US2194332A - Musical instrument - Google Patents

Musical instrument Download PDF

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Publication number
US2194332A
US2194332A US196194A US19619438A US2194332A US 2194332 A US2194332 A US 2194332A US 196194 A US196194 A US 196194A US 19619438 A US19619438 A US 19619438A US 2194332 A US2194332 A US 2194332A
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Prior art keywords
sections
sound
instrument
mouth piece
blow
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US196194A
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John S Sumner
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INER OLIVER ENGEBRETSON
LAWRENCE H MCEWEN
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INER OLIVER ENGEBRETSON
LAWRENCE H MCEWEN
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Priority to US196194A priority Critical patent/US2194332A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/02General design of wind musical instruments of the type wherein an air current is directed against a ramp edge
    • G10D7/04General design of wind musical instruments of the type wherein an air current is directed against a ramp edge with Helmholtz resonators, e.g. ocarinas

Description

March 19, 1940. 5, SUMNER 2,194,332

MUSICAL ms'rm'msm Filed latch 15, 193B Sheets-Sheet 1 March 19, 1940. 5 SUMNER 2,194,332

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed larch 16, 1938 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 1i Fag.

I/V MFA T017, ITO/MI 5. JUN/H77.

Patented Mar. 19, 1940 UNITED STATES MUSICAL INSTRUMENT John S. Sumner, Minneapolis, Minn, assignor of one-third to Lawrence H. McEwen and onethird to Iner Oliver Engebretson, both of Minneapolis, Minn.

Application March 16,

4 Claims.

This invention relates to musical wind instruments, and particularly to such instruments of the ocarina type, comprising a substantially closed, hollow body with a mouth piece having a blow slit extending therethrough and associated with an oppositely disposed sound producing divider lip.

Ocarinas have heretofore usually been molded or cast from clay and other materials, two complementary shell sections being formed by molding method, and the two sections then being ad hesively secured together to form a hollow body. The tone qualities of such instruments have been poor due to the nature of the materials available for molding or casting, and ftu thermore such instruments are quite fragile and when dropped or struck, often break.

It is an object of my invention to provide a materially improved and highly eflieient wind instrument of the Ocarina type which may be constructed from solid materials such as the harder woods known to have time tone producing qualities, and further to incorporate in such an instrument a number of difierent'specific woods or other materials, thereby obtaining the highest quality of tones.

Another object is the provision of an improved Ocarina or similar musical instrument which will enable both a melody and an accompaniment or chords to be played simultaneously without shifting the mouth from the mouth piece provided with a pair of blow slits each communicating with a different sound chamber.

It is a further object'to provide a simple, efficient method for making my improved instrument wherein the hollow body, mouth piece and sound producing divider lip are formed from a series of flat sections constructed of wood or other suitable materials.

These and other objects and advantages of the invention will be more fully set forth in the following description made in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein like reference characters refer to the same or similar parts throughout the various views, and in which:

Fig. 1 is a top plan view of one form of my instrument designed to play the melody only;

Fig. 2 is a cross section taken on the line 22 of Fig. 1, showing the assembled laminated body construction;

3 is a bottom plan view of the same;

Fig. 4 is a cross section through the mouth piece of my instrument taken on the line 4 i of Fig. 3;

Figs. 5 to 11 inclusive, are plan views showing the successive flat sections of wood or other ma- 1938, Serial No. 196,194

of my instrument;

Fig. 12 is a top'plan View of a somewhat differout form of the invention adapted to play both the melody and the accompaniment or chords;

Fig. 13 is a vertical cross section taken on the line Iii-J3 of Fig. 12, and

Fig, i l is a bottom plan view of the second form. of my invention.

Referring now to the form of my invention shown in. Figs. 1 to 11 and my process for making the same, I first cut out or form aseries of flat sections or laminations, as clearly shown in Figs. 5 to 11 inclusive. The several sections may be cut by a scroll saw or otherwise from thin hardwood boards, or other suitable, relatively thin material, and I prefer to utilize different specific woods or other materials for several of the various sections or pieces shown in Figs. 5 to 11; for example, one particular hardwood such as ebony, mahogany or rosewood can be used for the top and bottom sections, a different wood for the next intermediate sections and a still different wood for the central section. I have no preference as to the order or arrangement of any particular woods, but prefer to use in my method of manufacture two or three different woods for some of the sections.

Paper or metal patterns may be made up to enable the sections to be properly cut and shaped for instruments of different sizes and to produce tones in difierent keys and octaves whereby melody, tenor, baritone, bass and other parts may be played by a number of musicians utilizing my appropriate instruments in playing together.

The instrument illustrated in Figs. 1 to 3 comprises seven sections or pieces, the top section being numbered 2! and the successive sections being numbered to 2"! inclusive on the drawings. It will be noted that with the exception of the tongue portions of the intermediate sections, all of the sections or pieces have more or less the same general configuration; The top and bottom sections 2! and 2'! respectively in the preparation of the sections are not apertured, but act as closures for the hollow body formed. The intermediate sections 22 to 26 are each provided with relatively large, irregularly shaped, central apertures, the apertures of the several sections beingof the same general shape, and of the same general shape as the outline of said sections, and preferably increasing in size from section 22 to the central section 24, and then decreasing in size from section 24 to section 26.

