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Drilling fluid for combating heaving shale

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Publication number
US2191312A
US2191312A US16449537A US2191312A US 2191312 A US2191312 A US 2191312A US 16449537 A US16449537 A US 16449537A US 2191312 A US2191312 A US 2191312A
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Prior art keywords
drilling
mud
shale
water
addition
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Expired - Lifetime
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George E Cannon
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Standard Oil Development Co
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Standard Oil Development Co
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K8/00Compositions for drilling of boreholes or wells; Compositions for treating boreholes or wells, e.g. for completion or for remedial operations
    • C09K8/02Well-drilling compositions
    • C09K8/04Aqueous well-drilling compositions
    • C09K8/14Clay-containing compositions
    • C09K8/18Clay-containing compositions characterised by the organic compounds
    • C09K8/20Natural organic compounds or derivatives thereof, e.g. polysaccharides or lignin derivatives
    • C09K8/206Derivatives of other natural products, e.g. cellulose, starch, sugars

Description

ossiea DRILLING FLUID FOR COMBATING HEAG SHALE George E. Cannon, Houston, Tex, assignor to Standard Oil Development Company, a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Application September 18, 1937, Serial No. 164,495

6 Claims. (Cl. 255-1) This invention relates to a drilling fiuid which It is to be understood that it is not possible will efiect a minimum of disintegration of heavto fix absolute limits upon the amount of the ing shale. addition agent to be employed. The most efiec- In the rotary drilling of oil and gas wells 2. tive amount must usually be determined by ex- 5 mud fluid is pumped down the drill stem to the perimentation, that is, by obtaining a sample of drill at the working face in the bottom of the heaving shale through which the drilling is to bore. The stream of mud fluid passes across the be done and observing its rate and degree of disworking face of the drill and escapes upward integration by the action of water containing through the bore. In some areas, notably the various concentrations of the addition agent.

Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisiana, a formation In some cases it may be found that less than known as heaving shale must be penetrated in the minimum proportion of addition agent given certain wells. It is difiicult and often impossible above will be sufilcient. In extreme cases it may to penetrate this formation by ordinary rotary be necessary to add as much as 75% or 80%, by drilling methods and mud fluids. This shale has weight, of the addition agent.

a tendency to move into the hole filling up the In carrying out the preferred embodiment of 15 hole already drilled, and often sticking the drillthe present invention a well is drilled through ing tools. It is believed that the cause of this the ordinary earth formations using the conaction is due to the hydration of the shale parventional aqueous mud of suitable weight, which ticles by the water contained in ordinary drilling may be from 8-18 lbs. per gallon. When the $0 muds. A heaving shale may be defined as one drill approaches a sub-stratum composed of which in contact with the ordinary drilling mud heaving shale, a polyhydroxy organic compound swells or disintegrates spontaneously so much as of the type described above is added in the preto interfere with the drilling operation. scribed proportions and the drilling is continued In accordance with the present invention, the through the heaving shale. In some cases it may disintegration of a heaving shale is prevented be desired to make up a special mud for the heav- 25 by the addition to an ordinary drilling mud of ing shale instead of merely adding the polyhyvarying amounts of a water soluble, polyhydroxy droxy compound to the mud at hand. alcohol or saccharose, preferably one which con- The addition agents employed according to talns three or more hydroxyl. groups. By ordinary the present invention are not electrolytes and,

39 drilling mud is meant the usual drilling mud used consequently, do notcorrode the drilling equip- Q0 in rotary drilling which is comprised usually of ment. By virtue of the plurality of hydroxyl clays encountered during the drilling operation, groups contained in these agents they aid in mixed with water. The drilling mud may conmaintaining the clay and weighting material in tain weighting materials or colloidal addition suspension in the water. Moreover, these addimaterials. tion agents increase the viscosity of the drilling Among the organic addition agents which may mud as well as its density, and, thereby, reduce be employed are the glycols, glycerol, sor'bitol, losses of the drilling fluid into sub-surface erythrltol, sucrose, starch and dextrin. Of formations. these, glycerol is preferred. The organic com- The nature and objects of the present inven- 40 pound used need not be pure. When it occurs tion having been thus described what is claimed 49 in nature, such as in vegetable matter, an extract as new and useful and is desired to be secured of the vegetable matter containing it is suitable. by L tt r P t nt, 1

