US2221519A - Method of combustion of liquid fuel - Google Patents

Method of combustion of liquid fuel Download PDF

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Publication number
US2221519A
US2221519A US207184A US20718438A US2221519A US 2221519 A US2221519 A US 2221519A US 207184 A US207184 A US 207184A US 20718438 A US20718438 A US 20718438A US 2221519 A US2221519 A US 2221519A
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United States
Prior art keywords
air
combustion
flame
gate
flange
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Expired - Lifetime
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US207184A
Inventor
Edwin A Jones
Michael L Lavorgna
John C Westmont
Sam C Olson
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L J MUELLER FURNACE Co
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L J MUELLER FURNACE Co
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Priority to US207184A priority Critical patent/US2221519A/en
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Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • F23D11/001Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space spraying nozzle combined with forced draft fan in one unit

Description

Nov. 12, 1940. E, A. JONES ETAL METHOD OF COMBUSTION 0F LIQUID FUEL 2 Sheets-Sheet l jgIL/iNTOR.

Filed May 11, 1938 Nov. 12, 1940. E. A. JONES ETAL METHOD OF COMBUSTION OF LIQUID FUEL Filed May 11, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VENTORS.

ATTORNEY.

Patented Nov. 12, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE IVHETHOD F COMBUSTION 0F LIQUID FUEL of Wisconsin Application May 11, 1938, Serial No. 207,184

2 Claims.

The present invention relates to improvements in oil burners and methods of securing complete combustion without pulsation and with a minimum of excess air.

One of the objects of the invention is to provide an improved method ofsecuring complete and efficient combustion of fuel oil by means of an improved construction of oil burner for delivering the air relative to the atomized fuel for 1w combustion.

. Another object of the invention is to provide an improved oil burner combustion method by means of which air is fed to and across the '1 flame at a rate which exceeds the speed of flame w propagation adjacent the burner head so as to eliminate any fluttering, whiiiiing' or panting.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a method of securing combustion with an oil burner wherein the products of combustion have a high carbon-dioxide content with a high flame temperature resulting from a relatively small amount of excess air, whereby a high rate of heat transfer from the flame is assured together with maximum efiiciency of the heating appliance in which the burner is installed.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings in which similar characters of reference indicate similar parts throughout the several views.

Referring to the several sheets of drawings:

Fig. l is avertical elevational view of an oil burner in partial section susceptibleof performing the improved method;

Fig. 2 is an end-elevational view of the burner head of Fig. 1, taken from the left of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view, taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows;

Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional view, taken on the plane of the line 44 of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows;

Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional view, taken on the plane of the line 5-5 of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows; and i Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional view, taken on the plane of the line 6-6 of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows.

Referring to Fig. 1, l0 indicates in its entirety 50 an oil burner which comprises the usual con:

trols, ignition and safety devices and is shown in connection with a blower housing II which rotatably supports on suitable bearings the impeller shaft l2 carrying a centrifugal fan rotor l3. Tangentially connected to the blower housing H is a discharge tube l4 which is provided with openings I5 and it at each end for the attachment of the additional parts of the burner.

The opening i5 is preferably closed by a cover plate ll comprising a casting having an inwardly extending supporting lug I8 provided with a cylindrical bore ii] for receiving the fuel pipe 20.

The fuel pipe may be secured in place by a set screw in the threaded bore H.

ill for the burner head, the two attachment collars being suitably secured together. The supporting member M is provided with an axially extending cylindrical flange 32 surrounding a relatively large cylindrical bore 33 which is adapted to receive an outer tube 34. The tube 34 is suitably secured in place within said bore.

At its outer or left end (Fig. 1) the outer air tube 34 supports an air supply head 36 which is provided with an outer cylindrical surface 31 adapted to be received in the outer tube 34. The head 36 is secured to the end of the tube.

The air supply head 36 comprises an annular metal member having an inner diverging frusto conical aperture 40 which surrounds the spray from the nozzle of the burner. The frusto conical surface 40 may be at an angle of approximately 10 degrees more or less to the axis of the collar 36 for the purpose of permitting the air to move outwardly with a spreading movement and to prevent the air from piling up at the flame discharge member 4i which is of conveying frusto-conical formation.

The air supply head 36 is provided with a plurality of rearwardly extending partially cylindrical flanges 42 located in spaced relation to (see Fig. 4) each of which is located at one side of one of the slots 43, for the purpose of directing the air which is discharged from the slots 43 through the slots in a tangential direction. The

flanges 41 separate the space between the outer tube 34 and the cylindrical flanges 42 of the collar 38 into a plurality of -compartments, each of which has a discharge aperture comprising a slot 43 extending into the frusto conical bore 48 in a tangential direction. The annular space 48 between the tubes 34 and 45 thus constitutes ,an air supply conduit which has its discharge points at the slots 43 for supplying air in a tangential and forwardfdirection to the flame outside of the frusto-conica'l member.

