US2214091A - Justification rule - Google Patents

Justification rule Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2214091A
US2214091A US278894A US27889439A US2214091A US 2214091 A US2214091 A US 2214091A US 278894 A US278894 A US 278894A US 27889439 A US27889439 A US 27889439A US 2214091 A US2214091 A US 2214091A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
line
scale
justifying
length
rule
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US278894A
Inventor
William G Turquand
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
UNDERWOOD ELLIOTT FISHER Co
Original Assignee
UNDERWOOD ELLIOTT FISHER CO
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by UNDERWOOD ELLIOTT FISHER CO filed Critical UNDERWOOD ELLIOTT FISHER CO
Priority to US278894A priority Critical patent/US2214091A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2214091A publication Critical patent/US2214091A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B3/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of mechanical measuring means
    • G01B3/02Rulers with scales or marks for direct reading
    • G01B3/04Rulers with scales or marks for direct reading rigid
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J29/00Details of, or accessories for, typewriters or selective printing mechanisms not otherwise provided for
    • B41J29/42Scales and indicators, e.g. for determining side margins

Description

sePt- 10. 1940- w. G. TURQUAND 2,214,091
JUSTIFIGATION RULE Filed June 13, 1939 2 sheets-sheet 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXIX XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXs XXXX XXXXXXX XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX XXXXX* XXXXXX XXXXXX FEE-4 INVENTOR ATTORNEY Sept. l0, 1940. w..G. TURQUAND 2,214,091
JUSTIFICATION -RULE Filed Jun'e 1s, 1939 2 sheets-sneer 2 Fig-5 XXXXXXXXXXXX xx XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXX INVENTOR WML/,4M (i TURQUA/VD ATTORNEY 1lli Patented Sept. 10, 1940 UNITED STATES JUsTIFIoATIoN `RULE William G. Turquand, Brooklyn, N. Y., assignor to Underwood Elliott Fisher Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Application June 13, 1939, Serial No. 278,894
4 Claims.
This invention relates to devices for use in justifying typed matter, and more particularly y,to measuring devices or rules by which the degree of justification required may be determined.
In- `justifying typed matter a typewriter `equipped with a justifying mechanism is used, whereby the operator may preselect a certain one ,of a plurality of carriage, feed means for each line, respectively, that is to be typed, so that the typewriter carriage, in its letter-feed movement during subsequent operation, will automatically expand or contract the line to terminate exactly `at a certain predetermined line length, `and the Yfinished typed` matter presents `an arrangement `wherein all the lines, being justified, form an even right-hand margin. Where justifying of typed matter to an appreciably different line length from that in which the original typing is done, is required, it has been heretofore necessary to retype the matter without justifying, at the new line length, preparatory to typing the justified copy. In such cases by the use of a suitable measuring device, the retyped, unjustified copy in the new line length is marked off .to show the typist the degree of expansion or contraction required in each typed line, so that after retyping on a justifying typewriter, the lines all terminate at a prescribed even margin. Occasionally, the justified copy is to be typed on a machine having a different kind of type, and therefore `different letter-spacing, than that of the original typed matter, and yet the justified typing is to be of a prescribed line length so as, for instance, to occupy a certain width in a previously printed form. This circumstance in the past has ,also necessitated a preliminary unjustified retyping on a machine having the kind of type required for the justified copy, before the justified copy could be made.
One of the objects of this invention is to provide a rule that is universally adaptable in the justification of typed matter, being adapted for use in determining the degree of justifying required for the arrangement of any typed matter, regardless `of the variations in line lengths, the different `kinds of type of the original or justified typing, or the relative positions of the individual 4typed lines in the original typed matter.
Another of the objects of the invention is to provide a measuring device or rule by which justication of typed matter in an appreciably different line length than that of the original copy may be readily determined without retypving a preliminary unjustified copy at the new line 1engthas is usually necessary.
A further object is to provide a .deviceof this character by which the degree of justifying may be determined, notwithstanding that the justified copy is to be typed on a machine equipped with different type than that on which the original unjustified matter has been typed; thus the device may be `used to determine justifying of matter originally typed in pica type, in an instance where the justified copy is to be typed on a machine equipped with elite type, or vice versa, without the necessity of making a retyped unjustified copy.
Other objects and advantages will hereinafter appear.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the justifying rule, illustrating one sideof the rule for justifying in pica type.
Fig. 2 ,is a fragmentary perspective view of the justifying rule shown `in Fig. 1, illustrating ,2o the reverse side of the rule for justifying in elite type. l
