US2191490A - Means for preventing vapor lock in internal combustion engines - Google Patents

Means for preventing vapor lock in internal combustion engines Download PDF

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US2191490A
US2191490A US82947A US8294736A US2191490A US 2191490 A US2191490 A US 2191490A US 82947 A US82947 A US 82947A US 8294736 A US8294736 A US 8294736A US 2191490 A US2191490 A US 2191490A
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fuel
chamber
heat
internal combustion
pump
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US82947A
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Adolph V Mitterer
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Adolph V Mitterer
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B1/00Engines characterised by fuel-air mixture compression
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M2700/00Supplying, feeding or preparing air, fuel, fuel air mixtures or auxiliary fluids for a combustion engine; Use of exhaust gas; Compressors for piston engines
    • F02M2700/43Arrangements for supplying air, fuel or auxiliary fluids to a combustion space of mixture compressing engines working with liquid fuel
    • F02M2700/4302Arrangements for supplying air, fuel or auxiliary fluids to a combustion space of mixture compressing engines working with liquid fuel whereby air and fuel are sucked into the mixture conduit
    • F02M2700/438Supply of liquid to a carburettor reservoir with limitation of the liquid level; Aerating devices; Mounting of fuel filters
    • F02M2700/4388Supply of liquid to a carburettor reservoir with limitation of the liquid level; Aerating devices; Mounting of fuel filters with fuel displacement by a pump
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/2931Diverse fluid containing pressure systems
    • Y10T137/3115Gas pressure storage over or displacement of liquid
    • Y10T137/3127With gas maintenance or application
    • Y10T137/313Gas carried by or evolved from liquid
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/6416With heating or cooling of the system
    • Y10T137/6525Air heated or cooled [fan, fins, or channels]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/8593Systems
    • Y10T137/85978With pump
    • Y10T137/86035Combined with fluid receiver
    • Y10T137/86043Reserve or surge receiver
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/8593Systems
    • Y10T137/85978With pump
    • Y10T137/86083Vacuum pump

Description

, Feb. 27, 1940. A. v. MITTERER' 2,191,490
MEANS FOR PREVENTING VAPOR LOCK IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed June 1, 1936 2 Sh ets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Feb. 27, 1940. A. v. MITTERER 2,191,490
MEANS FOR PREVENTING VAPOR'LOCK IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed June 1, 1956 2 sheets-Sheet 2 -7 U 7 INVENTOR- A Do; PH M M/ 775x51? ATTORNEY Patented Feb. 27, 1940 v UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MEANS FOR PREVENTING VAPOR LOCK IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Adolph Mitterer, Denver, 0010. Application June 1, 1936, Serial No. 82,94!
18 Claims.
; each of which has its own definite boiling point.
The lighter portions of this mixture may boil at much as degrees F. and therefore if the air 20, temperature is 100 degrees F., the fuel may be 125 degrees F., or above the boiling point of the most volatile constituents. i
The fuel line from the tank to the carburetor as well as the pump and the carburetor are heated by the air and also by conduction from the engine as well as by radiation from the hot engine parts. I ture of the parts through which the fuel has to flow, a large amountof vapor is formed which interferes with the operation of the pump which is designed to handle liquid and not vapor.
In any fuel feed system for supplying volatile liquid fuel to an internal combustion engine, there is a constant danger that a portion of the liquid fuelwill vaporize during its passage from the supply tank to the carburetor.
When enough vapor forms in the delivery systern, the normal flow of the liquid fuel may be seriously retarded and even completely stopped. This is most likelylto occur in warm weather and in portions of the delivery system located near the engine or the exhaust manifold and pipe, and when it occurs, produces what is called a vapor look.
In systems using some form of pump for fuel delivery, the formation of vapor in the fuel lines may cause the pump to cease entirely delivering fuel or may cause it to deliver it irregularly.
It is one object of this invention to produce a fuel feed system having means for separating the vapors from the liquid fuel, condensing and returning them to the fuel line, so as to prevent the formation of a vapor lock.'
, Where gasoline is supplied to a. carburetor by As a result of the high tempera:
means of a pulsating pump, either of the plunger or diaphragm type, it is supplied intermittently and in a pulsating manner.
It is another object of this inventionto produce a fuel feed system provided between the pump and the carburetor with an air or vapor cushion, similar to those employed in connection with water pumps, for the purpose of smoothing the pump' impulses.
