US2224134A - Transmission of electrical signals having a direct current component - Google Patents

Transmission of electrical signals having a direct current component Download PDF

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US2224134A
US2224134A US6983136A US2224134A US 2224134 A US2224134 A US 2224134A US 6983136 A US6983136 A US 6983136A US 2224134 A US2224134 A US 2224134A
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signals
signal
valve
means
amplitude
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Blumlein Alan Dower
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EMI Ltd
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EMI Ltd
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03BGENERATION OF OSCILLATIONS, DIRECTLY OR BY FREQUENCY-CHANGING, BY CIRCUITS EMPLOYING ACTIVE ELEMENTS WHICH OPERATE IN A NON-SWITCHING MANNER; GENERATION OF NOISE BY SUCH CIRCUITS
    • H03B5/00Generation of oscillations using amplifier with regenerative feedback from output to input
    • H03B5/20Generation of oscillations using amplifier with regenerative feedback from output to input with frequency-determining element comprising resistance and either capacitance or inductance, e.g. phase-shift oscillator
    • H03B5/22Generation of oscillations using amplifier with regenerative feedback from output to input with frequency-determining element comprising resistance and either capacitance or inductance, e.g. phase-shift oscillator active element in amplifier being vacuum tube
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03BGENERATION OF OSCILLATIONS, DIRECTLY OR BY FREQUENCY-CHANGING, BY CIRCUITS EMPLOYING ACTIVE ELEMENTS WHICH OPERATE IN A NON-SWITCHING MANNER; GENERATION OF NOISE BY SUCH CIRCUITS
    • H03B5/00Generation of oscillations using amplifier with regenerative feedback from output to input
    • H03B5/08Generation of oscillations using amplifier with regenerative feedback from output to input with frequency-determining element comprising lumped inductance and capacitance
    • H03B5/10Generation of oscillations using amplifier with regenerative feedback from output to input with frequency-determining element comprising lumped inductance and capacitance active element in amplifier being vacuum tube
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N5/00Details of television systems
    • H04N5/14Picture signal circuitry for video frequency region
    • H04N5/16Circuitry for reinsertion of dc and slowly varying components of signal; Circuitry for preservation of black or white level
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N5/00Details of television systems
    • H04N5/14Picture signal circuitry for video frequency region
    • H04N5/16Circuitry for reinsertion of dc and slowly varying components of signal; Circuitry for preservation of black or white level
    • H04N5/165Circuitry for reinsertion of dc and slowly varying components of signal; Circuitry for preservation of black or white level to maintain the black level constant
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N5/00Details of television systems
    • H04N5/44Receiver circuitry
    • H04N5/52Automatic gain control

Description

Dec. 10, 1940. r A. D. BLUMLEIN 2,224,134 TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALS HAVING A DiRECT CURRENT COMPONENT Filed March 20, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 v 7'0 RECEIVER lA/VE/VTOR ALAN 0014 54? BLUMLE/N ATTORNEY Dec. 10, 1940. A. D. BLUMLEIN 2224 TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALS HAVING A DIRECT CURRENT CO MfONENT Filed March 20, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 70 APECEl/El? XXXXX XXXXXi INVENTLOR ti /@BLUMLEl/V 5r 7f: g M

A 7-7'0 RNEY .Decelo, I A. D BLUMLEIN 2.224, TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALS HAVING A DIRECT CURRENT COMPONENT Filed. March 20, 1936 4Sheets-She'et s IN VEN TOR a ALAN DO? BLUMLE/IV A 757' ORNE Y 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Dec. 10, 1 'i I A. D. BLUMLEIN TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALS HAVING A DIRECT CURRENT COMPONENT Filed March 20, 1936 Patented Dec. 10, 1940 UNITED. STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,224,134 TRANSMISSION or ELECTRICAL SIGNALS HAVING NENT A DIRECT CURRENT COMPO- primal Application March 20, 1936, Serial No. 69,831

' In Great Britain March 20, 1935 12" Claims.

The present invention relates to apparatus for handling electrical signals having a direct current component. The term direct current component is intended to include not only the actual direct current component but also signal components of very low frequency, which may be regarded as slow variations in the actual direct current component. In television, for example, the direct current component represents the average brightness of the picture transmitted and slow changes in the average brightness.

It is already known, for example, from British Patent #422,906 corresponding to United States application No. 720,205 that when a signal having a D. C. component is passed through a channel, such as an A. C. amplifier, which is incapable of passing the D. C. component, that component is wholly or partly lost; it is then necessary, in order to restore the signal to its original form, to reinsert the lost D. C. component.

Means have already been proposed for eflecting this re-insertion, and it is an object of this invention to provide no el or improved means for this purpose. The invention also aims to provide means for correcting for the incorrect representation of the D. 0. component in electrical signals.

Furthermore, where signals having a direct current component are transmitted by modulated carrier wave, it is not possible to make use at a receiver of the average amplitude oi the received carrier in order to correct for varying attenuation, due for example to fading, as is commonly done in automatic gain control systems for sound broadcast receivers. This is because the average carrier amplitude changes at the transmitter not only with changes in attenuation but also with changes in the value of the direct current component.

Some difilculty therefore arises in providing means for compensating for varying attenuation. The difficulty does not, of course, arise where the direct current component is lost or suppressed at the transmitter but, to obtain the original signal at the receiver, it is. then necessary to provide some means for re-inserting the missing direct current component. The use of a stabilise carrier, that is, one bearing the appropriate direct current modulation, is however of advantage in that for a given depth of modulation the average carrier power can be made lower than when the carrier is unstabilised.

It is accordingly a further object of the present invention to provide improved means whereby compensation for varying attenuation in a system of signal transmission by carrier wave can be obtained, irrespective of whether the direct current component of the signals is represented in the transmitted carrier or not.

The present invention accordingly provides a method of correcting for the complete or partial absence of the D. 0. component, or for the incorrect representation oi. that component, in electrical signals representative of intelligence, which method comprises employing an observing device to develop a corrective signal which varies in magnitude in accordance with variations in the magnitude of said D. C. component, causing said intelligence signal to be efiective on said observing device only at spaced intervals of time and utilising said corrective signal to establish the appropriate D. C. component in said intelligence signals.

The invention further provides a method of correcting for variations in the effective amplitude of electrical signals representative of intelligence, such as may arise in the transmission of said signals as a result of the complete or partial loss of the D. C. component of said signals, the incorrect representation of that component, or varying attenuation of the signals, which method comprises transmitting along the channel through which the intelligence signals are passed, at spaced intervals, check signals each of which has a first portion and a datum portion which, at the input of said channel, has a predetermined fixed amplitude value; at desired points in said channel, utilising the second portion of each of said check signals to change an observing device from a normally insensitive condition to a condition in which it is responsive to the corresponding datum portion, causing said datum portions/to influencesaid observing device to develop a corrective signal dependent upon the amplitude of said datum portions, and applying said corrective signal at a point either before or after the observing point to compensate wholly or in part ior'said variations in effective amplitude.