Figs. 3 and 4 illustrate an example of the work that may be accomplished by use of the inven tion; Fig. 3 representing a .typical unjustified.;Y typed sheet that has been marked off by use of the rule, preparatory to justifying to a new line length; Fig. 4 illustrating the typed matter shown in Fig. 3, retyped on a justifying typewriter to `the new line length, and justified so that each line terminates` exactly at a predetermined right-hand margin.
Figs. 5 to 10` inclusive illustrate the procedure followed `by the typist in using 'the invention to determine the new linelength andthe degree V3.5 of justification required by each typed line, and
, demonstrates the method by which the justifying markings shown in Fig. 3 are determined. Figs. 5, 6, and 7 illustrate the method as applied to the first typed line of the original typing, and Figs. 8, 9, and 10 illustrate the method as applied to the second or a succeeding line of original typmg.
Referring now to the accompanying drawings for a more detailed description ofthe invention, and more particularly to Figs. 1 and 2, the justifying rule includes an elongate body portion Il, preferably equipped at its ends with suitable abutments it and i3 to prevent dislodgement and Vfacilitate the setting of certain slides hereinafter described. In accordance with the invention, the rule has a line-length scale I4 arranged longitudinally preferably along an edge of body portion Il, graduated in the letter spacing for a typewriter equipped, `for example, with pica .5,5
type; the spacing of each graduation being therefore at J/lo inch, or ten letter spaces per inch. Preferably on the opposite face of the rule II, along an edge opposite that on which the scale I4 is arranged, a line-length scale I5 is provided, as illustrated in Fig. 2, the same being graduated in accordance with the letter spacing of a type- Writer equipped with elite type, the spacing of each graduation being therefore V12 inch apart, there being twelve letter spaces per inch of an elite typed line. Each scale l and I5 has a zero point or pointer at its beginning and, for reasons hereinafter manifest, the Zero points of each scale coincide and each zero is a like distance from the abutment I2. The scales I4, and I5 are arranged on opposite faces of the rule to avoid confusion in use, and are arranged at opposite longitudinal edges of the rule so that each scale may have a corresponding position along a typed line, and reference to either scale may be had by merely rotating the rule on its longitudinal axis.
Toward the left-hand end of the rule is slidably carried a Zero-indicating slide Iii, the righthand edge I'I at each face of which represents a Zero or gaging marker for cooperation with each scale i4 and I5 of the rule, t'he slide I6 having a corresponding panel on each side thereof. For vconvenience in setting the slide i6 to the Zero position on either scale lll or I5, the abutment I2 is provided, the Zero point of each scale I4, I5, being at a distance from the abutment i2 equal to the width of the slide I6.
The rule is further equipped at its right-hand portion With a justifying slide I8 adapted to be positioned along the body portion II at any setting desired. The justifying slide i8 is adapted to cooperate with either scale lll or I5, and is vequipped on one face thereof, as shown in Fig. 1,
with a justifying scale I9 presenting a short series of letter-space calibrations corresponding in spacing to the scale ill. On its opposite face the slide 4i8 has a justifying scale 26 similar to the scale i9 but spaced in accordance with that of scale l5. For convenience in setting the justifying lslide I8 to a certain reading on the linelength scales lli, I5, the calibration lines niarking the justifying sca-les I9 and 29 are extended to project over the line-length scales, and the opposite face panels of slide l are preferably of transparent material so that scales Ill and I5 may be viewed therethru. Each side of the rule may be suitably identified to indicate the letter spacngs to which the scales lil and I9 and the scales i5 and 29 are calibrated, preferably by marking the slide I8 on each face with the name of the type represented thereby, as shown.
It will be noted that each of the scales I9 and 29 are divided ofi into six letter spaces which collectively represent an arbitrary line-length distance within which any typed line may be justified, each of the spacings of the scales I9 and 2 6 being consecutively numbered or otherwise identified to indicate to the typist the degree of justification required. As will be hereinafter further explained, one of the calibrations, preferably the numeral 4, on each of the scales iS and 29 represents a neutral or normal justifying range.
In order that the two justifying scales be coordinated with each other for the purposes of converting the type from one kind of type to another, it is desired that the respective numerals `of the sca-les i9 and 2l) representing the normal range, be in columnal alignment with each other, althugl'ithese numerals be on opposite faces of the justifying slide. By this correlation, the slide I8 may be set to a line length of a certain number of letter spaces on either scale I4 or I5, and the corresponding justifying scale I9 or 20 will be spaced from the zero point of its linelength scale the same lineal distance; a feature advantageous in converting typing from one kind of type to another.