The addition agent should be used in an 1. A drilling fluid comprising a suspension of amount of at least by weight. of the mud clay in a mixture of water and glycerol. a d. p rably, 40% or more. In the case of liq- 2. A drilling mud comprising a suspension of 45 uid addition a en s. h amount o be added may clay in water containing at least 20%, by weight, be expressed volumetrlcally as at least 15% and, of glycerol.

preferably, 30% or more. In the case of glycerol, 3. A drilling fluid comprising a suspension of excellent results have been obtained by using clay in water containing more than by 50 muds containing 40-60, by volume, of glycerol v lume, of glycerol. 5:0 with respect to the water present. 4. A drilling fluid, according to claim 1, con

The action of these polyhydroxy addition taining caustic soda. agents is improved by the simultaneous addition 5. A drilling fluid comprising a suspension of of caustic soda. Enough caustic soda to make a clay' in a 5% solution of caustic soda containing 5% solution with the water present in the mud glycerol. imparts a noticeable improvement. Disintegra- 6. A drilling fluid comprising a suspension of tion of heaving shale has been wholly avoided clay in a 10% water solution oi caustic soda by the use of a mixture containing 40%, by containing more than 40%, by volume, of

volume, of glycerol and of a 10% water soluglycerol. so tion of caustic soda.

GEGRGE E CAIW QE-E. Q9

US2191312A 1937-09-18 1937-09-18 Drilling fluid for combating heaving shale Expired - Lifetime US2191312A (en)