The inner tube 45 fixedly supports the frustoconical middle member 4! with, its tapered flange 52, a circular discharge aperture 53, and a cylindrical attachment flange 54. The latter flange is secured to the tube 45 by suitable means (notv nozzle pipe 28 andfor the ignition electrodes51, 58. The member 58 also acts-as a partition and is provided with a gate 59 for controlling the supply of air to the inner tube 45. Member 55 has an' outer substantially cylindrical flange 60 which is adapted to be received in the tube 45. It is also provided with an inwardly extending body flange 6| which supports an axially extending ing 62 having an axially extending bore 63 for receiving the fuel pipe 28.

30 Fuel pipe 20 is suitably secured in the bore 63. Thus, the member 58 is secured as a unit to the fuel pipe and to the cover plate I! with which it may be removed and the cylindrical flange 68 slidably wedges within'the tube 45. The insu- 35 lated electrodes 51 and 5a are suitably held in position by boss portions of the flange iii. The fuel supply pipe 20 extends through the partition member 55 into proximity to the electrodes: 51, 58, the threaded end of the fuel pipe 20 being '40 provided with a suitable fuel nozzle 8 i.

The partitionmember 58 is also provided with a segmental. axially extending flange 82 defining one side of an opening 83 which is adapted to be closed by the gate 59. The segmental flange 45 82 is provided with a pair of relatively straight v.55 flat body flange 9| which is slightly thickened at 92 to provide material for the bearing comprising the bore, by means of which the gate 59 is rotatably supported upon the pin 88. The shape of the gate 59 (Fig. 4) is such as to fill the aper- 60 ture 83 so as to effect a substantial closure, al-

though the gate is adapted to move freely in the aperture 83 under the influence of a spring 93.

Spring 93 .has one. end secured to a pin 94 which passes through the gate 59 and has its 65 other end secured to a lug 95 by means of a similar pin. Gate 59 has an upwardly extending projecting flange 96 which is adapted to engage the flat edge 84 (Fig. 3) of the flange 82. The gate is also provided at its free edge with a 70 cylindrical flange 91 extending from the upper edge of the gate and curving down around the periphery of the gate to a point adjacent the pivot 88'.

. The cylindrical flange 9'I tapers in width from 75 the maximum width at the upper edge to :zero

adjacent the lug or thickened portion". Thus, I when the gate is slightly opened, the flange 91 -is still adapted to close what would otherwise be a crack at the periphery of the gate, but permits an opening only at the upper 'edge of the gate 5 between the flange, 85 and the edge 84. Thus, when air is discharged through the opening 83,- it must be discharged upwardly and forwardly and take a spiral course within the tube 45. The opening of the gate disposes its body slightly in 10 a spiral direction and the aperture formed by opening of the gate discharges air in that direction. Air is then supplied through the inner tube 45 in a spiral and forward direction surrounding the spray and discharging through the aperture 53 of the frusto-conical member 4|. The amount of opening of the gate 59 may be regulated by a threaded adjustment rod 28 which is provided with pairs of lock nuts 99, I80, fixedly secured upon the threaded portion illl which is 20 threaded into' a threaded bore I02 formed in the lug 95. The inner end of the rod is rounded and bears against the gate 59 which may be opened by the pressure of the air or by the action of the rod 26. The nuts 99 and mo define the maximum and minimum opening positions of gate 59 and should be so adjusted.

The operation of the oil burner is as follows: The electrodes 51, 58 may be energized by any suitable form of continuous or intermittent ignition and are adapted to ignite the liquid fuel which is atomized and sprayed by the nozzle 8|. Air for combustion is supplied to the spray by the inner tube 45, the air traveling within the tube in a spiral orrotary forward direction and discharging from the end of the member 45 which tends to restrict the flow of the air and therefore to accelerate the air at the nozzle opening 53. Additional air is introduced through the slots 43 in a tangential and forward direction and is discharged from the tapered opening 49 in such manner as to prevent the air'from piling up at the frusto-conical member 4|, the additional air being also introduced at 'a higher velocity so as to accelerate the flow of oxygen to the flame as the flame projects outwardly while it is in combustion. -The velocity of this air jet from the tapered opening 40 is greater than the velocity of that portion of the flame which breaks back toward its source, so that the flame is positioned away from the firing head. The surface 48 of the head 36 is provided with spaced-apart apertures I05 through which air is also discharged to mingle with the air from the slots 43, and the air from these apertures is effective in facilitating progressive combustion.

