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Masonry

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Publication number
US2235646A
US2235646A US24741738A US2235646A US 2235646 A US2235646 A US 2235646A US 24741738 A US24741738 A US 24741738A US 2235646 A US2235646 A US 2235646A
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Prior art keywords
bricks
apertures
dowels
brick
masonry
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Schaffer Max Dimant
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Schaffer Max Dimant
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2/14Walls having cavities in, but not between, the elements, i.e. each cavity being enclosed by at least four sides forming part of one single element
    • E04B2/16Walls having cavities in, but not between, the elements, i.e. each cavity being enclosed by at least four sides forming part of one single element using elements having specially-designed means for stabilising the position
    • E04B2/18Walls having cavities in, but not between, the elements, i.e. each cavity being enclosed by at least four sides forming part of one single element using elements having specially-designed means for stabilising the position by interlocking of projections or inserts with indentations, e.g. of tongues, grooves, dovetails
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2002/0202Details of connections
    • E04B2002/0243Separate connectors or inserts, e.g. pegs, pins or keys
    • E04B2002/0245Pegs or pins

Description

March 18, i941. M, D. SCHFFER MASONRY Filed Dec. 23, 1938 Patented Mar. 18, 1941 PATENT OFFICE MASONRY DimantSchffer, Vienna, Germany l Application December 23, 1938, Serial No. 247,417

4 f In Austria December 23, 1937 2 Claims.

This invention relates to masonry in which the horizontal courses of bricks are interconnected by bodies inserted into vertical apertures. In the known constructions of such masonry the apertures in the bricks are enlarged at both ends so that shoulder-like bearing surfaces are formed on which substantially cylindrical dowels rest. This form of construction is not practical, because the formation of the enlarged portion in the aper-l ture is complicated and expensive. The invention relates to masonry which overcomes this objection. According to the invention bricks are used whose apertures pass right through them vertically in uniform cross-section, every two courses of bricks being connected by inserted dowels tapering at both ends on at least onefth of their length, which dowels hold on the walls of the apertures solely by friction. The bricks used can therefore be made cheaply on the string press in the usual manner. The bricks are preferably made with several elongated apertures extending vertically through the bricks obliquely to the edges thereof so that, when the bricks are built up, the apertures cross and the dowels can be inserted at the points of intersection, suitable points for inserting the dowels being present even when the courses of bricks are inaccurately placed the one on the other. Moreover, if bricks are used according to the invention having two longitudinal rows of elongated apertures one row of which slopes towards one side and the other row towards the other side of the brick at right angles to the first row it is only necessary to always lay the next following course upside down f to ensure that all apertures of the bricks, laid in longitudinal direction cross, and when at least three dowels are distributed on the two longitudinal rows the brick is anchored against shifting and turning. Solid, slightly bllged bodies are preferably used as dowels.

An embodiment of the invention is illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawing, in which:

Fig. 1 shows in top plan view a section of masonry,

Fig. 2 is a section on line II-II of Fig. 1.

The individual bricks 2| each have eight apertures 22 extending right through them and uniformly distributed in two rows M and N extending parallel to the longitudinal edges of the brick. The apertures 22' are of elongated` cross-sectional shape with semi-circular ends. In the row M they are inclined towards the left at an angle of 45 to the longitudinal edge of the brick and in the row N they are inclined towards the right at the same angle. If the next following course is laid with the bricks turned through 180 about their longitudinal axis, all the apertures will cross. Dowels 25 of solid material such as concrete, ferro concrete, baked clay or wood are used for connecting the courses of bricks. These dowels are substantially cylindrical but tapered slightly at their ends 26 so that they have a slight bilge. Their diameter corresponds approximately to the smallest width of the apertures 22.

When building up each course is preferably strewn with a bedding or levelling layer of sand 21 whereupon the next course is laid with inverted bricks. These two courses are then connected the one with the other by inserting the dowels 25 from above. Owing to the conical end 26 of the dowel and the fact that the apertures cross, it is not diicult to insert the dowels even if the courses are not laid accurately. Moreover, owing to the elongated shape of the apertures there is ample room for the fingers in the aperture in the uppermost brick. After the dowel has been loosely inserted, it is driven into the bricks with a striking instrument until it is half in the top brick and half in the bottom brick, an intermediate member 28 being preferably inserted between the instrument and dowel, to determine the correct position of the dowel by an abutment 29 contacting with the surface of the brick. The dowel is held in position by friction in the two bricks.