Two sets of signals are regarded as transmitted along the same channel either when they are used to modulate the same carrier wave or, if a carrier is not used, when they are transmitted along the same transmission line. The check signals may be a part of the intelligence signals themselves, or they may be interposed between trains of the intelligence signals.

The invention also provides a transmission system for transmitting electrical intelligence signals containing a direct current component and a recurrent check signal which has two portions of different amplitudes, the amplitude values of said portions in the signals to be transmitted, being substantially fixed when said direct current component is present, said system comprising a transmitter having means for transmitting said intelligence signals, such for example as by modulated carrier, deprived of the whole or a part of said direct current component, and a receiver having means for adjusting the effective gain of an amplifier thereof in dependence upon variations in the difference between the amplitudes of said two portions.

A receiver for use with the system according to the preceding paragraph therefore has means responsive to the difierencebetween two recurrent amplitude values for adjusting the gain of an amplifier thereof. The receiver may be providedwith means for re-inserting the direct current component with reference to one of said amplitude values (for example in the manner set forth in British Patent #422,906 corresponding to United States application No. 720,205) and means for thereafter deriving a gain controlling voltage from the amplitude of the other of said amplitude values.

The invention will be described, as applied by way of example to television, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which Figures 1 to 3 are explanatory diagrams,

Figures 4, 5 and 6 are circuit diagrams illustrating parts of apparatus according to this invention,

Figure 7 is a circuit diagram illustrating a further form of the present invention,

Figuresll and 9 are further explanatory diagrams, t v v Figure 10 shows a further circuit arrangement illustrative of a feature of the present invention,

Figure 11 illustrates a part of apparatus for carrying the invention into effect, and

Figure 12 shows a further form of apparatus according to the invention.

Fig. 13 is a schematic diagram of a system embodying known transmission apparatus, and the apparatus of Figs. 4 and 5.

Figure 1 shows a form of television signal which'may be used in carrying out the present invention. Picture signals i, are interspersed with line synchronising impulses 2, occurring between the scanning of adjacent lines of the object to be transmitted. The line marked W in-- dicates the picture signal amplitude representative of the brightest element of the object, the line marked B corresponds to the amplitude level of a black signal and the synchronising impulses are seen to be in the blacker-than-black direction.

The dotted line 3 indicates the end of the last line of one traverse or frame of the object and the dotted line 4 indicates the commencement of the next frame. In this interval there is transmitted a frame signal comprising, in the present example, three pulses 5. The leading edges L indicate the commencements of the line impulses and the leading edge F that of the frame signal. The line impulses and. the frame signal serve to control the generation of saw-tooth oscillations at the line and frame frequencies respectively in known manner. The particular form of frame signal shown in Figure 1 is intended for use in interlaced scanning where the lines traced in one traverse of the image interlac-e with the lines traced in the next traverse; in the present example the image is completely scanned in two traverses thereof and im-such a case it is desirable that the broad pulses I constituting the frame signal should occur at double the line impulse frequency during the frame interval, so that the frame signal should always have the same energy content in spite of the fact that the leading edge of one frame impulse occurs at point F in Figure 1, whilst the next frame impulse will be displaced by half a line interval relatively to this. For this reason, the broad pulse having the leading edge L1 is provided in the present example.

The signal of Figure 1 will be assumed to have been used to modulate a carrier in such a way that the direct current component is present at the modulating point, so that any given value of ordinate in Figure 1 will correspond to a fixed carrier amplitude. Further, the modulation will be assumed to have been so effected that the carrier amplitude is reduced substantially to zero on the peaks P of the synchronising pulses.

Referring now to Figure 4, it will be assumed that there is applied from a suitable radio receiver to the tuned circuit M the modulated carrier referred to in the preceding paragraph. It will further be assumed that the carrier is sub ject to varying attenuation and that it is desired to correct for this at the receiver.

The signals developed across the circuit M are rectified by the diode rectifier 6 giving a rectified signal across a condenser l and resistance 8. The time constant of these elements I and 8 is so short that the voltage across condenser E follows the envelope of the modulating signals; in fact, a voltage wave of the form shown in Figure 1 will be set up across condenser E. The rectified signals so obtained are taken through a radio frequency choke 9 and high resistance i 8 to the control grid of valve ll. With negligible radio frequency signal (on the peak of a synchronising pulse) this valve ii is biased to anode-current cut-off by the battery l2. For any signal of about black amplitude, or greater, the valve ii is conducting and keeps a condenser l3 .discharged. During the synchronising pulses 2 and 5, the condenser it charges through a resistance l5, and during a long frame pulse 5, suiiicient charge is accumulated on the condenser l3 to take the potential of the control grid of a valve Hi to a value above that corresponding to anodecurrent cut-oflf; battery ll serves to bias the control grid of valve l6, and the valve it serves to provide a positive pulse on the grid of valve It at the occurrence of the first frame pulse 5. The anode of valve i6 and the screen grid of a valve l9 are fed through a common resistance i8. Valves l9 and 2d are connected as a multi-vibrator, their grids being cross-connected to their anodes through condensers 2| and 22 and being connected to earth through leak resistances 23 and 2 3. The condenser 2| is of comparatively large capacity so that, with resistance 23, it forms a circuit having a time constant which is long compared with the frame period, that is, the time interval between successive occurrences of the leading edge F of Figure 1. The lead 24 is made adjustable. The multi-vibrator tends to seek its relatively more stable condition in which valve I9 is conducting and valve 2|] insulating. The first series of frame pulses 5 (Fig. 1) which arrives makes valve ll insulate for long enough to allow condenser l3 to charge up sufficiently to 'make valve l6 conductive. This lowers the potential of the screen grid of valve l9 and makes this valve insulate. When valve l9 insulates, its

anode becomes more positive and the resultin positive pulse on the control grid of valve 20 makes this valve conduct, and the control grid of valve I9 is driven negative. After a short 5 period, the charge on condenser 22 leaks away through resistance 24 and valve .19 becomes conductive once more, driving valve 20 to' a non-' conductive state in which, owing to the long time constant of elements 2| and 23, it remains until the next series of frame impulses arrives. By suitably adjusting the value of resistance 24 it can be arranged that the valve to remains insulating for nearly as long as the interval between frames, that is, the interval between lines l5 3 and 4 in Fig. 1. The interval during which the valve 19 is insulating may thus commence during or just after the arrival of the first pulse 5 and may end just before the picture signals commence again, for example, during the last line impulse of the interval between successive frames. A suitable insulating interval is that indicated between lines 25 and 28 in Fig. 1.