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Cited By (33)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2474329A (en) * 1948-01-13 1949-06-28 Standard Oil Dev Co Drilling fluid for heaving shale
US2474330A (en) * 1948-01-30 1949-06-28 Standard Oil Dev Co Aqueous base drilling fluid for heaving shale
US2483936A (en) * 1947-11-18 1949-10-04 Phillips Petroleum Co Drilling fluid
US2485231A (en) * 1947-11-15 1949-10-18 Pure Oil Co Drilling wells through formations which produce gas containing large amounts of hydrogen sulfide
US2604447A (en) * 1948-07-29 1952-07-22 Nat Lead Co Aqueous well-drilling fluids
US4780220A (en) * 1987-05-26 1988-10-25 Hydra Fluids, Inc. Drilling and completion fluid
US4830765A (en) * 1987-12-04 1989-05-16 Baker Hughes Incorporated Modified non-polluting liquid phase shale swelling inhibition drilling fluid and method of using same
US4941981A (en) * 1987-12-04 1990-07-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated Modified non-polluting liquid phase shale swelling inhibition drilling fluid
US4963273A (en) * 1987-12-04 1990-10-16 Baker Hughes Incorporated Modified non-polluting liquid phase shale swelling inhibition drilling fluid and method of using same
US5076373A (en) * 1990-03-30 1991-12-31 Shell Oil Company Drilling fluids
US5076364A (en) * 1990-03-30 1991-12-31 Shell Oil Company Gas hydrate inhibition
GB2245579A (en) * 1990-05-29 1992-01-08 Baker Hughes Inc Drilling fluid additive
US5083622A (en) * 1988-03-14 1992-01-28 Shell Oil Company Method for drilling wells
US5110484A (en) * 1990-05-29 1992-05-05 Baker Hughes Incorporated Drilling fluid with stabilized browning reaction anionic carbohydrate
US5198416A (en) * 1988-09-30 1993-03-30 Shell Oil Company Alcohol-in-oil drilling fluid system comprising polycyclic polyetherpolyol
US5198415A (en) * 1991-01-15 1993-03-30 Exxon Production Research Company Nontoxic, nonchloride, water-base, inhibitive fluid to stabilize water sensitive shale
US5248665A (en) * 1988-03-14 1993-09-28 Shell Oil Company Drilling fluids comprising polycyclic polyether polyol
US5260269A (en) * 1989-10-12 1993-11-09 Shell Oil Company Method of drilling with shale stabilizing mud system comprising polycyclicpolyetherpolyol
US5337824A (en) * 1993-06-28 1994-08-16 Shell Oil Company Coal slag universal fluid
US5358044A (en) * 1993-05-27 1994-10-25 Shell Oil Company Drilling and cementing with blast furnace slag/soluble/insoluble alcohol
US5361841A (en) * 1993-05-27 1994-11-08 Shell Oil Company Drilling and cementing with blast furnace slag/polyalcohol fluid
US5361842A (en) * 1993-05-27 1994-11-08 Shell Oil Company Drilling and cementing with blast furnace slag/silicate fluid
US5363918A (en) * 1993-08-04 1994-11-15 Shell Oil Company Wellbore sealing with unsaturated monomer system
US5436227A (en) * 1993-05-27 1995-07-25 Shell Oil Company Soluble/insoluble alcohol in drilling fluid
US5439056A (en) * 1993-06-28 1995-08-08 Shell Oil Company Coal slag solidification of drilling fluid
US5484020A (en) * 1994-04-25 1996-01-16 Shell Oil Company Remedial wellbore sealing with unsaturated monomer system
US5635458A (en) * 1995-03-01 1997-06-03 M-I Drilling Fluids, L.L.C. Water-based drilling fluids for reduction of water adsorption and hydration of argillaceous rocks
US6267812B1 (en) * 1998-04-17 2001-07-31 Roquette Freres Lestrem Aqueous dispersion of pigment(s) and/or filler(s) containing a particular saccharide composition
US20040124013A1 (en) * 2002-08-28 2004-07-01 Grain Processing Corporation Drilling fluid, apparatus, and method
US20090131287A1 (en) * 2007-11-16 2009-05-21 Smith Kevin W Inhibiting hydration of shale using a polyol and potassium formate
US20090143254A1 (en) * 2007-11-27 2009-06-04 Daniel Guy Pomerleau Glycerol Based Drilling Fluids
US20120128424A1 (en) * 2010-11-24 2012-05-24 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods for disposing of produced water recovered during hydrocarbon drilling, production or related operations
US9731897B2 (en) 2014-10-10 2017-08-15 Red Leaf Resources, Inc. Gas containment system