As has been mentioned heretofore, the present invention aims at the attaimnent of relatively perfect combustion with a minimum of excess air and with the provision of a stable flame which is devoid of pulsation. In oil burning devices when theoil is sprayed into a hot chamber, vaporization first takes place, followed by oil cracking bon is released in the form of soot. It therefore follows that free hydrogen is present and is burning in situations where this disassociation occurs.

explained, pulsation is caused by the flame strik-' ing back toward the nozzle and air discharge as the temperature increases, and this results in blocking the air supply as expansion occurs within the restricted area. This action is followed by momentary smothering and lowering of the temperature which causes the flame to recede, permitting a reestablishment of the air supply, followed by a continuous repetition of the first and then the second of these pulsating fire.

There have been many attempts in the prior art to eliminate flame fluttering or panting, but such attempts have not been comparable to that of the present invention because the prior attempts, of which the U. S. patent to Vollmer No. 2,078,884 and British Patent No. 419,852 of 1934 are examples (and which exempliflcations have not been based on a clear understanding of the cause and effect of flame fluttering), have attempted to overcome the difliculties by a recirculation of the products of combustion. In view of these disclosures, the reason for at least partial elimination of pulsation in the flre when recirculation was employed, is obvious, since the dilution of the. oxygen in the air supply by products of combustion containing water and carbon dioxide,

conditions, producing a inert gases, which have replaced results in an method is objectionable because it results in heating and fouling of the nozzle, electrodes, and other portions of the equipment. While initially this procedure may be effective, it ultimately becomesmore and more difflcult to obtain complete combustion as the inner portions of the equipment become more and more heated and fouled, and flame volumes will also be increased and flame temperatures will be reduced by this method. Furthermorethe matter of adjustment becomes very critical.

'I'he'result in the present invention is a high eiiiciency conical flame from which panting, whiffling and fluttering is eliminated. Any number of vanes and slots may be employed, but they are preferably uniformly arranged around the periphery of the air supply head. In the present invention a highly desirable flattened, conical flame is produced, and the necessary air for supporting combustion is introduced uniformly and 'air must come into contact with the burning oil and gases during combustion so that it is unnecessary to provide an excessive amount of air which will tend to reduce the temperature and eillciency in order to secure clean and complete combustion.

Our improved method of securng efllcient combustion comprises the atomization by spraying of liquid fuel into air which mixture is ignited and the supply of air adjacent the spray with a forward motion, and the introduction of additional air at a. higher velocity than the rateof flame propagation, at the root of the flame for the purpose of eliminating fluttering, whiflling or panting, and effecting smooth and uniform combustion. It will thus be observed that we have, by means of our improved method and construction of burner, solved the problem of eliminating fluttering, whiiiiing or panting of the flame with which we believe the entire 011 industry is and has been for some time concerned. Also in the present invention there is in the products of combustion a higher percentage of CO: with a smaller amount of excess air than has been possible of attainment heretofore.

What is claimed asthe invention is:

-1. The method of combustion of liquid fuel, which comprises, delivering a jet of atomized liquid fuel along an axis toward a combustion zone, mixing the atomized fuel with primary air advancing along the axis with the jet at relatively low velocity and deflecting the outer portions of said primary air inwardly to produce a nebulous mixture proceeding slowly toward said zone, igniting the mixture, and thereafter injecting inwardly into the burning and axially advancing mass of mixture additional air moving at higher velocity and sufficient to support approxicient to support approximately complete com-- bustion of the fuel. I

' EDWIN A. JONES.

MICHAEL L. LAVORGNA. JOHN C. WES'I'MON'I. SAM C. OLSON.

US207184A 1938-05-11 1938-05-11 Method of combustion of liquid fuel Expired - Lifetime US2221519A (en)