The circuit of Fig. 4 is illustrative oi circuits which may be used to develop a control signal 25 which can in turn be used to render sensitive a correcting device which at other times is insensitive. This correcting device serves to develop a corrective current or voltage for correcting for any variations which may take place in the at- 30 tenuation undergone by the received signal with reference to the part of the received signals occurring during this sensitive" interval. Many other forms of circuit can, of course, be used in place of that shown in Fig. 4. r as In Fig. 4 a control signal is developed at points 2'! and at, the signal at the former point being in the positive sense and that at the latter in the negative sense. The form of the control signaldeveloped at 2i is shown in Fig. 2.

A part of .a correcting device according to the invention which is suitable for use with the arrangement of Fig. 4 is shown in Fig. 5. The received carrier is applied as in Fig. i to a tuned circuit i l and is demodulated by a diode de- 4 tector 8 having a condenser E with a parallel load resistance d connected as shown. The elements i l, 6, l and 8 need not be duplicated in the cir cult of Fig. 5 because, if desired, the required voltages may be taken from the terminals of 50 condenser l oi the apparatus oi Fig. 4, in which case it is to be noted that the cathode oi valve lit of Fig. 5 is conductivcly connected to earth through batteries l2 and ll. Voltages may also be taken, if desired, from the same terminals to supply the picture reconstituting de vice. Alternatively. some or all of the elements referred to may be separate for the different parts of the receiver circuit, in which case the negative end of battery 35 of Fig. 5 should be 60 earthed.

The wave form of the kind shown in Fig. 1, developed across the condenser l of Fig. 5, is fed to the outer control grid of a hexode mixer valve 29. Positive pulses, such as those shown at 32 55 in Fig. 2 which may be derived from point t? in Fig. 4, are applied at til through a condenser ti to the inner control grid of the valve 29. The inner control grid is suitably biased through a leak 33, and the bias valve may be so adjusted 70 that the inner grid comes to cathode potential duringeach pulse 32 but falls in the intervals between pulses 32 to such a negative value that the valve 29 is then entirely inoperative. By giving the bias voltage a value slightly less nega- 75 tive than required for the above purpose, it can be arranged that the grid automatically fixes itselt during the pulse at about cathode potential, owing to grid current charging the reed condenser 3l. The outer control grid oi. valve 29 is biased by a battery 35 so that with negligible 5 incoming radio signals (peaks P of the synchronising pulse) the outer control grid will out of! or at least very considerably reduce the anode current, even if the inner control grid is at cathode potential. When, however, a signal reprel0 senting black occurs, the outer grid will allow current to flow to the anode whenever the inner rid allows the valve to conduct. The anode current of the valve 28, during periods in which the inner grid allows the valve to conduct, will have a wave form .yvhich is the same as that oi the part of the signal of Fig. 1 between dotted lines 25, 26, while at all other times the anode current will be zero or substantially zero.

Fig. 3 shows the wave form of the anode current of the valve 29. The dotted parts 01' the curve show the current that would be obtained were the inner grid switched on all the time, and the full line part of the curve shows the actual anode current. In order that the valve 28 may operate efficiently, it can be arranged that the outer grid is arranged to be at approx imately cathode Potential for a signal representing black amplitude. Although the picture signals will drive the outer grid more positive than 80 the cathode, no grid current will flow, since the valve is biased to cut-off b the potential on the inner gridthereof at all times except during the frame intervals. The anode current of valve is is dependent upon the amplitude of the signals in the blacker-than-black sense occurring during the frame interval and this amplitude is dependent on the amplification or attenuation of the transmission path supplying the signals, and is independent of the average brightness of the do picture. The anode current may therefore be used to actuate automatic gain control means.

The magnitude of the D. C. component of the anode current of valve 2% will vary in accordance with variations in the amplitude representing black, and the voltage across the anode resistance 3d may therefore be used, after smoothing to provide a C. potential for operating controlling devices, e. g, variable-inn valves for automatic gain control. Alternatively, the A. C. so component of the anode current may he passed out through a condenser lit and may he amplifled to provide an a. "0. controlling wave.

Figure 6 shows a circuit, employing the latter method, by which the A. C. controlling wave referred to may be utilised. The signals taken on through the condenser 36 of Figure 5, after amplification if desired, are fed from terminal tll, through condenser M, to a resistance The signals should be fed in at ll in such a way that the pulses in the direction l? to B in Figure 3 during the frame interval are in the negative direction. The A. C. voltage set up across resistance $3 is fed to a diode rectifier Ml, which, owing to the values chosen for the condenser as and the load resistance at, operates .as a peak rectifier. Any alteration in the black amplitude of the incoming signal (that is, of the level B in Figure 3) will introduce a change in the amplitude oi the A. 0. wave fed in at at, and a corto responding change in the rectified voltage set up across condenser 65. The rectifier till is shown so connected as to produce a negative potential at the upper terminal of condenser till with respect to earth. Byproviding suitable amplificavs lid tion between the valve 29 of Figure and the rectifier 44 of Figure 6, it can be arranged that a small change in the black amplitude produces a very large change in rectified voltage set up across condenser 45.

If it-is required to hold the resultant signal to fairly close limits, a battery 41 may be inserted in series with the rectifier, so as to prevent rectification taking place until the black signal reaches a predetermined value. Any small increase in the black signal will then produce a comparatively large negative voltage across the condenser 45 and this voltage may be used for controlling the grid bias of radio-frequency amplifier valves in the receiver, so that an increase of black amplitude automatically reduces the gain of the receiver. If ibis arranged that a small increase of black amplitude produces a very large change in voltage at condenser 45, the condenser 45 and leak resistance 46 should be given a sumciently long time constant to prevent an unsteady state arising in which the apparatus as a whole might tend to hunt. In any case, the time constant of condenser 45 and leak resistance 46 should preferably exceed by several times the time interval between successive frames. As the leak resistance 46 may have a relatively high value, it may be desirable to pass the rectified voltages through a further valve (48, Figure 6) before utilisation, in order to ensure that leakages in the utilisation circuits do not affect the voltage across condenser 45. The valve 48 has its anode connected to a suitable source of high tension (not shown), and its cathode fed from a negative voltage source (not shown) through a comparatively high resistance 49. The voltage of the cathode of the valve 4d will then follow almost exactly the voltage of the grid of that valve, and the voltage on the cathode can be utilised at 50 forany required purpose. For example, the connection 5d may be taken to provide the bias for the grids of variable-mu valves in the radio-frequency amplifier of the wireless receiver. Alternatively, if desired, instead of controlling the amplification of a circuit preceding the device of Figure 5 the amplification of .a later amplifier can be controlled.