The above and any other objects that may become apparent as the description proceeds are attained by means of a construction and an ar-' rangement of parts that'will now be described, reference for this purposebeing had to the accompanying drawings in which the invention has been illustrated, in its preferred form, and in which Figure 1is a'diagrammatic view showing a fuel feed system in accordance with this invention;
Figure 2 is a view, to a larger scale, showing the heat radiator or condenser in section and showing one way of attaching it to the feed pipe;
Figure 3 is a. section taken on line 3-3, Fig ure 2;
Figure 4 is a side elevation of a connector like that employed in Figure 2, but with the condenser removed and the side opening plugged;
Figure 5 shows a fuel feed system of the vacuum tank type, formed in accordance with this invention; I
Figure 6 is a section, similar to that shown in Figure 2, to a smaller scale, and shows a modified form of condenser;
Figure 7 is a section taken on line 1--|, Figure 6;
Figure 8 is a section similar to that of Figure 6 and shows another form of condenser;
Figure 9 showsa slight modification of the construction shown in Figure 1 and Figure 10 is a vertical section of a condenser involving a slight modification of that shown in Figure 2.
In the drawingsnumeral 5 designates an internal combustion motor having a carburetor 6 and a fuel pump 1. The fuel tank 8 is located at a lower level than the carburetor and fuel is conducted from the tank to the carburetor by the fuel pipe 9. A pipe It] connects the pump with the carburetor. At some suitable point in the fuel line, a condenser II is connected'in the manner shown in Figures 2', 6 and 8.
The fuel line is cut and the ends are connected by means 'of a T II, or |2a in Figure 2 The pipe I 0 has also been shown as formed in two parts 4 The vacuum tank connected by a T l2 and provided with a condenser When the engine operates the pump 1 is also operating for the purpose of transferring liquid fuel from the tank 8 to the carburetor. On the intake side of the pump the pressure in the line 9 is less than atmospheric, so that the air pressure on the fuel in tank 8 will produce a flow to the pump. If the gasoline is very hot, as it often becomes in summer, it vaporizes freely and the rate of vaporization is greater in the feed line 9 than in the tank, due to the decreased pressure thereiiL' It is evident that if line 9 fills with vapor the pump will be pumping vapor instead of gasoline, and since it is designed for pumping the liquid fuel, its capacity is too small to supply the engine with suflicient fuel to run, with the result that it will stop. This condition is called a vapor look.
When the fuel line is provided with a condenser like either of those shown in Figures 2, 6 or 8, the vapor will enter the condenser and be cooled whereupon it will be condensed and flow to the pump as a liquid, thereby enabling the pump to supply the necessary amount of fuel to the motor.
The condenser ll, connected with the delivery pipe I0, serves to smooth the pulsations due to the operation of the pump.
Since any pump operates by reducing the pressure in the feed line, it is possible to substitute for the mechanical pump shown in Figure 1, a vacuum tank l3, like that shown in Figre 5. The diagrammatic view shown in Figure 5 differs from that shown in Figure l in this, that instead of a mechanical pump a vacuum tank is employed, which is-the mechanical equivalent of a pump for the purpose of raising the gasoline or other liquid fuel.
I8 is connected with the in-'-- take manifold H by a tube l5 and a tube I0 connects the vacuum tank with the carburetor. In Figure 5, no condenser has been shown in the fuel line, but can be applied to it in the manner shown in Figure 1.
In climates where the temperature does not become excessive it is sometimes sufficient to provide the fuel line with a section l2a (Figure 4) provided with radiating fins which serve to dissipate any excessive amount of heat in the fuel and to condense any vapors that may form.
. It will beseen from Figures 2, 6 and 8 that the condensers II are all provided with radiating The condenser shown in Figure 8 is formed from a tubular cylindrical body member l8 and a cap i9 connected thereto by a press fit Joint. The condenser shown in Figure 6 has a tubular member l8 that is the same as that shown in Figure 8 but the cover or cap l9a differs from that employed in Figure 8 in this, that instead of being concave on its inner surface, it is provided with an inwardly projecting plug 20 that terminates in a conical end portion.
The condenser illustrated in Figure 2 comprises a hollow cylindrical member I8a having a section 2| at its upper end threaded. The diameter of the threaded section is somewhat greater than that of the opening beneath so as to provide a shoulder 22. 4
The top l9b is provided with a threaded extension 23 that cooperates with the threaded section 21, and its inner surface is spherically con-- cave.