As afore indicated, the justifying rule of the invention is intended for use in conjunction with various kinds of justification typewriters equipped with justifying mechanisms having a calibrated selector member by which the operator may preselect a certain justifying means, which in effect varies the letter-feed movement of the carriage to modify the line length in accordance with the setting of the justifying selector member. Justifying mechanisms of this character, as for example that shown in the patent to Dodd, No. 2,118,343, have the selector device usually numbered from one to six, by which calibrations the operator preselects the setting for the desired degree of justification. For` example, if it is found that a certain typed line on Athe unjustified copy is to be expanded a distance equivalent to three letter spaces, the operator sets the justifying device accordingly, and the machine, during subsequent typing, will automatically expand the new typed line a distance of three letter spaces. This process is carried through for each succeeding line, the justifying device being reset to the degree of justification required for each individual line, so that the finished justified copy has all of the typed lines terminating at an even right-hand margin. It is to be noted that the numerals on each of the justifying scales I9 and 20 relate to the calibrations on the selector device of the typewriter, and should, therefore, preferably correspond therewith so as to directly indicate to the operator the setting of the justi- .i
fying mechanism to be used.
The procedure followed in determining the new line length and the degree of justification required for each typed line of the justified copy, will now be described in relation to an instance wherein the justified copy is to be typed at a line-length shorter than that of the original or unjustified typed matter. It may be assumed, for example, that the original typed matter is that illustrated in Fig. 3, in which a line length of approximately five inches is shown, and the typed matter in the justified copy is to be of a line length exactly four inches long. The procedure demonstrated in Figs. 5 to V10 inclusive presumes that the original typing is done in pica type and that the justified copy is to be typed on a machine also of pica type. The procedure is as follows:
The zero indicator slide I6 is set at the zero of the line-length'scale I4 by sliding same leftyward along the rule against the abutment I2 at which position edge i7 Will be at the zero of scale lil. The justifying slide I8 is set along the scale lll so that the numeral 4 of scale I9 is in registry with the numeral 40, on scale I4, the numeral 40 being chosen in that the justified copy is to be in a four-inch line length, or 40 letter spaces of pica type in length. The numeral 4 of the scale I9 is chosen in order that the justifying may be effective to either shorten or lengthen the justified line to the Vpredetermined line length of forty letter spaces, it being understood that the machine on which the justified copy is to be typed hasits justifying device calibrated in this manner; that is, that the range of justifying represented by the numeral 4 on the selector device of the machine is the neutral or normal range and is such that the carriage will be advanced at the normal letter-feed rate of forty letter spaces in a four inch line of pica type. From this it will be seenithat the numerals l 2 and 3 on scale I9, being less than the numeral 4 represent ranges of justifying by which a lesser number of letters than forty may be so spaced as to fully occupy a normally forty letter-space line; and the numerals 5 and 6 on scale I9, being greater than the numeral 4, represent ranges of justifying by which a greater number of letters than forty may be typed in a line of forty normal letter spaces. The justifying scale I9 could be calibrated consecutively from the neutral calibration to the right andl left thereof and thus be consistent with the actual justification effect obtained in the typewriter of the Dodd patent, but such a scale might he confusing to the operator as there would be both positive and negative calibrations of the same numerical Value. It will be observed that the neutral or normal range of justifying may be represented by `any one of the numerals on the scalesl i9 and 2i), providing, of course, that the justifying typewriter be correspondingly calibrated; in which case that numeral of scale I9 representing the normal range, is set in registry with the numeral on scale i4 representing the desired line-length for the justified copy.
The justifying rule, so conditioned, is laid along the first-typed line of the unjustified copy, as shown in Fig. 5, with the zero indicator edge I'I of the slide I just to the left of the first letter in the typed line. By observing the position, relatively to the scale i9, of the last letter of the word ending within the length of this scale, the range of justifying for the first retyped line may be noted. As shown in Fig. 5, the last letter of that word is in line with'the numeral 4 of scale IQ. For convenience to the typist, this last letter may be identified as by canceling same, and the reading of scale I9 is recorded over that letter, that is a numeral 4 is marked directly over the identified letter, as shown in Fig. 6. In that the typing of the justified copy is to be at a shorter line length than the unjustified copy, there remains an additional length in the first line of the unjustified copy, which length is to be incorporated in the second line of the justified copy.
The remaining line length of the iirst line is now recorded on the rule in the following manner, with reference to Fig. 7. The rule is moved bodily along the first line until the zero indicator edge I1 of slide I6, still at the Zero of scale I9, is just to the left of the first letter of the first word in the remaining line length, as shown in phantom in Fig. 7, and, while maintaining this position of the body portion II of the rule, slide I6 is moved rightward along the rule until the zero edge Il thereof is just to the right of the concluding letter of the line, that is, to the position shown in full line in Fig. '7.