The invention has so far been described with reference to the correction of a variable attenuation which equally afiects the whole transmitted wave. This invention can however also be utilised for re-inserting the direct current component into the signals, assuming that the signals are not subject to varying attenuation. For example, suppose that television signals are fed through an amplifier channel of steady amplification which does not however transmit the direct current component. Such signals may be im. in to a circuit such as shown in Figure 5 at the point 31 (the radio-frequency rectifier 6 being omitted).

. As before, signals are fed in at 30 to render the a condenser, the grid to which they are applied being connected through a leak resistance to the cathode of valve 29. The anode circuit resistance 34, shunted by a condenser, is'then conveniently arranged between the cathode of the valve 29 and the negative terminal of the anode current source (not shown) and the potential of the cathode is applied through a 'grid leak to the control grid of a subsequent valve to provide a bias therefor; in this arrangement, it should be arranged that only the anode current, and not the screen grid current of valve 29 passes through the resistance 34, and this can be achieved by supplying the anode and screen grid from diflferent current sources. Black level is then represented by a potential at the cathode of valve 29 which is positive with respect to earth, and which can be employed to bias the control grid of a further valve to which the alternating component of the signal is fed in a sense opposite to that of signals fed to valve 28. In another arrangement, the cathode of valve 29 is earthed, and the anode resistance 34 is inserted between the cathode and the negative terminal of a source of current which is arranged to supply the anode but not the screen grid; grid bias for the further valve can then be taken from the junction point of resistance 34 and the anode current source.

The signals fed to the further valve mentioned in the preceding paragraph may. be obtained from lead 37 of Figure 5, and another valve may be inserted if desired to reverse the phase of the signals. The magnitude of the direct component of the potential difference set up across resistance.

34 may be adjusted so as to ensure correct reinsertion of the D. C. component by adjustment of the value of resistance 3%.

In a further example of the use of this invention, a. television wave such as that shown in Figure 1, is transmitted through a channel wherein, although the absolute gain for the picture signals is substantially constant, the D. C. component and the amplification of the synchronising pulses vary owing to the variations say of H. T. voltage and the efiect of curved amplification characteristics.

An example of such a use will be described with reference to Fig. 7. This figure represents a typical form which the input circuit to the modulator of a transmitter for television signals may take. The amplified television signal wave such as is shown in Fig. 1 is fed in at 55 through a condenser 53 to the grid of a modulator 52. The sense of this wave is such that the picture signals are negative and the synchronising signals positive. The grid of the valve 52 is connected to the cathode through the leak 56, and this leak, together with a diode 55, serves to reestablish the direct current component of the applied signals on the grid of valve 52 with reference to the peak values P of the signals. The absolute value of the voltage of the grid 52 which represents the synchronising pulse is fixed by the negative bias supplied to the cathode of diode 55 through a connection 56, as will hereinafter be explained. The stabilisation (or re-inserting) circuit comprising elements 53, 54, 55 operates in the manner described in British Patent #422,906 correponding to United States application No. 720,206,

The anode circuit of the valve 52 comprises a floating anode battery 51 and a modulator resistance 58, and the television signals appearing across resistance 58 thus contain their direct current component. The upper end of resistance 58 is connected through a source 59 for providing the desired bias voltage to the grids of two pushpull connected triode modulator valves 60; the grids of these valves are fed with radio frequency oscillations of carrier frequency through the till further radio frequency amplifiers (not shown) ii" required, to the aerial.

The wave form of the signals fed in at El is such that the ratio of synchronising signal amplitude to picture signal amplitude is larger than is required in the final modulated output of the transmitter. This relative increase or synchronising signal input allows for the curvature of the characteristic of the modulator and further amplifier stages. v

It is arranged that the peaks P of the syn chronising signals cause the radio frequency output to fall to substantially zero, which means that the synchronising signals must modulate the transmitter over the curved and less efilcient lower part of the modulation and amplification characteristics. Since the synchronising signals are of a substantially square-topped wave ilorm, there will be no wave-shape distortion other than a relative attenuation due to the operation over the curved part oi the modulator character istic, so that this part of the characteristic can be used for the synchronising signals, leaving the upper straighter part for the picture signals. The resultant radio-frequency output atthe. aerial of the transmitter has then a range oi values corresponding to particular light intensities in the object of which an image is to be transmitted, and a value, substantially equal to zero, corresponding to the peaks of the synchrog sianals. Although this latter value is normally zero, it is often inconvenient to provide suihcient synchronising signal input to modulate the transmitted carrier right down to ease amplitude by swinging the modulator around the bottom bend of its characteristic.

At the receiver, correct representation of absolute brightnesses is obtained either byv providing a direct current coupling between the deniedulating detector and the light-modulating means, such as the control electrode of a cathode ray tube, or by allowing the D. 6. component to be suppressed and then re-establishing the D. 0. component with reference to the ampli tude P of the synchronising pulses previous to application of the signals to the light-modulating device. If new the carrier amplitude repre-' senting black varies, or if the received amplitude representing the difference between the peaks l? of synchronising pulses and black varies, the direct current or average picture brightness component will effectively vary at the receiver. For example, a slight fall of the carrier value repre senting black, or the amplitude of the synchronising pulses relative to black, will cause the screen of the cathode ray tube to be darkened. Such darkening will be relatively unimportant in the high lights, but may be sufilcient to obscure detail in the dark parts of the picture, due to the very dark greys and blacks becoming simultaneously black.

Variation in the carrier amplitude representing black, or of the received amplitude representing the difference (P to B, Fig. 3) between the peaks of the synchronising. pulses and black may be caused for example by variation in the voltage of the source supplying the anode circuits of the modulator or radio frequency amplifiers at the transmitter, or by variation in the volta e of battery 5'! in Fig. 7. The effect of the variation at the receiver will be the same which ever of the two methods, above referred to, of ensuring that the D. 0, component is present at the light-modulating device a used. Unless the carrier amplitude representing black remains constant, and if the synchronising pulses extend over the curved parts of the characteristics of the receiver valves, it is impossible to keep constant the amplitude of the peaks P of the synchronising pulses with respect to black (b) because difierent peaks will extend to difierent extents along the said curved parts; the corre t 're-insertion of the D. C. component with reference to the peaks P is thus rendered impossible. It is therefore dimcult to maintain a correct representation of the average picture brightness at the receiver and, when the variations in question are considerable, it may prove dificult to separate the synchronising signals correctly from the picture signals.