A conical partition 24 has its base provided with a flange 25 that is clamped between the ,shoulder 22 and the end of the threaded extension 23. The partition has a number of small openings 26 and is provided at its apex with a large opening 21. The lower end of the cylindrical wall of member l8a terminates in a shoulder on which the screen 28 rests.
Instead of mounting the condenser II in the manner shown in Figure 1, it can be mounted on top of the pump 1 in the manner shown in Figure 9.
In Figure 10, a 'modified form of the construction illustrated in Figure 2 has been shown, in which the partition 24 has been reversed and instead of employing the screen 28, a pipe 28:]. extends upwardly from the opening in the bottom of the condenser, and terminates underneath the opening 21 in the partition 24. Pipe 28a is provided with a plurality of openings 30 through liquid through the opening 21.
The screen 28 prevents any solid matter from getting into the feed line during installation or when the top is removed, and functions to facilitate the cooling and condensing of the vapor by separating it and conducting heat units therefrom. The partition 24 divides the condensing chamber into a lower primary chamber and an upper secondary chamber and functions to retard the upward flow of vapor in the condenser and helps to cool and condense the vapor by separating it and conducting heat units therefrom to the exterior walls for radiation into the atmosphere.
Having described the invention, what is claimed as new is:
1. A heat radiator comprising an elongated substantially cylindrical body member having one end closed and the other open, the closed end having a hole for the reception of a pipe connection, theopen end having a threaded section of larger diameter, whereby a shoulder is formed, a perforated conical partition member having acircular flange resting on the shoulder, and a cap for closing the open end, the cap having a threaded section for engaging with the threaded section in the body member and for holding the partition in place, the body member and the cover having heat radiating fins.
2. A heat radiator and condenser comprising a chambered body member for use in a vertical position, the top being closed and the bottom provided with an opening, a perforated partition extending transversely of the chamber, dividing it into an upper and a lower compartment, and a pipe having its lower end positioned in the opening 'in the bottom, and its upper end terminating adjacent the partition, the pipe wall having a plurality of openings adjacent the bottom of the condenser.
3. A heat radiator and condenser comprising a chambered body member for use in a vertical position, the top being closed and the bottom provided with an opening, a conical perforated tex of the partition being at the top and per-. forated, and a pipe having its lower end in the opening in the bottom and its upper end terminating adjacent the partition, the wall of the pipe being provided with openings directly above the bottom of the condenser.
4. A heat radiator and condenser comprising a chambered body member for use in a vertical position, the top being closed and the bottom provided with an opening, and a pipe having its lower end positioned in the opening in the bottom and its upper end terminating in the upper portion of the chamber, the pipe wall having a plurality of openings adjacent the bottom of the condenser. a
5. In a liquid fuel supply system for internal combustion engines, in which there is a forced movement of a volatile fuel through a conduit from a supply tank to a carburetor, a chamber provided with heat-conductive walls positioned above the fuel stream in communicating relation to the conduit to receive volatiles rising therefrom, and heat-dissipating means on the exterior of the chamber to induce'condensation of volatiles within the chamber.
' 6. In a liquid fuel supply system for internal combustion engines, in which there is a forced movement of a volatile fuel through a sealed conduit from a supply tank to a carburetor, a closed chamber provided with heat-conductive walls positioned above the fuel stream in communicating' relation to the conduit to receive volatiles rising therefrom, and heat-dissipating means on the exterior of the chamber to induce condensation of volatiles within the chamber.
'7. In a liquid fuel supply system for internal combustion engines, in which there is a forced movement of a volatile fuel through a conduit from a supply tank to acarburetor, a condensation chamber provided with heat-conductive walls positioned above the conduit, a conductive connection between the chamber and the conduit to admit volatiles rising from the fuel stream into said chamber, and means cooperative with the chamber walls to dissipate heat from the trapped volatiles, whereby to induce condensation thereof and subsequent return to the fuel stream.