It will be noted that in this manner, the remaining line length of the first line of the unjustified copy has been recorded on the rule preparatory to completing the measurement of 4 this procedure, the justifying slide I8 is maintained in the same position at all times, that is, numeral 4 of the scale IS thereof is always aligned with the numeral on scale `Ill representing the line length, in the present instance the numeral 40. The last letter of the wordending within the justifying scale I9 is noted and conspicuously marked as aforedescribed, and the reading of scale I9 over this letter is recorded, as shown in Fig. 9. It will be seen, however, that this letter is marked with a 3 although the last letter is at the 2 calibration of scale I9.
In other words, one has been added to the All the typed lines of the unjustified copy are similarly measured and marked.
If the line length in the justied copy is to be longer than the average line length in the original typing, the procedure is somewhat similar to that previously described, except that instead of recording on the rule a remaining line length as shown in Fig. '7, an entire line length is recorded on the rule. In this instance the procedure is as follows:
With slide i@ at Zero and slide I8 set at the desired line length, the rule is laid along the iirst line with the zero edge I in the position shown in Fig. 5. In this instance, however, the slide I8 will be beyond the end of the line. Holding the rule in this position, the slide I6 is moved along the rule until its edge il is just beyond the terminal letter of the line, that is, to the position of slide Il shown in full in Fig. '7. The first line of the unjustified copy has thus been recorded on the rule and the additional line length required to complete the justified line is measured off the initial portion of the second unjustified line, by p0- sitioning the rule in its present condition at the second line substantially as` shown in Fig. 8.
The terminal letter of the word ending within the scale I9 will be the last letter in the justified line, and this letter is marked and numbered to indicate the degree of justification required, substantially as illustrated in Fig. 9. `A similar procedure is followed for all the succeeding lines of the unjustified copy, by first recording on the rule, by manipulating the zero indicator slide I6, any one line `or remainder of the line which in itself is insuflicientto complete the length of the justified line.
It is necessary that the operator observe a few simple rules in combining, in a justified line, the remaining portion of one line with a complemental portion of a succeeding line in the unjustified copy. These rules are briefly as follows: If the typewritten line of the unjustified copy ends with a word, one letter space is to be added to the reading of scale I9 in the marking of the terminal letter of that line for justifying. If the line of the unjustified copy ends with a hyphen, one space Should be dropped; that is, the reading of scale I9, less one, will be recorded. If the typewritten line ends` with a period, two letter spaces should be added to the reading of scale I9. The last rule applies as well where the unjustified line ends with a comma, colon, semi-colon, or quotation marks. It is to be understood, however, that in taking the reading of the scale I9 the actual letter preceding the punctuation mark is to be vregarded as the last letter of that line, and not the punctuation mark itself. This practice is advised as it will eliminate any uncertainty as to the limit of the letter-space occupied by the punctuation mark.
In the foregoing is described the procedure followed in marking unjustified typed matter for justification, at the same time changing the line length. Vfhere the same line length is to be used for the justified copy as was used for the `unjustified copy, the justifying rule may be used `as follows: The Zero indicator slide I5 is set at Zero against the abutment i2; and, with the zero edge l1 aligned just to the left of the first letter of `a typed line, the justifying slide i8 is moved along the rule to that position wherein all of the typed lines at their right-hand ends terminate somewhere within the justifying scale I9, that is, at the position where al1 of the typed lines end [within a vertical margin bounded by the first and last calibrations of scale I9. With the rule in this condition, the justification for each typed line is individually determined, recording the reading of scale I9 adjacent each line end, as previously described.
The use of the justifying rule for converting from one kind of type to another, that is, for example, Where the unjustified copy is typed in pica type and the justified copy is to be in elite type, will now be described. Where an exact length of line in the justified copy is not required and the slight change in line length by converting from one kind of type to another is immaterial, and it is only required to justify the typed matter, the procedure is the same as that just described for an unchanged line length, using the scale on the rule corresponding to the kind of type in which the unjustified matter is typed. Where, however, an exact length of line in the justified copy is required and a machine of a different kind of type is to be used, which in itself changes the line length, the procedure is as follows:
The zero indicator slide I6 is set at the zero of `the line-length scale, and the justifying slide I8 is set so that the numeral 4 is in registry with the numeral representing the desired line length of the justified copy, however, using the linelength scale Iii or i5 corresponding to the kind of type in which the unjustified copy has been typed. For example, if it is determined that the justied copy is to be done in elite type, the lines to be of fifty letter-spaces in length, and the unjustified matter is in pica type, the slide I8 is set with its numeral 4 in registry with the 50 on the pica scale i4. Thus, the rule is in condition for marking off the unjustified copy for justifying. The scale l@ which corresponds to the kind of type (pica) in the unjustified copy, is now laid along each line of the unjustified typed matter, proceeding substantially as previously described for a changed line length but an unchanged kind of type.` Each line of the unjustified typing, or part thereof "is marked 01T to indicate the terminal letters for the justified line and the degree of justification required. In that the required line length for the justified copy has been introduced in the rule in setting same, when the justified copy is typed on a justifying machine each line will terminate at an even right-hand margin and the lines will all be of the prescribed length.