Every brick is preferably connected by at least three dowels with the brick of the course directly under it. When two dowels have been inserted in apertures of the same longitudinal row the brick can still be shifted in the oblique direction, when two dowels are inserted in apertures in different rows the brick may be turned about one of the dowels as pivot: if, however, a brick is connected with the lower course by three dowels distributed on the two longitudinal rows of apertures, it is locked against shifting or turning'.

The intermediate layer used when laying the courses of bricks, serve for levelling the unevennesses in the superposed bricks and the thus ensuring uniform transmission of pressure.

According to the invention the procedure is preferably as follows:

Sand of as uniform grain as possible and used in its natural moist state is mixed with ordinary cement in a very poor proportion without addition of water and this mixture is applied in the desired joint thickness, the hygroscopic properties of the bricks and of the sand cause additional moisture to be absorbed from the air and the resultant swelling of the cement causes hardening of thev bedding layer to a kind of plate. The bedding layer also absorbs the undesirable moisture present in or penetrating into the bricks until the setting process is terminated. The setting does not affect the binding between brick and intermediate plateA Thus a rm bedding adopting itself perfectly to the unevennesses of the bricks is produced by which the possibility of pulling down is not impaired and the character of dry masonry is ensured.

In the case of masonry in which appreciable expansion stresses occur, it is also preferable to place in the bedding layer 21 some kind of material 3|] with a high tensile strength such as reed, bamboo, cardboard, perforated sheet metal, wires or the like.

I claim:

1. Masonry comprising Vertical courses of bricks having apertures of elongated cross-section and extending at an incline to the edges right through the brick and crossing the one the other in two superposed bricks, and separate solid dowels having each a smooth straight middle portion and tapering at both ends along at least one-fth of the length and inserted in vertical position into the registering apertures of two superposed courses of bricks and held in position solely by friction on the walls of the apertures.

2. Masonry as specied in claim 1, in which the apertures of one row are inclined towards one side and those of the other row towards the other side of the edges of the bricks each brick being locked against shifting and turning by at last three dowels distributed on the two longitudinal rows of apertures.

MAX DIMANT SCHFFER..

US2235646A 1937-12-23 1938-12-23 Masonry Expired - Lifetime US2235646A (en)