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Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2472720A (en) * 1944-12-19 1949-06-07 Nagel Theodore Method of burning oil
US2473347A (en) * 1943-04-08 1949-06-14 Cleaver Brooks Co Air directing means in gun type burners
US2502210A (en) * 1946-07-13 1950-03-28 Demuth Charles Spray type oil burner with air directing means
US2502664A (en) * 1947-10-06 1950-04-04 Gen Oil Burner Corp Gun type oil burner
US2518937A (en) * 1946-06-22 1950-08-15 Premix Comb Inc Head structure for gun type oil burners
US2527503A (en) * 1949-02-12 1950-10-24 Harvey Whipple Inc Burner head for gun-type oil burners
US2553520A (en) * 1947-04-15 1951-05-15 York Shipley Inc Burner nozzle pipe assembly
US2565879A (en) * 1947-03-28 1951-08-28 Persiro Mfg Corp Burner for combustion chambers
US2569754A (en) * 1949-05-27 1951-10-02 Guif Res & Dev Company Air directing device for gun-type fuel oil burners
US2585081A (en) * 1948-05-05 1952-02-12 Charles Bernhard Combustion apparatus for liquid fuel
US2603279A (en) * 1952-07-15 Oil burner head
US2632502A (en) * 1950-04-28 1953-03-24 Max A Heller Gas burner with forced combustion air
US2643708A (en) * 1945-05-04 1953-06-30 Preferred Utilities Mfg Corp Oiol burner carburetion
US2676649A (en) * 1952-06-11 1954-04-27 Gen Motors Corp Turbulator
US2703608A (en) * 1950-10-04 1955-03-08 Steel Products Eng Co Gun type oil burner
US2765842A (en) * 1952-03-05 1956-10-09 Preferred Utilities Mfg Corp Hydrocarbon burner head
US2976920A (en) * 1957-09-04 1961-03-28 Bell & Gossett Co Oil burner with air directing means
US3129748A (en) * 1961-06-15 1964-04-21 Master Cons Inc Oil burner
US3138193A (en) * 1960-11-23 1964-06-23 James L Hagerman Combustion of liquid fuel
US3322989A (en) * 1962-11-28 1967-05-30 Teves Kg Alfred Ignition device
US4547147A (en) * 1983-06-30 1985-10-15 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Combustion device for a car
US20100015562A1 (en) * 2008-07-16 2010-01-21 Babington Robert S Perforated flame tube for a liquid fuel burner

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2603279A (en) * 1952-07-15 Oil burner head
US2473347A (en) * 1943-04-08 1949-06-14 Cleaver Brooks Co Air directing means in gun type burners
US2472720A (en) * 1944-12-19 1949-06-07 Nagel Theodore Method of burning oil
US2643708A (en) * 1945-05-04 1953-06-30 Preferred Utilities Mfg Corp Oiol burner carburetion
US2518937A (en) * 1946-06-22 1950-08-15 Premix Comb Inc Head structure for gun type oil burners
US2502210A (en) * 1946-07-13 1950-03-28 Demuth Charles Spray type oil burner with air directing means
US2565879A (en) * 1947-03-28 1951-08-28 Persiro Mfg Corp Burner for combustion chambers
US2553520A (en) * 1947-04-15 1951-05-15 York Shipley Inc Burner nozzle pipe assembly
US2502664A (en) * 1947-10-06 1950-04-04 Gen Oil Burner Corp Gun type oil burner
US2585081A (en) * 1948-05-05 1952-02-12 Charles Bernhard Combustion apparatus for liquid fuel
US2527503A (en) * 1949-02-12 1950-10-24 Harvey Whipple Inc Burner head for gun-type oil burners
US2569754A (en) * 1949-05-27 1951-10-02 Guif Res & Dev Company Air directing device for gun-type fuel oil burners
US2632502A (en) * 1950-04-28 1953-03-24 Max A Heller Gas burner with forced combustion air
US2703608A (en) * 1950-10-04 1955-03-08 Steel Products Eng Co Gun type oil burner
US2765842A (en) * 1952-03-05 1956-10-09 Preferred Utilities Mfg Corp Hydrocarbon burner head
US2676649A (en) * 1952-06-11 1954-04-27 Gen Motors Corp Turbulator
US2976920A (en) * 1957-09-04 1961-03-28 Bell & Gossett Co Oil burner with air directing means
US3138193A (en) * 1960-11-23 1964-06-23 James L Hagerman Combustion of liquid fuel
US3129748A (en) * 1961-06-15 1964-04-21 Master Cons Inc Oil burner
US3322989A (en) * 1962-11-28 1967-05-30 Teves Kg Alfred Ignition device
US4547147A (en) * 1983-06-30 1985-10-15 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Combustion device for a car
US20100015562A1 (en) * 2008-07-16 2010-01-21 Babington Robert S Perforated flame tube for a liquid fuel burner
US8622737B2 (en) * 2008-07-16 2014-01-07 Robert S. Babington Perforated flame tube for a liquid fuel burner
US9234659B2 (en) 2008-07-16 2016-01-12 Robert S. Babington Perforated flame tube for liquid fuel burner

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