Sections 22 to 26 are provided with registering terial which, when assembled, make up the body tongue portions 22a to 25a respectively, which cumulatively constitute a mouth piece when the sections are assembled. It will further be noted that the section 25 is provided with a lip portion 26b disposed at the mouth piece inside of the apertured portion which, as will be later shown, is processed to form in conjunction with a blow slit and sound emission aperture, the sound producing divider of the instrument.

In making my instrument, the several sections or laminations 2! to H inclusive are superimposed one upon the other, with section 2'! at the bottom and section 2! at the top. They are permanently secured to gether in superimposed relation preferably by the use of glue or other bonding material applied to their registering portions. The superimposed sections with the adhesive material between engaging portions may be clamped together until the bonding material thoroughly hardens, forming the hollow body shown in Figs. 1 to 3. The exterior edges of the several superimposed sections may then be cut or scraped down and abrasively treated, or otherwise processed, to produce a very smooth, continuous, peripheral surface throughout the entire body. The mouth piece M formed by the several tongues 22a. to 26a of the sections is then processed to provide an inclined blow slit S. Assuming tha the body is constructed of wood or other combustible material, this blow slit may be conveniently burned through the mouth piece by heating an appropriately shaped metal element to a high temperature and forcing the same from the end of mouth. piece M inwardly at the cor rect angle with reference to the center line of the mouth piece to cause slit S to terminate in the position shown in Fig. 2 at a point oppositely disposed to the inner edge of section 26 at the point of the lip portion 26b. The slit S diminishes in width at its inner end and terminates in a quite restricted, elongated wind discharge orifice 39 (see Fig. 4).

My next steps in the production of the instru- 'ment involve the formation of the finger holes and thumb holes for controlling the production of tones and the formation of the sound emitting aperture which cooperates with the blow slit and sound producing lip. steps is, of course, immaterial. In fact some of the apertures may be formed, if desired, in the top and bottom sections 2! and 21 before the sections are secured together.

The sound emission aperture 3!, as shown in Fig. 3, is formed through section 25 in the lip portion 2% thereof and is disposed at the wind discharge orifice of the blow slit S. .The formation of aperture 3! leaves a curved edge 3m opposed to slit S. On the exterior of the body a portion about said aperture 3| is countersunk to produce a relatively sharp bevelled edge along said lip, as will be seen in Fig. 2. Thumb holes 32 and 33 are formed through the bottom portionof the body at the appropriate points for convenient covering by the thumbs of the right and left hands respectively.

.Two sets of finger holes 34 and 35- are formed through the topoi the body, as shown. in Fig. l, conveniently disposed in more or less arcuate arrangement in each instance for convenient covering and selective uncoveringby the several fingers of the left and right hands respectively.

The instrument constructed in accordance with the described steps of my method is played in the usualmanner of an ocarina and possesses very excellent tone qualtities and is comparatively light The sequence of the several in weight. My method it will be seen enables various flat board materials to be utilized to produce a rounded, irregularly shaped hollow musical instrument such as an Ocarina. The selection of several different varieties of wood or other material for some of the sections not only is responsible for the highest qualityof tones, but moreover produces a very beautiful exterior appearance for the instrument.

In the form of the invention shown in Figs, 12 to 14 inclusive, the structure and method of making the. same are generally similar to the construction and method previously described. This instrument, however, contains two soundchambers A and B respectively, and the mouth piece thereof is provided with two blow slits 4i and 4|, each cooperating with a sound producing divider lip 42' and 43 respectively, one of said lips being associated with each of the sound chambers A and B. As shown, this combination instrument is made up from nine superimposed sections of wood or other suitable material, although any number can be utilized, it being preferable to use an uneven number since the two sound chambers A and B are divided by a central unapertured flat section 44.

It will also be noted that in this form the flat sections next to the top and bottom unapertured sections of the body have bevelled edges flaring toward the central section of the sound chamber A or B, as the case may be. The mouth piece 1 is made up as before from the projecting or tongue portions of the several sections or laminations intermediate of the top and bottom section. The blow slits 4G and 45 are both formed in the same mouth piece in substantially vertical alignment when the instrument is played, but diverging from the end of the mouth piece inwardly so that their Wind discharge orifices may be properly positioned in opposition to the lips 62 and 43 of the respective chambers.

The upper portion of the body is provided with two sets of finger holes as in the form of the instrument first described, positioned and arranged for convenient manipulation by the left and right hands, and the sound emission aperture 45 for the upper sound chamber is made through the top portion just rearwardly of the mouth piece and in approximate alignment with the sound discharge aperture 46 cooperating with the lower sound chamber. As shown, only a pair of thumb holes i? are formed through the lower portion of the body adapted, however, to produce three different tones, one tone from each of the apertures when it is opened and the other closed,

and a third tone when both apertures are open.

The sounds so produced act as accompanient or chords for anumber of the tones produced. in the upper portion of the device.