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AT2235646X 1937-12-23

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Cited By (38)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2846867A (en) * 1953-09-08 1958-08-12 George P Reintjes Chamber lining
EP0198934A1 (en) * 1985-04-23 1986-10-29 Hans-Joachim Heise Structural elements for dry wall construction, and wall made of such elements
US4802320A (en) * 1986-09-15 1989-02-07 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US4825619A (en) * 1986-09-15 1989-05-02 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Block wall
US5017049A (en) * 1990-03-15 1991-05-21 Block Systems Inc. Composite masonry block
US5062610A (en) * 1989-09-28 1991-11-05 Block Systems Inc. Composite masonry block mold for use in block molding machines
USRE34314E (en) * 1986-09-15 1993-07-20 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Block wall
US5294216A (en) * 1989-09-28 1994-03-15 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5367851A (en) * 1993-12-02 1994-11-29 Larson; Jerry B. Panel spacer and joint
US5474405A (en) * 1993-03-31 1995-12-12 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Low elevation wall construction
US5487623A (en) * 1993-03-31 1996-01-30 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Modular block retaining wall construction and components
US5490363A (en) * 1992-10-06 1996-02-13 Anchor Wall Sytems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5624211A (en) * 1993-03-31 1997-04-29 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Modular block retaining wall construction and components
US5704183A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-01-06 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5709062A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-01-20 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5797706A (en) * 1993-06-24 1998-08-25 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri Vidal Earth structures
US5879603A (en) * 1996-11-08 1999-03-09 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Process for producing masonry block with roughened surface
US6029943A (en) * 1996-11-08 2000-02-29 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Splitting technique
US6178704B1 (en) 1996-11-08 2001-01-30 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Splitting technique
USD445512S1 (en) 1997-10-27 2001-07-24 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
WO2002022978A1 (en) * 2000-09-14 2002-03-21 Haan Van Medevoort Maria Alett Method for erecting a building, block and dowel therefore
USD458693S1 (en) 1996-11-08 2002-06-11 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US6488448B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2002-12-03 Kiltie Corp. Block module
US20030074856A1 (en) * 2001-10-18 2003-04-24 Westblock Systems, Inc. Wall block, system and method
US6857240B1 (en) 2003-01-24 2005-02-22 Macalister Lawrence R Cinderblock alignment clip
US20050108973A1 (en) * 2001-10-18 2005-05-26 Westblock Systems, Inc. Wall block, system and mold for making the same
FR2862993A1 (en) * 2003-11-28 2005-06-03 Alain Grima Construction procedure for wall or similar uses spacers to align blocks in different courses, filling gaps with sealant afterwards
US20070110524A1 (en) * 2005-11-15 2007-05-17 Macdonald Robert A Pin having a tapered cap
US20070122239A1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2007-05-31 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US7244079B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2007-07-17 Kiltie Corporation Retaining wall system
US20070258776A1 (en) * 2006-04-24 2007-11-08 Strand Todd P Retaining wall systems
EP1892348A2 (en) * 2006-08-25 2008-02-27 Veit Dennert KG Baustoffbetriebe Positioning element for exact mutual positioning of prefabricated building parts
US20080110124A1 (en) * 2006-11-13 2008-05-15 Buse Jay Apparatus and method for interlocking blocks
US20110086189A1 (en) * 2009-10-08 2011-04-14 Bigger George S Structure comprising hexagonal tubes and rhomboid inserts
US20120102863A1 (en) * 2005-04-21 2012-05-03 Mixza Yap Ching Soloarmar construction engineering system
USD665928S1 (en) 2011-06-21 2012-08-21 Westblock Development, LLC Wall block
USD668792S1 (en) 2011-03-11 2012-10-09 Westblock Development, LLC Wall block
US8667759B2 (en) 2011-03-14 2014-03-11 Westblock Systems, Inc. Wall block system

