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US2134774A - Engine cooling means - Google Patents

Engine cooling means Download PDF

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Publication number
US2134774A
US2134774A US2687835A US2134774A US 2134774 A US2134774 A US 2134774A US 2687835 A US2687835 A US 2687835A US 2134774 A US2134774 A US 2134774A
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engine
air
cowl
cooling
portion
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Rex B Beisel
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United Technologies Corp
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United Technologies Corp
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64DEQUIPMENT FOR FITTING IN OR TO AIRCRAFT; FLYING SUITS; PARACHUTES; ARRANGEMENTS OR MOUNTING OF POWER PLANTS OR PROPULSION TRANSMISSIONS IN AIRCRAFT
    • B64D33/00Arrangements in aircraft of power plant parts or auxiliaries not otherwise provided for
    • B64D33/08Arrangements in aircraft of power plant parts or auxiliaries not otherwise provided for of power plant cooling systems

Description

Nov. 1, 1938. R. B. BEIISEL 2,134,774

ENGINE COOL ING MEANS Filed June 15, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet l IN VEN TOR. B EBXB.BEJI5'E[ A TTORNEY Nov. 1, 1938. R. B. BEISEL ENGINE COOLING MEANS Filed June 15, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR. EEZH B5 153] B m 9 M A TTORNEY Patented Nov. 1, 1938 PATENT orr cs ENGINE COOLING MEANS Rex B. Beisel, West Hartford, Conn, assignor to United Aircraft Corporation, East 1 Hartford, Conn., acorporation of Delaware Application June 15, 1935, Serial No. 26,878

' 13 Claims. (01. 123-171) This invention relates to engine cooling means and has particular reference to the cooling of an engine mounted upon an airplane.

One object of the invention resides in the provision of an improved streamlined cowling for an internal combustion engine together with means for improving the circulation of air past the cooling surfaces of the engine within said cowling.

A further object resides in the provision of a simplified and at the same time an effective cooling arrangement for both the cylinders andthe accessories of an air cooled airplane engine.

Other objects and advantages will appear as the description proceeds.

The accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals refer to similar parts throughout illustrate a suitable mechanical embodiment of what is now considered to be the preferred form of the invention, the drawings, however, are for the purpose of illustration only and are not to be considered as limiting the invention the scope of which is to be measured entirely by the scope of the appended claims.

In the drawings, Fig. 1 is a side elevationalv view of an airplane showing an improved cowl and engine cooling device constructed according to the idea of this invention applied thereto. Fig. 2 is a sectional view on an enlarged scale of the cowl and cooling means illustrated in Fig. 1,

i the engine being shown schematically in perspective. Fig. 3 is a sectional view on an enlarged scale showing in detail the device illustrated in Fig. 2 for securing the nose piece of the cowl to the engine. Fig. 4- is a front elevation of a fragmentary portion of the engine and cowl shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 5 is a side elevational view on a somewhat enlarged scale of the connection between the carburetor air intake and the hot and cold air ducts particularly illustrated in Fig. 2, portions being broken away to better illustrate the construction thereof.

Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 5 illustrating in somewhat diagrammatic form the arrangement in plan view of the hot and cold air ducts leading to the carburetor air intake, and Fig. 7 is a sectional view on an enlarged scale showing in detail the manner of connecting the flap supporting ring illustrated to in Fig. 2 to the members of the engine carrying frame illustrated in the same figure.

Referring to the drawings in detail, numeralplane. While the drawings illustrate a single engine airplane having the engine mounted upon the front end of the fuselage. it is to be understood that the invention is not llmitedto such an airplane but that the engine may be mounted 5 upon the fuselage or the wing or upon any other suitable support on the airplane and that either one or aplurality of engines may be used on the same airplane without exceeding the scope of the invention. The engine I2 drives a propeller 10 M which provides the necessary tractive force for the propulsion of the airplane and at the same time directs a blast of air known as the propeller slip stream rearwardly over the engine. Additional air is induced to pass over the engine 15 by the forward movement or flight of the airplane and this air together with the propeller slip stream passes over the cooling surfaces of the engine and its accessoriesand carries away the excess heat developed by the engine during 20 power operation. In order to reduce the drag or resistance of the engine and the fuselage to passage through the air the engine is surrounded by a streamlined cowl I6 of circular or annular cross section which 25 extends from a location adjacentto theforward end of the engine to a location adjacent to the forward end of the fuselage l0 which forward end of the fuselage is designated as the fire wall for the reason that it comprises a fireproofpar- 30 tition [8 which divides the engine compartment of the airplane from the passenger compartment. The engine is supported upon an engine carrying frame 20 which is detachably secured to the forward end of the fuselage frame 22 to provide a 35 rigid mounting for the engine upon the forward end of the airplane fuselage. The engine, schematically illustrated in Fig. 2, is of the two-row radial type having a substantially circular crankcase 24 and two banks of radially disposed cylin- 4o ders 26 attached to the crankcase extending outwardly thereon. Each of the cylinders is preferably provided with valves and valveoperating mechanism and intake and exhaust ports and with finned cooling surfaces in the conventional 45 manner, however, as these details do not form a part of the present invention, 'they have been omitted from the schematic illustration of the engine in order to simplify the illustration.