8. In a liquid fuel supply system for internal combustion engines, in which there is a forced movement of a volatile fuel through a conduit from a supply tank to a carburetor, a chamber provided with heat-conductive walls positioned above the fuel stream in communicating relatherefrom, a partition dividing the chamber into condensation and supply compartments, and
heat-dissipating means on the exterior of the chamber to induce condensation of volatiles within the chamber.' 1
9. In a liquid fuel supply system for internal combustion engines, in which volatile fuel is moved through a conduit from a supply tank to a pump, a chamber provided with heat-conductive walls positioned beyond the conduit between the tank and the pump in communicating relation to the conduit to receive volatiles rising therefrom, said volatiles being maintained in said chamber at substantially atmospheric pressure, and heatdissipating means on the exterior of the chamber to induce condensation of volatiles therein.
10. In a liquid fuel supply system for internal combustion engines, in which volatile fuel is moved through a conduit from a supply tank .to a-pump, a chamber provided with heat-conductive walls positioned beyond the conduit between the tank and the pump, a conductive connection between the chamber and the conduit to admit volatiles rising from the fuel stream into the chamber, said volatiles being maintained at substantially atmospheric pressure in said chamber, and heat-dissipating means on the exterior of the chamber to induce condensation of volatiles therein.
11. A device for preventing vapor lock in the fuel line of an internal combustion engine, comprising a hollow body of heat-conductive material adapted for connection with a fuel line at a side thereof to entrap and condense volatiles admitted therefrom, the body having an irregular exterior surface providing a relatively large superficial area facilitating transfer of heat units from the body.
12. A device for preventing vapor lock in the fuel line of an internal combustion engine, comprising a hollow body of heat conductive material adapted for connection with a fuel line at a side thereof to entrap and condense volatiles admitted therefrom, the body having heat-dissipating means on its exterior surface to facilitate transfer of heat units from the body, and a conical partition in the body dividing the same into condensation and supply compartments.
13. A device for preventing vapor lock in the fuel line of an internal combustion engine, comprising a hollow body of heat-conductive material adapted for connection with a fuel line at a side thereof to entrap and condense volatiles admitted therefrom, the body having heat-dissipating means on its exterior surface to facilitate transfer of heat units from the body, and a conical partition in the body dividing the same into condensation and supply compartments, there being a plurality of apertures in the partition for passage of matter therethrough in opposite directions.
14. A device for preventing vapor lock in the fuel line of an internal combustion engine, com- I prising a hollow body of heat-conductive material adapted for connection with a fuel line at a side thereof to entrap and condense volatiles admitted therefrom, the body having heat-dissipating means on its exterior surface to facilitate transfer of heat units from the body, and an apertured partition in the body dividing the same into condensation and supply compartmenm.
15. In a liquid fuel supply system for internal combustion engines, in which volatile fuel is moved through a conduit from a pump to a carburetor, a .chamber provided with heat-conductive walls positioned beyond the conduit between the pump and the carburetor in communicating relation to the conduit to receive volatiles rising therefrom, said volatiles being maintained in said chamber at substantiallyatmospheric pressure, and heat-dissipating means on the exterior of the chamber to induce condensation of volatiles therein. 1 16. In a liquid fuel supply system for internal combustion engines, in which volatile fuel is the pump and the carburetor in communicating relation to the conduit to receive volatiles rising therefrom, said volatiles being maintained in said chamber at substantially atmospheric pressure, heat-dissipating means on the exterior of the. chamber to induce condensation of volatiles therein, and means in the chamber in communl- 76 cation with the conduit for returning the condensed product to the conduit under the suction influence of the flow of fuel therethrough.
17. In a liquid fuel system for internal combustion engines, in which volatile fuel is moved through a conduit from a supply tanke to a pump, a chamber provided with heat-conductive walls positioned beyond the conduit between the tank and the pump in communicating relation to the conduit to receive volatiles rising therefrom, said volatiles being maintained in said chamber at substantially atmospheric pressure, heat-dissipating means on the exterior of the chamber to induce condensation; of volatiles therein, and means in the chamber in communication with the conduit for returning the condensed product to the conduit under the suction influence of the flow of fuel therethrough.
18. In a liquid fuel supply system for internal combustion engines, in which there is a forced movement of volatile fuel through a conductive element, a chamber provided with heat-conductive walls positioned above the element in com municating relation thereto to receive volatiles rising therefrom, said volatiles being maintained in said chamber at substantially atmospheric pressure, heat-dissipating means on the exterior of the chamber to induce condensation of volatiles therein, and means in the chamber in communication with the conductive element for returning the condensed product to the conduit under the suction influence of the flow of fuel therethrough.