Cited By (67)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2846867A (en) * 1953-09-08 1958-08-12 George P Reintjes Chamber lining
EP0198934A1 (en) * 1985-04-23 1986-10-29 Hans-Joachim Heise Structural elements for dry wall construction, and wall made of such elements
USRE34314E (en) * 1986-09-15 1993-07-20 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Block wall
US4802320A (en) * 1986-09-15 1989-02-07 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US4825619A (en) * 1986-09-15 1989-05-02 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Block wall
USRE37278E1 (en) * 1986-09-15 2001-07-17 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems Retaining wall block
US5062610A (en) * 1989-09-28 1991-11-05 Block Systems Inc. Composite masonry block mold for use in block molding machines
US5294216A (en) * 1989-09-28 1994-03-15 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5827015A (en) * 1989-09-28 1998-10-27 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US7048472B2 (en) 1989-09-28 2006-05-23 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US7360970B2 (en) 1989-09-28 2008-04-22 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US6142713A (en) * 1989-09-28 2000-11-07 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US6312197B1 (en) 1989-09-28 2001-11-06 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5589124A (en) * 1989-09-28 1996-12-31 Block Systems, Inc. Method of forming composite masonry blocks
US6183168B1 (en) 1989-09-28 2001-02-06 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US6616382B2 (en) 1989-09-28 2003-09-09 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5017049A (en) * 1990-03-15 1991-05-21 Block Systems Inc. Composite masonry block
US5490363A (en) * 1992-10-06 1996-02-13 Anchor Wall Sytems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5795105A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-08-18 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5704183A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-01-06 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US7384215B2 (en) 1992-10-06 2008-06-10 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US20040028484A1 (en) * 1992-10-06 2004-02-12 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US6113318A (en) * 1992-10-06 2000-09-05 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5711129A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-01-27 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Masonry block
US5709062A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-01-20 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5487623A (en) * 1993-03-31 1996-01-30 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Modular block retaining wall construction and components
US5474405A (en) * 1993-03-31 1995-12-12 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Low elevation wall construction
US5624211A (en) * 1993-03-31 1997-04-29 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Modular block retaining wall construction and components
US5507599A (en) * 1993-03-31 1996-04-16 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Modular block retaining wall construction and components
US5797706A (en) * 1993-06-24 1998-08-25 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri Vidal Earth structures
US5367851A (en) * 1993-12-02 1994-11-29 Larson; Jerry B. Panel spacer and joint
US5879603A (en) * 1996-11-08 1999-03-09 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Process for producing masonry block with roughened surface
US6029943A (en) * 1996-11-08 2000-02-29 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Splitting technique
USD458693S1 (en) 1996-11-08 2002-06-11 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US6178704B1 (en) 1996-11-08 2001-01-30 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Splitting technique
USD445512S1 (en) 1997-10-27 2001-07-24 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US20110107707A1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2011-05-12 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US7871223B2 (en) 1998-10-13 2011-01-18 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US20100095632A1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2010-04-22 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US20080190057A1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2008-08-14 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US7654776B2 (en) 1998-10-13 2010-02-02 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US7448830B2 (en) 1998-10-13 2008-11-11 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US20070122239A1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2007-05-31 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US6960048B2 (en) 1999-10-15 2005-11-01 Kiltie Corporation Modular segmented retaining wall
US7229235B2 (en) 1999-10-15 2007-06-12 Kiltie Corporation Retaining wall system
US7244079B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2007-07-17 Kiltie Corporation Retaining wall system
US20060002769A1 (en) * 1999-10-15 2006-01-05 Kiltie Corporation Retaining wall system
US6488448B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2002-12-03 Kiltie Corp. Block module
WO2002022978A1 (en) * 2000-09-14 2002-03-21 Haan Van Medevoort Maria Alett Method for erecting a building, block and dowel therefore
US20030074856A1 (en) * 2001-10-18 2003-04-24 Westblock Systems, Inc. Wall block, system and method
US7328537B2 (en) * 2001-10-18 2008-02-12 Westblock Systems, Inc. Wall block, system and method
US20050108973A1 (en) * 2001-10-18 2005-05-26 Westblock Systems, Inc. Wall block, system and mold for making the same
US7591447B2 (en) 2001-10-18 2009-09-22 Westblock Systems, Inc. Wall block, system and mold for making the same
US6857240B1 (en) 2003-01-24 2005-02-22 Macalister Lawrence R Cinderblock alignment clip
FR2862993A1 (en) * 2003-11-28 2005-06-03 Alain Grima Construction procedure for wall or similar uses spacers to align blocks in different courses, filling gaps with sealant afterwards
US20120102863A1 (en) * 2005-04-21 2012-05-03 Mixza Yap Ching Soloarmar construction engineering system
US8955282B2 (en) * 2005-04-21 2015-02-17 Mixza Yap Ching Soloarmar construction engineering system
US20070110524A1 (en) * 2005-11-15 2007-05-17 Macdonald Robert A Pin having a tapered cap
US20070258776A1 (en) * 2006-04-24 2007-11-08 Strand Todd P Retaining wall systems
EP1892348A3 (en) * 2006-08-25 2009-12-02 Veit Dennert KG Baustoffbetriebe Positioning element for exact mutual positioning of prefabricated building parts
EP1892348A2 (en) * 2006-08-25 2008-02-27 Veit Dennert KG Baustoffbetriebe Positioning element for exact mutual positioning of prefabricated building parts
US20080110124A1 (en) * 2006-11-13 2008-05-15 Buse Jay Apparatus and method for interlocking blocks
US20110086189A1 (en) * 2009-10-08 2011-04-14 Bigger George S Structure comprising hexagonal tubes and rhomboid inserts
US8256168B2 (en) * 2009-10-08 2012-09-04 Bigger George S Structure comprising hexagonal tubes and rhomboid inserts
USD668792S1 (en) 2011-03-11 2012-10-09 Westblock Development, LLC Wall block
US8667759B2 (en) 2011-03-14 2014-03-11 Westblock Systems, Inc. Wall block system
USD665928S1 (en) 2011-06-21 2012-08-21 Westblock Development, LLC Wall block

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