In order to correct for variations of the hind above described, therefore, it may be arranged, according to a feature of the present invention,

to iced in at point 5% in Fig. 7 a voltage which or may be derived irom a part oi the mechanism which serves to generate the synchronising signals. The output of the valve 29 will be proportional to the carrier amplitude corresponding to black, less any cfiect due to slight variation in the carrier amplitude representative of the peaks P of the synchronising signals, if this is not quite zero. The A. C. component of the output of valve 29 may therefore be fed, alter any neces-- sary amplification to terminal til, and thence into the device of Fig. 6; here, as already explained, there are developed across resistance iii voltages which can be arranged to vary substan= tially with relatively small variations in the level corresponding to black in the signals fed in at 5?? in Fig. 5.

The output obtained at point to in Fig. 8 may then be applied to control the potential of point it in Fig. 7. In the particular arrangement shown in Fig. 6, an increase in black amplitude produces a negative voltage at til, whereas a posh tive voltage is required at point 5% of Fig. 7 in order to correct such an increase in amplitude. To overcome this dificulty, the sense of the input to the diode Ed in Fig. 6 may be made opposite to that previously described; the diode M and battery ll are then also reversed. The point so in Fig. 6 may then be connected, by means of a. direct-current connection which may if necessary include a source of biasing potential, to point at in Fig. 7 to give the desired result.

Alternatively, there may be applied to point lid of Fig. '7 a voltage proportional to the direct component of the current flowing in the valve 29 of Fig. 5; this may be achieved, for example,-

by inserting a resistance in the cathode circuit of the valve 29, as described above in connection with the re-establishment of D. (7., and the cathode of the valve 29 may then be connected to point 56 of Fig. 7.

Instead of injecting the control voltage at point as of Fig. 7, it can be arranged that the potential at point so in Fig. 6 is effective in controlling the amplitude of the synchronising signals applied at the point For example, before the synchronising signals are mixed with the picture signals,

they may be passed through an amplifier having its amplification controlled suitably in accordance with the voltage at point 50 of Fig. 6. If

tending to reduce the amplification of the synchronising signal amplifier and thus tending to reduce the black amplitude.

In a system in which the carrier amplitude is not reduced to the neighbourhood of zero on the peaks of the synchronising signals, it can be arranged that the black signals alone are eiiective in producing a voltage for controlling the black level. Such an arrangement would not take count of changes in the amplitude P to B in Figure 3 unless such changes were accompanied by changes in the black level. be obtained with the circuit of Figure 5 by biasing the valve 29 so that the synchronising signals carry the outer control grid well below cut-off, so that variation in the amplitude of the synchronising signals is not-effective in changing the anode current. The anode current is then controlled in accordance with changes in the amplitude of the black signals (B Figure 3).

Where it is undesirable or inconvenient to apply a correction to the synchronising signals before they are mixed with the picture signals, the synchronising signal amplitude may be increased or decreased relatively to the picture signal amplitude by passing the composite signal comprising mixed synchronising and picture signals through a suitable circuit. Such a circuit may comprise a thermionic valve, the curvature of "the characteristic of which can be varied under "the control of a voltage such as that obtained from point 50 in Figure 6. An example of a circuit of this kind is shown in Figure 10. The composite signal having the form shown in Figure 1 for example, is fed through a condenser ii on to the grids of two valves id and '85; the signal fed in loses its D. 0. component, if that component is present, in its passage through condenser H. The sense of the signals is such that the synchronising signals are positive. A diode i2 and leak 13 serve to re-insert the D. C. component into the signals with reference to the peaks P of the synchronising signals. The cathode of valve 14 is connected to earth through a resistance it which reduces the mutual conductance of the valve and lengthens and straightens its characteristic. The valve 15 has its cathode biased very an increase in the black level of the outgoing signals will produce a negative voltage at Ti whlch will reduce the amplitude of the synchro- This result can nising signals, so tending to neutralise the change in "black" level.

In the systems so far described, the corrective effect is derived from an observation of the black level during the intervals between frames.

Where theline synchronising signals do not occupy the whole of the interval between successive trains of picture signals representative of successive lines of the object, however, use may be made of an observation in this interval (which may be called the line interval) to derive a corrective effect. A line synchronising impulse usually occupies about one tenth of a line period and theother nine tenths is usually occupied by picture signals.

In Figure 8 is shown a wave form in which the line synchronising impulses 2 occupy only a fraction of the line interval D, for example a quarter of this interval. Thus the impulse lasts for one fortieth'of a line period and during three fortieths of a line period the signal is at black, indicated by reference B. With such a signal it is possible to derive a corrective efiect once every line and a more rapid control is therefore possible than with the signal of Figure 1. Signals of the kind shown in Figure 8 may be useful for example for providing automatic gain control for the receiver of a relay station receiving signals from a moving transmitter, for instance of the type which may be used in moving vehicles, or over some other channel subject torapidly varying attenuation,

P for a time equivalent to three tenths of a line period followed by a return to level B.

The signals of Figure 8 may be utilised in a circuit which is a modification of that shown in Figure 4. In the modification, the valve H and resistance iii are omitted and the output of the rectifier t is taken from the choke 9 to the grid of the valve 5. Further, the rectifier 6 is in verted, so that picture signals produce a rectified voltage in the negative sense. The valve i6 is so adjusted or biased that it does not pass current for the negative voltages representing picture signals. At the occurrence of a line synchronising signal however, the valve I6 conducts, thus triggering the multi-vibrator comprising valves i9 and 20. The leak 24 is adjusted so that the valve 89 remains insulating from the moment of triggering to just before the beginning of the next train of picture signals, that is for most of the one-tenth of a line period. Instead of making the condenser 2! so large that the multivibrator is quasi-aperiodic, it may be found advantageous to make the natural period of the multivibrator just longer than a line period, so that the device tends to run at the required frequency. The amplitude of the pulses required from valve I6 is thus reduced. The output at points 21 and 28 then takes the form of pulses occurring at the line frequency, each pulse having a length slightly less than one tenth of a line period.

The pulses from point 28 may be fed in at point 30 to the apparatus of Fig. 5, and may control the valve 29 to give output signals at 36 dependent on the black amplitude occurring in the short interval between aline synchronising pulse and the beginning of the picture signals of the next line. The signals set up at point at may be ant-=- g plifledand passed to a circuit such as that of Fig. 6 for producing a control voltage at tit. In this case, the time constant of condenser st and leak it may be made much smaller than that employed for observation" once per frame, so that a more rapid control is obtained. The time constant of elements tit and lit should, however. be made sufiilciently greater than the line period to prevent any instability of the control.