It will be seen from the foregoing that the justifying rule constructed in accordance with the invention, embodies a measuring device that is universally adaptable in the justification of typed matter, notwithstanding that there may be variations between the line lengths of the unjustified and justified copy, that there may be different kinds of type used in the respective typed matter, and notwithstanding that the relative positions of the individual typed lines in the unjustified copy may vary appreciably. By following a few simple rules of procedure, the typst may readily determine the extent of justification required for substantially any typed matter.
Although in this application, there is specifically described, one embodiment which the invention may assume in practice, it will be undeistood that same is shown for the purposes of il lustration, and that the invention may be modiiied and embodied in various other forms Without departing from its spirit or the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A justifying rule, comprising in combination, an elongate body, a first line-length scale graduated in letter spacings for a certain kind of type, a second line-length scale graduated in letter spacings for a different kind of type, said linelength scales being coextensive on said body and having coincident zero points, a Zero indicator slide on said body having pointers adapted to cooperate with each of said line-length scales, and a justifying slide on said body slidable to selective line-length positions along said linelength scales, said justifying slide including a first justification-indicating scale adjacent said first .linelength scale and a second justificationindicating scale adjacent said second line-length scale, the respective said justification-indicating scales having calibrations corresponding in spacing to the associated line-length scale, a corresponding calibration of each of said justication-indicating scales being in columnal alignment with each other.
2. A justifying rule, comprising in combination, an elongate flat strip, a first line-length scale arranged longitudinally along one face of said strip and graduated in letter-spacings for a certain kind of type, a second line-length scale arranged longitudinally along an opposite face of said strip and graduated in letter-spacings for a different kind of type, said line-length scales being coextensive on said strip and having coincident zero points, a Zero-indicator slide on said strip bearing zero pointers adapted to cooperate with the respective'said line-length scales, and a justifying slide on said strip having panels overlying the opposite faces of said strip, each panel bearing a justication-indicating scale adjacent the respective line-length scales, the respective said justification-indicating scales havn ing calibrations corresponding in spacing to the associated line-length scale, a corresponding calibration of each of said justification-indicating scales being in columnal alignment with each other.
3. A justifying rule, comprising in combination, an elongate flat strip having abutments at each end, a first line-length scale arranged along a longitudinal edge on one face of said strip and graduated in letter-spacings for a certain kind of type, a second line-length scale arranged along an opposite longitudinal edge and an opposite face of said strip and graduated in letter-spacings for a different kind of type, said line-length scales being coextensive on said strip and having coincident zero points, a zere indicator slide Von said strip, having panels overlying the opposite faces of said strip, each panel bearing a zero pointer adapted to cooperate with the respective said line-length scales, said zero indicator slide being engageable with one ci said abutments to register the zeno pointers at the aero of said linelength scales, and a justifying slide on said strip having trans' nt overlying the opposite faces of said strip, panel bearing a justification-indicati g scale adjacent the respective said line-i li scales, the respective said justi ication-indicating scales having caiibrations corresponding in spacing to the associated-linelength scale, a coresponding calibration of each of said justication-indicating scales being coluinnal alignment with each other, the calibrations of said justincation-indicating scales projecting over the associated line-length scale.
fi. A justifying rule, comprising in combination, an elongate body having a line-length scale graduated in letter spaces arranged along a longitudinal edge thereof, a slide on said body including a transparent panel presenting a zero indicating line transverse to said scale, anda justifying slide on said body including a transparent panel having a series of letter-spaced transverse lines calibrated to forni a justifying scale, each of said panels and the transverse lines thereon projecting substantially beyond the linelength scale edge of said body so as to overlie a line oi typing, with the rule body disposed along the typing line, whereby a justifying reading may be made through said panels.
WLLIAM G. TURQUAND.
US278894A 1939-06-13 1939-06-13 Justification rule Expired - Lifetime US2214091A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US278894A US2214091A (en) 1939-06-13 1939-06-13 Justification rule