In playing the combination instrument the musician may tongue the lower blow slit 40 to produce staccato effects in the accompaniment, or may blow through both slits M and 42 in cases where chord tones can be used with tones produced in the upper portion of my instrument.

From the foregoing description it will be seen that I have invented an improved musical instru ment of the ocarina type which has excellent and accurate tone qualities, is comparatively light in weight and will not be easily fractured.

It will further be apparent that I have provided a thoroughly practical, comparatively simple and eilicient method for making my iniproved instrument.

It will, of course, be understood that various iii) iii)

changes may be made in the form, details, arrangement and proportions of the several parts without departing from the scope of my invention.

What is claimed is:

1. A musical instrument of the ocarina type, comprising a series of fiat, superimposed sections secured tightly together, the outermost sections serving as closures and intermediate sections being provided with enlarged apertures to cooperatively form with the said outermost sections a hollow body, said intermediate sections having registering tongue portions which cumulatively form a mouth piece, said mouth piece having an elongated blow slit extending therethrough and a sound producing lip formed on the edge of one of said sections and disposed in opposition to the inner end of said slit, the upper portion of said hollow body having a series of finger holes there through and the lower portion of said body having a sound emitting aperture disposed in juxta position to said lip.

2. A musical instrument of the ocarina type, comprising a series of flat, superimposed sections secured tightly together, the outermost sections serving as closures and intermediate sections being provided with enlarged apertures to cooperatively form with the said outermost sections a hollow body having at least one sound chamber therein, the apertured sections cooperating to de fine said sound chamber having their apertures decreasing in size from the centrally located section of said chamber toward the sides of said chamber, certain of said sections having registering portions which cumulatively form a mouth piece, said mouth piece having an elongated blow slit extending therethrough and a sound producing lip formed on the edge of one of said sections and disposed in opposition to the inner end of said slit, said hollow body having a plurality of finger holes therethrough, said body also having a sound emitting aperture disposed in juxta position to said lip.

3. A musical instrument of the ocarina type, comprising a hollow body composed of a series of flat, superimposed sections secured tightly together, the outermost sections serving as closures, certain of said intermediate sections being provided with enlarged communicating apertures, one of said intermediate sections being unapertured to divide the space within said body into two independent sound chambers, certain of said sections having projecting registering portions which cumulatively form a mouth piece, said mouth piece having a pair of elongated blow slits extending therethrough, one associated with each of said sound chambers, a sound producing lip formed on an apertured portion of one of said sections and disposed in opposition to the inner end of one of said blow slits, and a similar sound producing lip for the other sound chamber disposed in opposition to th second blow slit, the apertured portions cooperating to produce said sound lips serving as sound emitting means, the outer ends of both of said sound slits terminating at the end of said mouth piece, a plurality of finger holes through a portion of said body communicating with one of said sound chambers for controlling the tones produced from said sound chamber, and a plurality of finger holes through another portion of said body communicating with said second sound chamber for controlling tones produced thereby.

4. A musical instrument of the ocarina type, comprising a series of flat, superimposed sections of general ovoidal shape bonded together to form a rounded ovoidal body, the outermost sections serving as closures and certain intermediate sections being provided with enlarged communicating apertures, and one of said intermediate sections being unapertured to divide the space defined by said apertured portions into two independent sound chambers, certain of said sections having projecting registering portions which cumulatively form a mouth piece, said mouth piece having a pair of longitudinally disposed, spaced blow slits extending therethrough, one associated with each of said sound chambers, a sound emission aperture through said body in communication with one of said sound chambers and a second sound emission aperture through said body communicating with the said second sound chamber, said sound emission apertures cooperating with portions of said body to produce sound lips, each disposed in opposition to the inner end of one of said blow slits, and two sets of finger holes through said body, each set communicating with one of said sound chambers.

JOHN S. SUMNER. 5o

US196194A 1938-03-16 1938-03-16 Musical instrument Expired - Lifetime US2194332A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2460931A (en) * 1944-12-04 1949-02-08 Fred Gretsch Mfg Company Ocarina
US4893541A (en) * 1988-05-05 1990-01-16 Fowler Ilania H Pentatonic ocarina
FR2745939A1 (en) * 1996-03-05 1997-09-12 Lognon Eric Method of making wind instrument
US7799980B1 (en) 2009-04-29 2010-09-21 Norman Spencer Register Ocarina
US7816595B1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2010-10-19 Jordan Reder Dietrich Methods of constructing and tuning ocarinas
US10304426B2 (en) 2017-08-16 2019-05-28 Wayne Hankin Instrument and related notation and methods

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2460931A (en) * 1944-12-04 1949-02-08 Fred Gretsch Mfg Company Ocarina
US4893541A (en) * 1988-05-05 1990-01-16 Fowler Ilania H Pentatonic ocarina
FR2745939A1 (en) * 1996-03-05 1997-09-12 Lognon Eric Method of making wind instrument
US7799980B1 (en) 2009-04-29 2010-09-21 Norman Spencer Register Ocarina
US7816595B1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2010-10-19 Jordan Reder Dietrich Methods of constructing and tuning ocarinas
US10304426B2 (en) 2017-08-16 2019-05-28 Wayne Hankin Instrument and related notation and methods

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