors i2 in insulatingly spaced relation to the header i3, use is made f seals of the'general type described and claimed in the copending application of H. L. Thorson, Serial No. 266,569, filed April '7, 1939. As is shown more clearly in Fig. 3, the structure of each seal includes a shallow depression formed in the header by means of deformation of the metal thereof. The shape of the depression is such that it includes a peripheral wall portion is which extends transversely to the principal plane of the header and a flattened floor portion 20 which is parallel to the plane of the header. The lead-in conductor i2 is sealed in a body of fusible vitreous material 22 and by means of this material is supported within an opening 2| formed centrally in the floor portion 20. The fusible material includes a portion which substantially fills the depression formed in the header i3 and a further portion in the form of a rounded mound adhering to the header on the side opposite the depression.

In the application contemplated in the present instance both the envelope cylinder l0 and the header H are constituted of iron. (By the term iron I mean to designate low carbon steels generally such, for example, as cold rolled steel or deep drawing steel.) In order that vacuum-tight seals may be made under these conditions it is necessary that the vitreous material 22 comprise a substance which substantially matches the expansion characteristics of iron. As is explained in the Hull and Navias application Serial No. 266,604 previously referred to, this requirement is fulfilled by the use of a glass whose theoretical oxide composition falls approximately within the following limits; Bio: and 3:0: in the sum of from 40 to 50 per cent, the B20: being present in the amount of less than 5%; K20 and NazO in the sum of 16 to 20 per cent; PhD and BaO in the sum of from 28 to 35 per cent, the PhD being present in the amount of at least per cent, and CaO and Cal: in the sum of from 3 to 6 per cent. A preferred glass within the foregoing classification comprises about 45% S102, about 12% mo; about 6% NazO, about 32% PbO and about 5% CaFz. This glass has expansion characteristics which enable it to be sealed readily to iron and it is furthermore characterized by high resistance to heat shock and to chemical attack.

It is apparent that if the lead-in conductors I! are also constituted of iron, they may be expected to seal to a glass of the character described above as satisfactorily as does the header itself. However, for present purposes, where it is desired to have the externally projecting portions of the lead-in conductors serve also as contact pins, it is desirable that they be constituted of a material less readily oxidizable than iron. In accordance with my present invention this result may be obtained without impairing the perfection of the seal by utilizing for the lead-in conductors an alloy containing from 70 to 80 per -cent nickel with remainder iron. Alloys of this classification are highly resistant to oxidization or other chemical attack, but are nevertheless well adapted to sealing with the glasses which seal to iron: A particular alloy with which I have obtained especially satisfactory results is that comprising 78% nickel and 22% iron.

While I have described my invention in connection with a particular seal arrangement it will be understood that it is by no means limited to use with such an arrangement. I, therefore, aim in the appended claims to cover all such alternative .uses as, come within the true spirit of a low carbon steel and having an opening therein, the said opening being sealed by a body of aglass which has substantially the expansion characteristics of said steel throughout the range of temperatures normally encountered in the operation of the device and which is fused directly to the said iron wall portion, and a lead-in conductor extending into the said enclosure through the said body of glass and in sealing relation with the glass, the said conductor being constituted of an alloy of from '70 to 80 per cent nickel with remainder iron and the externally projecting portion of the conductor being shaped to serve as a contact prong.

2. An electrical discharge device comprising electrode structure, an elongated cylindrical envelope enclosing the electrode structure, a circular header constituted wholly of low carbon steel closing one end of the envelope and having a plurality of openings therein, the openings being respectively sealed by bodies of a glass which has substantially the expansion characteristics of the header material throughout the range of temperatures normally encountered in the operation of the device and which is fused directly to the header, and rigid lead-in conductors for the electrode structure respectively sealed through the various bodiesof glass, the said conductors being constituted of an alloy of from to per cent nickel with remainder iron, whereby the expansion characterstics of the conductors are matched to those of the said glass and the header material and the externally projecting portions of the conductors are suillciently non-oxidizable to serve satisfactorily as contact prongsfor engagement with socket terminals.

3. A vacuum tube comprising electrode structure, an elongated cylindrical metal envelope surrounding the electrode structure, a circular header of low carbon steel closing one end of the envelope and provided with a plurality of openings therein, the openings being respectively closed by bodies of a glass which has substantially the expansion characteristics of the header material throughout the range of temperatures normally encountered'in the operation of the device and which .is sealed directly to the header, and rigid lead-in conductors for the electrode structure sealed through the various bodies of glass, the said conductors being constituted of an alloy of approximately '78 per cent nickel and 22 per cent iron, whereby the expansion characteristics of the conductors match those of the glass and header material and the externaily projecting portions of the conductors are sufliciently non-oxidizable to serve satisfactorily as contact prongs.

- ALBERT W. HULL.