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US278894A US2214091A (en) 1939-06-13 1939-06-13 Justification rule

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2214091A true US2214091A (en) 1940-09-10

Family

ID=23066832

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US278894A Expired - Lifetime US2214091A (en) 1939-06-13 1939-06-13 Justification rule

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2214091A (en)

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2517159A (en) * 1947-07-01 1950-08-01 Herbert A Allen Justifying ruler for typewritten matter
US2803883A (en) * 1953-07-09 1957-08-27 Morano Sam Welder's pipe setting gauge
US3668782A (en) * 1970-10-20 1972-06-13 Herbert Hanft Slide ruler to adjust length of typewritten line
US20040060189A1 (en) * 2002-09-26 2004-04-01 Cookson Raymond Alec Wear measurement gauge for padeyes shackles and chains
US20060288599A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2006-12-28 Zoya, Inc. Tape apparatus and method for establishing a plurality of locations extending parallel to a reference edge
US20150144423A1 (en) * 2013-11-22 2015-05-28 Alberta British Columbia Safety Inc. Method And Apparatus For Determining Safety Of A Working Environment

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2517159A (en) * 1947-07-01 1950-08-01 Herbert A Allen Justifying ruler for typewritten matter
US2803883A (en) * 1953-07-09 1957-08-27 Morano Sam Welder's pipe setting gauge
US3668782A (en) * 1970-10-20 1972-06-13 Herbert Hanft Slide ruler to adjust length of typewritten line
US20040060189A1 (en) * 2002-09-26 2004-04-01 Cookson Raymond Alec Wear measurement gauge for padeyes shackles and chains
US6874246B2 (en) * 2002-09-26 2005-04-05 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Wear measurement gauge for padeyes shackles and chains
US20060288599A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2006-12-28 Zoya, Inc. Tape apparatus and method for establishing a plurality of locations extending parallel to a reference edge
US20150144423A1 (en) * 2013-11-22 2015-05-28 Alberta British Columbia Safety Inc. Method And Apparatus For Determining Safety Of A Working Environment
US9739586B2 (en) * 2013-11-22 2017-08-22 Alberta British Columbia Safety Inc. Method and apparatus for determining safety of a working environment

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US2214091A (en) Justification rule
US1215441A (en) Locating-rule for type-writers.
US2517159A (en) Justifying ruler for typewritten matter
US1687429A (en) Stenogauge
US2469672A (en) Calculator
US2217160A (en) Typewriting machine
US3293761A (en) Copy-fitting device
US1355881A (en) Device for measuring typewritten matter
US2421119A (en) Margin calculator for typewriters
US2237770A (en) Typewriting and like machines
US1343912A (en) Centering scale or rule for centering- typewritten or other work
US1796955A (en) Copy-estimator's scale
US4221057A (en) Printers gauge
US3149710A (en) Method for producing justified typewritten copy and device for practicing same
US2260232A (en) Writing machine
US543997A (en) Spacing rule or gage
US2342560A (en) Printer for instrument scales
US907450A (en) Type-writing machine.
Barber et al. The effect of scale numbering on scale-reading accuracy and speed.
US2187554A (en) Printer's gauge
US2093636A (en) Stenographer's scale
US1695423A (en) Printing chart
US1192976A (en) Type-writing machine.
US2378473A (en) Apparatus for assembling type characters
US1536624A (en) Typewriting machine