The examples given above are or systems in which the black level is observed and a correo tive signal dependent on this observation is injected at a point earlier in the system than that at which the observation is made so as to correct as tar as possible vany variation of black level at the point of observation. The invention is also applicable to systems in which the controlling signal is utilised to correct the black level at some point after thepoint of observation. For example, in the automatic gain control systems described above, the control signal developed at point lit in Fig. 6 may be used'to control the gain of amplifiers following the point or observation. Alternatively, where large variations of transmission efficiency are to be corrected, it may be arranged that the corrective signal serves to'vury the amplification both before and alter the point of observation. For example; the control voltage at point so in Fig. 6 may be utilised to control the radio frequency amplification ahead 35' of the rectifier, ii in Fig. such a control may,

for example, reduce the variation of the blaclr. level at the rectifier t in Fig. 5 to for a to decibel change in incoming signal strength; the control voltage at point so in Fig. 6 may also do serve to produce a slight variation in the amplification following the observation point (e. g., thsi modulation frequency amplification following 7 the rectifier) so that a 10% change of black level at the observation point produces a 10% com- 4d pensating change of gain following it, thus errcuring that the final output signal is substantially free from any variation.

7 The arrangements so far discussed are based on. an observation of the black amplitude. The lid invention can also be carried into efiect by an observation of any definite picture amplitude, or of an amplitude related tov a definite picture amplitude. For example, instead'oi the wave shown on Fig. 8, the wave shown in Fig. 9 may be transmitted. In this case, during the interval between the synchronising pulse and the beginning of the next line, the signal amplitude assumes a value E which lies between the synchronising peaks P and the black amplitude B. so Such a signal level may be fixed as being a cer-- tain fraction of the distance between P and B or, alternatively, if the amplitude of the synchronising impulses from the black level varies, may be defined as being below the level B by a certain fraction of the amplitude relatively to the level B of the maximum white signal W.

A signal of the type shown in'Fig. 9 may be useful for direct reception by the use of a cathode ray tube, the slightly blacker-than-black signals E serving to black out the cathode ray during the scanning return-strokes. Such a signal may till) be observed by the use of circuits similar to those employed for the wave of Fig. 8, but with suitable modification and adjustment. Similarly, 76 a wave form may be employed in which, during the interval between a line synchronising signal and the picture signals of the next succeeding line, the signal amplitude corresponds to a value within the picture range, say hall way between black 3 and white W. Such a wave form provides a strong controlling signal, but it may be found necessary to provide means to black out this signal so as to prevent its appearance in the reproduced picture.

Further, a wave of the kind last referred to may with advantage be used in a system which involves relaying a signal to a final transmitter; after the corrective signal has been derived and used to correct the signal, the excursion into the picture range occurring in the line intervals may then be suppressed before final transmission of the signals.

Similarly, wave forms of the hind shown in Figures 8 and 9 may be converted before final transmission to the form shown in Figure l, for example by superimposing upon the signals pulses suchas those developed by the multi vibrator it, it of Figure 4. when used with a wave of the kind shown in Figure l and then. limiting the resultant pulses to the required amplitude.

A radio relay. station for a television trans" mission system may employ the corrective means according to the present invention more than once. For example, the wave received the relay station may be of the general term shown in Figure 8 and may be observed once per line.

The radio frequency gain may then be adjusted automatically as already described in dependence upon the observation. A further automatic ad= justment of gain may then be carried out in order to correct for the error remaining as a result of the fact that slight changes in the black level at the observation point are necessary to develop a corrective signal for controlling the gain of a preceding amplifier. The corrected modulation Ill frequency output may be passed through a clr cult adapted to increase the relative amplitude of the synchronising signals so as to compensate for the subsequent reduction of the amplitude oi these signals by the curved characteristic of the transmitter. Simultaneously, the wave form may, if necessary be converted to the form shown in Figure l. or Figure 9 so as to be more suitable for final reception. The wave may then be ap plied to the transmitter and the radiated signal a level corresponding to blaclr. may be controlled by one of the methods already described. For this latter control, "observation may be made once per line for waves of the general form of Figures 8 and 9 or once per frame for waves of the general form of Figure i.

the required switching signals, which in turn are employed to turn on the observing valve. In the modified arrangement, using the waveform shown in Figure 8 or 9, the synchronising pulses P are separated from the vision signals in the manner described in British Patent No. 720,206. The separated pulses are then suitably delayed by a delay network and inverted by subjecting them to one stage of valve amplification, after which they can serve to make sensitive an observing valve such as valve 29 of Figure 5 during a part of the period B or E in Figures 8 and 9.

In a practical case, however, a wave form is employed which is similar to that shown in Figure pulse lasts for one-tenth of the line period while tit the black interval B lasts for one-twentieth of the line period. Signals of this wave-form are illustrated on page 373 of the issue of The Wireless World of October 4, 1935. The method last described is clearly not applicable here, since the synchronising pulse lasts longer than the black interval; there is therefore employed an alternative method in which the observing valve is turned on by a pulse obtained not from the leading edge of the synchronising pulse but from the trailing edge.

Apparatus for carrying this method into effect is illustrated in Figure 11; signals of the form shown in Figure 8, but with synchronising pulses lasting longer than the black intervals B, are fed in at through a condenser 8! to a valve 82, it being arranged that the synchronising impulses are in the positive sense on the control grid of valve 82; The valve 02 serves in the manner described in British Patent #422,824 corresponding to United States application No. 720,206 to separate the synchronising pulses from the picture signals, that is, its control grid tends to assume zero potential at the peaks P of the synchronising pulses, the picture signals lying beyond anode-current cut-ofi.

'In the anode circuit of valve 82 is a small condenser 83 and a resistance 84 in series, the arrangement being such that diii'erentiated synchronising pulses are set up across resistance 84; at the beginning of each pulse, a sharp negative pulse appears at the top of resistance 84, while at the trailing edge of the pulse a positive pulse appears at that point. The positive pulse causes the anode current of a valve 85 to increase; the anode circuit of valve 35 contains a resistance 06, and the potential of the anode of valve 05 consequently falls.

A negative pulse is thus passed to the screen grid of valve 8?, which, together with valve 08, forms a multivibrator, and the multivibrator is triggered off.

The multivibrator is so adjusted that a posi-= tive pulse is set up at the anode of valve 0? during each black interval B, and this pulse may be taken oif at 80 and employed to actuate an observing valve, such as valve 29 in Figure 5. It is to be noted that, in the practical waveform referred to above, the frame signals each comprise a plurality of pulses of longer duration than the line pulses, successive frame pulses being separated by black intervals; the multivibrator is thus triggered off by the trailing edges of both the line and frame pulses, and the observing valve is thus switched on during the black intervals following the frame pulses as well as during those following the line pulses.