US266603A 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Iron-glass seal having nickel-iron contact prongs Expired - Lifetime US2239423A (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US266569A US2220741A (en) 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Seal for lead-in conductors
US266603A US2239423A (en) 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Iron-glass seal having nickel-iron contact prongs
US266604A US2272747A (en) 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Glass to metal seal
US318061A US2254726A (en) 1939-04-07 1940-02-09 Discharge device
US362263A US2254727A (en) 1939-04-07 1940-10-22 Discharge device
GB2393/41A GB546543A (en) 1939-04-07 1941-02-21 Improvements relating to vacuum electric discharge devices

Applications Claiming Priority (10)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US266569A US2220741A (en) 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Seal for lead-in conductors
US266603A US2239423A (en) 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Iron-glass seal having nickel-iron contact prongs
US266604A US2272747A (en) 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Glass to metal seal
FR864657D FR864657A (en) 1939-04-07 1940-04-05 Improvements in discharge tubes
GB6189/40A GB535990A (en) 1939-04-07 1940-04-05 Improvements in and relating to methods of sealing an electric conductor through a metal wall
NL97552A NL58136C (en) 1939-04-07 1940-04-06
CH238969D CH238969A (en) 1939-04-07 1940-04-06 Of iron and fused on glass-made body.
US362263A US2254727A (en) 1939-04-07 1940-10-22 Discharge device
FR51400D FR51400E (en) 1939-04-07 1941-02-08 Improvements in discharge tubes
GB2393/41A GB546543A (en) 1939-04-07 1941-02-21 Improvements relating to vacuum electric discharge devices

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2239423A true US2239423A (en) 1941-04-22

Family

ID=33102585

Family Applications (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US266604A Expired - Lifetime US2272747A (en) 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Glass to metal seal
US266569A Expired - Lifetime US2220741A (en) 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Seal for lead-in conductors
US266603A Expired - Lifetime US2239423A (en) 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Iron-glass seal having nickel-iron contact prongs
US362263A Expired - Lifetime US2254727A (en) 1939-04-07 1940-10-22 Discharge device

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US266604A Expired - Lifetime US2272747A (en) 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Glass to metal seal
US266569A Expired - Lifetime US2220741A (en) 1939-04-07 1939-04-07 Seal for lead-in conductors

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US362263A Expired - Lifetime US2254727A (en) 1939-04-07 1940-10-22 Discharge device

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (4) US2272747A (en)
CH (1) CH238969A (en)
FR (2) FR864657A (en)
GB (2) GB535990A (en)
NL (1) NL58136C (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2471079A (en) * 1947-08-28 1949-05-24 Carpenter Steel Co Glass sealing alloy
US2509709A (en) * 1946-10-05 1950-05-30 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Contact pin for electric discharge tubes
US2841737A (en) * 1951-04-23 1958-07-01 Philips Corp Electric discharge tube

Families Citing this family (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2452083A (en) * 1943-01-08 1948-10-26 Grotenhuis Theodore A Te Method of reinforcing organic-polysulfide rubbery material with carbon black
US2504842A (en) * 1943-04-07 1950-04-18 Western Electric Co Glassworking apparatus
US2473851A (en) * 1943-08-06 1949-06-21 Westinghouse Electric Corp Backstop for electromagnetic devices
US2421984A (en) * 1944-04-25 1947-06-10 Rca Corp Material for gettering electron discharge devices
US2638660A (en) * 1945-04-03 1953-05-19 Philips Lab Inc Electrical insulator
BE471581A (en) * 1946-04-06
US2527884A (en) * 1949-01-29 1950-10-31 Cutler Hammer Inc Vitreous compositions and methods of making the same
US2678346A (en) * 1949-11-12 1954-05-11 Itt Electrical terminal
US2822498A (en) * 1954-04-19 1958-02-04 Sylvania Electric Prod Tube construction for automatic production
US2957237A (en) * 1955-01-13 1960-10-25 Welding Research Inc Method of making a brazed riveted connection
US3014447A (en) * 1956-06-08 1961-12-26 Sylvania Electric Prod Soldering machine and method
US3240861A (en) * 1961-05-01 1966-03-15 Gen Electric Panel lamp seal
DE1249466B (en) * 1963-10-29 1900-01-01
US3959860A (en) * 1974-12-20 1976-06-01 General Electric Company Method of making non-shorting photoflash lamp
US4421266A (en) * 1981-07-29 1983-12-20 Western Electric Company, Inc. Handling bodies containing bonding material
US4874339A (en) * 1985-08-09 1989-10-17 Saes Getters S.P.A. Pumping tubulation getter
GB9025116D0 (en) * 1990-11-19 1991-01-02 Wilson Peter Adjustable dual nozzle

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2509709A (en) * 1946-10-05 1950-05-30 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Contact pin for electric discharge tubes
US2471079A (en) * 1947-08-28 1949-05-24 Carpenter Steel Co Glass sealing alloy
US2841737A (en) * 1951-04-23 1958-07-01 Philips Corp Electric discharge tube

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB546543A (en) 1942-07-17
US2220741A (en) 1940-11-05
US2254727A (en) 1941-09-02
FR51400E (en) 1942-06-09
NL58136C (en) 1946-08-15
GB535990A (en) 1941-04-29
FR864657A (en) 1941-05-10
US2272747A (en) 1942-02-10
CH238969A (en) 1945-09-15

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