ADOLPH V. MITTERER.
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Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2472622A (en) * 1944-12-09 1949-06-07 Cons Vultee Aircraft Corp Vapor recovery system for airplane fuel tanks
DE940499C (en) * 1953-10-23 1956-03-22 Adolph V Mitterer Device for condensing vaporous fuel components in fuel supply lines of internal combustion engines
US2773492A (en) * 1954-11-05 1956-12-11 Jr Emil Richard Klemm Fuel feed
US2834469A (en) * 1953-10-22 1958-05-13 Adolph V Mitterer Fuel condenser and strainer
US2915185A (en) * 1958-01-08 1959-12-01 Airtex Products Inc Air dome and magnetic filter to automotive fuel pump lines
US2963013A (en) * 1957-10-24 1960-12-06 Borg Warner Anti-vapor lock device
US3095012A (en) * 1957-08-13 1963-06-25 Westinghouse Electric Corp Pressure controlling system
US3164174A (en) * 1960-04-29 1965-01-05 Berthod Louis Thermal excess-pressure device
US3817273A (en) * 1970-05-22 1974-06-18 C Erwin Fuel system for diesel engines
US4069844A (en) * 1976-09-28 1978-01-24 Greer Hydraulics, Inc. Pressure dampener device
US4299704A (en) * 1980-05-19 1981-11-10 General Electric Company Method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated transformer dielectric liquid
US4353798A (en) * 1980-05-19 1982-10-12 General Electric Company Apparatus for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated transformer dielectric liquid
US4614527A (en) * 1984-05-23 1986-09-30 Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.M.B.H. Degasifier
US4809666A (en) * 1986-01-21 1989-03-07 Outboard Marine Corporation Fuel feed system
US5137002A (en) * 1988-04-11 1992-08-11 Outboard Marine Corporation Vapor separator
US5535724A (en) * 1995-08-23 1996-07-16 Davco Manufacturing L.L.C. Fuel pulsation dampener
WO1998055790A1 (en) * 1997-06-06 1998-12-10 Powermass Corporation Reduction of heat transfer between a body and its environment
US7055654B2 (en) * 2001-09-05 2006-06-06 Gasseling John B Oil filter cooler

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2472622A (en) * 1944-12-09 1949-06-07 Cons Vultee Aircraft Corp Vapor recovery system for airplane fuel tanks
US2834469A (en) * 1953-10-22 1958-05-13 Adolph V Mitterer Fuel condenser and strainer
DE940499C (en) * 1953-10-23 1956-03-22 Adolph V Mitterer Device for condensing vaporous fuel components in fuel supply lines of internal combustion engines
US2773492A (en) * 1954-11-05 1956-12-11 Jr Emil Richard Klemm Fuel feed
US3095012A (en) * 1957-08-13 1963-06-25 Westinghouse Electric Corp Pressure controlling system
US2963013A (en) * 1957-10-24 1960-12-06 Borg Warner Anti-vapor lock device
US2915185A (en) * 1958-01-08 1959-12-01 Airtex Products Inc Air dome and magnetic filter to automotive fuel pump lines
US3164174A (en) * 1960-04-29 1965-01-05 Berthod Louis Thermal excess-pressure device
US3817273A (en) * 1970-05-22 1974-06-18 C Erwin Fuel system for diesel engines
US4069844A (en) * 1976-09-28 1978-01-24 Greer Hydraulics, Inc. Pressure dampener device
US4299704A (en) * 1980-05-19 1981-11-10 General Electric Company Method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated transformer dielectric liquid
US4353798A (en) * 1980-05-19 1982-10-12 General Electric Company Apparatus for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated transformer dielectric liquid
US4614527A (en) * 1984-05-23 1986-09-30 Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.M.B.H. Degasifier
US4809666A (en) * 1986-01-21 1989-03-07 Outboard Marine Corporation Fuel feed system
US5137002A (en) * 1988-04-11 1992-08-11 Outboard Marine Corporation Vapor separator
US5535724A (en) * 1995-08-23 1996-07-16 Davco Manufacturing L.L.C. Fuel pulsation dampener
WO1998055790A1 (en) * 1997-06-06 1998-12-10 Powermass Corporation Reduction of heat transfer between a body and its environment
US7055654B2 (en) * 2001-09-05 2006-06-06 Gasseling John B Oil filter cooler

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