If desired, the multivibrator W, 88 maybe omitted, the pulse from valve 85 being broadened by means of a low-pass filter, reversed in sense in an amplifying valve, and fed directly to the observing valve.

A further form of apparatus suitable for use in generating a signal for actuating an observing valve, which is particularly suitable for use with a signal of the form shown in Figure 8, but with synchronising pulses of longer duration than the black interval B, is illustrated in Figure 12. Signals of the form mentioned are fed in at point 90, through condenser 9|, to a valve @2, which serves the same function, and operates in the same manner as valve 02 of Figure 11. Synchronising pulses, freed from picture signals, are fed from the anode of valve 92 to the inner grid of a hexode 93, where they appear in the negative sense, the arrangement being, such that no anode current flows when a synchronising pulse is present on the inner grid.

The synchronising pulses are also fed, through a delay network comprising series inductances 94 and shunt condensers 95, to a reversing valve 96 having a resistance 91 in its anode circuit. Each synchronising pulse causes a positive pulse to appear at theanode of valve 96, and these positive pulses are .fed through condenser 98 to the outer control grid of hexode 93; the outer control grid is connected through a leak resistance 99 to a source of grid bias 800. which serves to hold the outer grid at such a potential that, normally, no current flows to the anode.

The hexode 93 acts as a switch, the delayed positive pulses from valve 96 tending toopen the switch, and the undelayed pulses applied to the inner grid tending to hold it closed. The delayed positive pulses can thus only open valve 93,

and allow anode current to flow therein, in thev absence of negative pulses on the inner grid, and the delay introduced by network 95, is made such that the valve 93 is opened for a part of the black interval of the signal immediately after each synchronising pulse. The anode circuit of valve 93 contains a resistance I01, and the pulses set up at the anode of valve 93 are taken oif at I02, through condenser I03, and fed, after being reversed in sign, to an observing valve such as valve 29 of Figure 5.

It is to be noted thatin all cases, any small phase error between the beginning of the pulse fed to the observing valve and the occurrence of the black level or other signal to be observed may be compensated for by the use of suitable delay networks, which may be inserted either in the channel-feeding the observing valve, or in that part of the apparatus in which the signal for actuating the observing valve is generated.

In the above description, there have been described methods of correcting for varying attenuation or for complete or partial absence of the direct current component of signals. For this it has been shown to be sumcient to derive a corrective signal dependent upon the received am,- plitude of a signal which, at the transmitter, is a fixed value.

Where, however, it is desired to correct for varying attenuation of signals which have no direct current component, for example, signals which have lost their D. C. component, it is necessary to derive a corrective signal dependent upon the difierence between two different received amplitudes both of which have fixed values at the transmitter. Thus in the case of a signal of the form shown in Figure 8, it may be assumed that at the transmitter the level B corresponds to picture black and that level P has a fixed difierence from value B. Now if such a signal be transmitted through a channel which is incapable of transmitting the D. C. component and which subjects the signals to varying attenuation, the procedure may be as follows:

The signals are given a datum coincident with the peaks P with the aid of a D. C. reinserting device of the kind set forth in British Patent #422,809 corresponding to United States application No. 720,205 for example, and at the same time they are used to derive a corrective signal dependent upon the amplitude of level B, in the manner already described. As the D. C. reinserting device ensures that the datum remains on the peaks P and as the corrective signal makes the amplitude P to B substantially correct, the

desired corrections will have been applied.

Although the invention has been described in some detail with reference to its application to television systems it is also applicable to other systems in which signals of the requisite character are either present inherently or are arranged to be present for the purpose of enabling a corrective effect to be derived according to the present invention.

Referring to Fig. 13, there is shown a schematic diagram of a system for correcting for varying attenuation. The signal at the transmitter is developed by known means, and-in this case an object Hill is focussed onto the mosaic of an iconoscope tube IN, and video signals are developed therefrom. Frame synchronizing generator I02 and line synchronizing generator I03 fed into a modulator and a signal such,-for instance, as that illustrated in Fig. 1, is transmitted. At the receiver, a portion of the signal is fed to the circuit II, which corresponds to the circuit l4 'hereinbefore referred to with respect to Fig. 4. No further explanation of the operation of the apparatus which has been explained hereinbefore with reference toFig. 4 is thought to be necessary. The signals from the j tube It and the point 21 identified in Fig. 4 are fed to the tube 29, such as has been explained hereinbefore on page 3. The output of the valve 29, therefore, is used to operate known automatic gain control apparatus which, in turn, is fed to the receiver schematically illustrated as H0.

I claim:

1. A method for use in the transmission of electrical signals representing intelligence of correcting for variations of signal amplitude due. to varying attenuation which comprises the steps of developing a corrective signal which varies in magnitude in accordance with variations in the magnitude of'the said variable attenuation, causing said signals representative of intelligence to be effective for developing said corrective signal only at spaced intervals of time, and utilizing said corrective signal to establish the proper level of saidsignals representative of intelligence.

2. A method for correcting for variations in the eflective amplitude of electrical signals representative of intelligence such as may arise in the transmission of said signals as a result of the varying attenuation of said signal comprising the steps of transmission along the channel through which the intelligence signals are passed, at spaced intervals, developing check signals each of which has a first portion and a datum portion which, at the input of the said channel has a predetermined fixed amplitudevalue, utilizing the first portion of each of said check signals to start the development of a corrective signal,

causing said datum portions to develop said correndering said corrective signal developing means operative intermittently, and means for controlling the level of said intelligence signals in accordance with said corrective signals.-

4. An apparatus for correcting for variations in attenuation of the effective amplitude of transmitted electrical signals comprising a normally inoperative corrective signal developing means, means for feeding said electrical signals to said normally inoperative correcting signal developing means, and switching means responsive to a part of said signals for converting said corrective signal developing means from a normally inoperative state into a state in which it is capable under the control of a portion of said I signals of controlling the gain of said apparatus.

5. An apparatus for correcting for variations in attenuation of transmitted electrical signals comprising signal receiving means, a rectifier, means for impressing a portion of said signal onto said rectifier, corrective signal developing means, means for utilizing the current in said ,means.

6. An apparatus fob correcting for variations in attenuation of transmitted electrical signals comprising signal receiving means, a rectifier, means for feeding said received signals to said rectifier, normally inoperative corrective signal developing means for developing a corrective signal proportional to the amplitude of said received signals, means for controlling the development of said corrective signal intermittently by changing said corrective signal developing means from a normally inoperative state into an operative state, and means for applying said signal to said receiver for controlling the gain of said receiver.