Cited By (40)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2485231A (en) * 1947-11-15 1949-10-18 Pure Oil Co Drilling wells through formations which produce gas containing large amounts of hydrogen sulfide
US2483936A (en) * 1947-11-18 1949-10-04 Phillips Petroleum Co Drilling fluid
US2474329A (en) * 1948-01-13 1949-06-28 Standard Oil Dev Co Drilling fluid for heaving shale
US2474330A (en) * 1948-01-30 1949-06-28 Standard Oil Dev Co Aqueous base drilling fluid for heaving shale
US2604447A (en) * 1948-07-29 1952-07-22 Nat Lead Co Aqueous well-drilling fluids
US4780220A (en) * 1987-05-26 1988-10-25 Hydra Fluids, Inc. Drilling and completion fluid
EP0293191A2 (en) * 1987-05-26 1988-11-30 Hydra Fluids, Inc. Drilling and completion fluid
EP0293191A3 (en) * 1987-05-26 1990-01-24 Hydra Fluids, Inc. Drilling and completion fluid
US4830765A (en) * 1987-12-04 1989-05-16 Baker Hughes Incorporated Modified non-polluting liquid phase shale swelling inhibition drilling fluid and method of using same
US4941981A (en) * 1987-12-04 1990-07-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated Modified non-polluting liquid phase shale swelling inhibition drilling fluid
US4963273A (en) * 1987-12-04 1990-10-16 Baker Hughes Incorporated Modified non-polluting liquid phase shale swelling inhibition drilling fluid and method of using same
US5083622A (en) * 1988-03-14 1992-01-28 Shell Oil Company Method for drilling wells
US5248665A (en) * 1988-03-14 1993-09-28 Shell Oil Company Drilling fluids comprising polycyclic polyether polyol
US5198416A (en) * 1988-09-30 1993-03-30 Shell Oil Company Alcohol-in-oil drilling fluid system comprising polycyclic polyetherpolyol
US5260269A (en) * 1989-10-12 1993-11-09 Shell Oil Company Method of drilling with shale stabilizing mud system comprising polycyclicpolyetherpolyol
US5076364A (en) * 1990-03-30 1991-12-31 Shell Oil Company Gas hydrate inhibition
US5076373A (en) * 1990-03-30 1991-12-31 Shell Oil Company Drilling fluids
GB2245579B (en) * 1990-05-29 1994-07-13 Baker Hughes Inc Drilling fluid
US5110484A (en) * 1990-05-29 1992-05-05 Baker Hughes Incorporated Drilling fluid with stabilized browning reaction anionic carbohydrate
GB2245579A (en) * 1990-05-29 1992-01-08 Baker Hughes Inc Drilling fluid additive
US5106517A (en) * 1990-05-29 1992-04-21 Baker Hughes Incorporated Drilling fluid with browning reaction anionic carbohydrate
US5198415A (en) * 1991-01-15 1993-03-30 Exxon Production Research Company Nontoxic, nonchloride, water-base, inhibitive fluid to stabilize water sensitive shale
US5361842A (en) * 1993-05-27 1994-11-08 Shell Oil Company Drilling and cementing with blast furnace slag/silicate fluid
US5358044A (en) * 1993-05-27 1994-10-25 Shell Oil Company Drilling and cementing with blast furnace slag/soluble/insoluble alcohol
US5361841A (en) * 1993-05-27 1994-11-08 Shell Oil Company Drilling and cementing with blast furnace slag/polyalcohol fluid
US5436227A (en) * 1993-05-27 1995-07-25 Shell Oil Company Soluble/insoluble alcohol in drilling fluid
US5337824A (en) * 1993-06-28 1994-08-16 Shell Oil Company Coal slag universal fluid
US5439056A (en) * 1993-06-28 1995-08-08 Shell Oil Company Coal slag solidification of drilling fluid
US5363918A (en) * 1993-08-04 1994-11-15 Shell Oil Company Wellbore sealing with unsaturated monomer system
US5484020A (en) * 1994-04-25 1996-01-16 Shell Oil Company Remedial wellbore sealing with unsaturated monomer system
US5635458A (en) * 1995-03-01 1997-06-03 M-I Drilling Fluids, L.L.C. Water-based drilling fluids for reduction of water adsorption and hydration of argillaceous rocks
US6267812B1 (en) * 1998-04-17 2001-07-31 Roquette Freres Lestrem Aqueous dispersion of pigment(s) and/or filler(s) containing a particular saccharide composition
US20040124013A1 (en) * 2002-08-28 2004-07-01 Grain Processing Corporation Drilling fluid, apparatus, and method
US20090131287A1 (en) * 2007-11-16 2009-05-21 Smith Kevin W Inhibiting hydration of shale using a polyol and potassium formate
US20090143254A1 (en) * 2007-11-27 2009-06-04 Daniel Guy Pomerleau Glycerol Based Drilling Fluids
US8071509B2 (en) * 2007-11-27 2011-12-06 Engineered Drilling Solutions Inc. Glycerol based drilling fluids
US8969260B2 (en) 2007-11-27 2015-03-03 Hitech Fluid Systems Ltd. Glycerol based drilling fluids
US20120128424A1 (en) * 2010-11-24 2012-05-24 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods for disposing of produced water recovered during hydrocarbon drilling, production or related operations
US8608405B2 (en) * 2010-11-24 2013-12-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods for disposing of produced water recovered during hydrocarbon drilling, production or related operations
US9731897B2 (en) 2014-10-10 2017-08-15 Red Leaf Resources, Inc. Gas containment system

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