7. An apparatus for correcting for variations in attenuation during transmission of electrical signals comprising means for receiving said signals, rectifying means, means for impressing said received signals onto said rectifying means, normally inoperative corrective signal developing means for developing a corrective signal proportional to the amplitude of said received signals, a second rectifying means, means for storing electrical energy under the control ofthe signal output .of said second rectifier, means for 11151112! ing said stored electrical energy for providing a switching signal, and means for controlling 'the development of said corrective signal intermittently by changing said corrective signal developing means from a normally inoperative state into an operative state under the influence of said switching signal, and means for applying said signal to the receiving apparatus for controlling the gain .of the receiver.

8. Apparatus in accordance with claim 7, wherein said switching signal developing meansincludes a thermionic tube having the anodecathode current thereof controlled by the stored electrical energy to render said tube intermittently conducting and non-conducting.

9. Apparatus for correcting for variations in attenuation of transmitted electrical signals comprising signal receiving means, a first rectifying means, means for impressing said received signals onto said first rectifying means, normally inoperative corrective, signal developing means for developing a corrective signal proportional to the amplitude of the signals impressed on said first rectifying means, a second rectifying means, means for impressing received signals onto said rectifying means, a first thermionic tube having a control electrode thereof biased to a predetermined cut-ofi value, electrical energy storage means connected substantially in parallel with the space discharge path of said thermionic tube whereby said tube acts as a discharge path for said electrical energy storage means when said tube is conducting, means for impressing the output of said second rectifying means onto the control electrode-cathode path of said first thermionic tube to intermittently render said tube conducting and non-conducting whereby energy may be intermittently discharged and stored, means for supplying an intermittent switching signal in response to the storing and discharging of the energy in said'electrical energy storage means, means for controlling the development of said corrective signal intermittently by rendering said corrective signal developing means intermittently operative and inoperative by means of said switching signals, and means for applying said corrective signals to the receiver for controlling the gain of the receiver.

10. Apparatus in accordance with claim 9, wherein said first and second rectifying means comprise a common rectifier.

11.,Apparatus in accordance with claim 9, wherein said means for supplying a switching signal in accordance with the energy stored in said electrical energy storage means comprises a thermionic tube, means for impressing at least a portion of the potential across the terminals of said electrical energy storage means onto a control electrode-cathode path of said thermionic tube to render the tube alternately conducting and non-conducting, a mullti-vibrator, and means for impressing the output of said thermionic tube onto the input circuit of at least one of the tubes in said multi-vibrator whereby each of the tubes in said multi-vibrator is rendered alternately conducting and non conducting.

12. Apparatus in accordance with claim 6, wherein said corrective signal developing means comprises a multi-grid thermionic vacuum tube, means for impressing a predetermined bias value onto at least one of the control electrode-cathode paths of said thermionic tube, means for impressing at least a pontion of the output of said rectifier onto a control electrode-cathode path of said thermionic tube, and means for impressing a switching signal for controlling the development of said corrective signal intermittently by changing said corrective signal developing means from a. normally inoperative state into an operative state onto a control electrode-cathode path of said thermionic tube.

ALAN DOW'ER BLUMLEIN. 30

US2224134A 1935-03-20 1936-03-20 Transmission of electrical signals having a direct current component Expired - Lifetime US2224134A (en)

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US2466229A (en) * 1944-04-21 1949-04-05 Stromberg Carlson Co Automatic gain control system
US2493353A (en) * 1944-03-25 1950-01-03 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Synchronizing signal separating circuit
US2498659A (en) * 1946-02-09 1950-02-28 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Automatic volume control system
US2519359A (en) * 1944-09-29 1950-08-22 Sperry Corp Automatic volume control
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US2542032A (en) * 1942-07-30 1951-02-20 Sperry Corp Radio tracking system
US2547648A (en) * 1946-01-25 1951-04-03 Hazeltine Research Inc Automatic contrast control system for television apparatus
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US2693500A (en) * 1948-08-10 1954-11-02 Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co Television and like transmitter
US2777947A (en) * 1946-03-18 1957-01-15 Conrad H Hoeppner Pulse width discriminator
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US2739182A (en) * 1950-02-02 1956-03-20 Avco Mfg Corp Single-tube control circuit for horizontal and vertical deflecting systems of a television receiver
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US2542032A (en) * 1942-07-30 1951-02-20 Sperry Corp Radio tracking system
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US2493353A (en) * 1944-03-25 1950-01-03 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Synchronizing signal separating circuit
US2466229A (en) * 1944-04-21 1949-04-05 Stromberg Carlson Co Automatic gain control system
US2443790A (en) * 1944-04-26 1948-06-22 Us Sec War Peaking circuit
US2457062A (en) * 1944-08-02 1948-12-21 Philco Corp Quenched amplifier system
US2519359A (en) * 1944-09-29 1950-08-22 Sperry Corp Automatic volume control
US2522110A (en) * 1944-12-21 1950-09-12 Philco Corp Pulse detector system
US2653229A (en) * 1945-02-19 1953-09-22 Clyde E Ingalls Automatic gain control circuit
US2644083A (en) * 1945-02-27 1953-06-30 Us Sec War Instantaneous automatic gain control circuit
US2519802A (en) * 1945-09-14 1950-08-22 Wallman Henry Pulse translating circuit
US2547648A (en) * 1946-01-25 1951-04-03 Hazeltine Research Inc Automatic contrast control system for television apparatus
US2498659A (en) * 1946-02-09 1950-02-28 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Automatic volume control system
US2777947A (en) * 1946-03-18 1957-01-15 Conrad H Hoeppner Pulse width discriminator
US3492632A (en) * 1946-04-12 1970-01-27 Us Navy Doppler actuated control circuit for depth charges
US2619590A (en) * 1946-04-26 1952-11-25 Everard M Williams Discriminating panoramic receiver
US2576617A (en) * 1946-09-11 1951-11-27 Hazeltine Research Inc Pulse-discriminating system
US2570249A (en) * 1947-03-29 1951-10-09 Sperry Corp Combining and separating circuits
US2693500A (en) * 1948-08-10 1954-11-02 Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co Television and like transmitter
US2814671A (en) * 1951-06-08 1957-11-26 Zenith Radio Corp Noise pulse interruption of synchronizing signal separator

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GB458585A (en) 1936-12-21 application
US2307387A (en) 1943-01-05 grant
FR52503E (en) 1945-04-17 grant
GB515361A (en) 1939-12-04 application
FR804484A (en) 1936-10-24 grant
US2328946A (en) 1943-09-07 grant
DE878512C (en) grant
BE414514A (en) 1936-04-30 grant

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