As stated above the streamlined cowl l6 exo,

tends from adjacent the forward end of the engine to a location adjacent to the fire wall of the airplane thus enclosing the entire engine and its supporting frame and accessories. This cowl is preferably formed in a plurality of separate parts comprising a nose section 28, intermediate panels 30, and a series of cowl trailing edge flaps 32. The nose piece 28 is formed as a continuous annular ring and is secured to the engine by a plurality of fastening devices each comprising a pair of parallel plates or fins 34 welded or otherwise suitably secured tothe interior of the annular ring and lying in a radial plane. At their rearward ends each pair of fins 34 carry a block 35 having an apertured bearing member or car 36 which lies between two apertured cars 31 formed on a bracket 36 secured to a suitable projecting portion of the engine such as the forward side of one of the engine valve rocker boxes 40. A bearing pin 42 extends through the apertured ears 36 and 31 of each fastening device to secure these members together. A plurality of these fastening devices as illustrated in Fig. 4 are disposed in substantially equally spaced relation surrounding the circumference of the nose piece and attached to the engine cylinders or rockerboxes in such a manner as to provide connections lying in different radial planes. In each one of the attaching devices the ear 36 is made less than the distance between the inner surfaces of the ears 31 on the bracket 38 to provide a small amount of lost motion in the connection so that as the engine cylinders expand upon heating, each bracket may move outwardly with respect to its associated fins in order that the engine may expand without distorting the nose piece of the cowl. As the attaching devices lie in different radial planes there is no tendency for the nose piece to move relative to the engine because of the clearance allowed in the connections.

-At the rearward edge of the nose piece 28 a channel shaped ring 44 is secured to the inner surface of the nose piece in such a position that it lies partly rearwardly of the trailing edge of the nose piece. Rearwardly of the engine a complementary ring 46 is secured to the engine supporting frame 20 by means of a suitable web construction 48 preferably consisting of metal tubes 49 welded at one end to the members of the engine supporting frame 20 and extending outwardly to the ring, the outer ends of the tubes being welded to metal pads 50 in the form of elongated plates or strips which are in turn secured to the interior of the ring 46 by suitable means such as the rivets 52 as particularly illustrated in Fig. 7. for any reason to make the ring 46 readily detachable from the airplane detachable connecting means such as belts or screws may be substituted for the rivets 52.

From the construction so far described, it will be observed that the rings 44 and 46 provide rigid and convenient annular mounting seats at the forward and rearward ends respectively of the engine. Between the rings 44 and 46 the engine is enclosed by the intermediate portion of the cowling, this intermediate portion being made up of four separate longitudinal panels 30 each of which may be detached without disturbing the others in order to provide quick and convenient access to the engine.

In order to facilitate the cooling of the engine a system of pressure bafiles 56 is provided extending between the various engine cylinders to restrict the fiow of air through the engine to areas closely adjacent to the cooling surfaces, the baffles being extended outwardly to the interior surface of the cowl as indicated at 54 in Fig. 2. This construction provides a cooling system known In case, however, it is desired.

as the pressure baflle system particularly described in application Serial No. 705,094 of Rex B. Beisel, and Albert MacClain, for Air regulating means, filed January 3, 1934. In accordance with the principles of this method of cooling, the air ahead of the pressure baffles 56 is maintained at a static pressure having a higher value than the air at the rear of such pressure baffles to increase the speed of the air stream flowing past the cooling surfaces of the engine to thereby more effectively remove the excess heat from the engine. Such a system of cooling, however, places the accessories mounted upon the rear section of the engine in an atmophere in which the air pressure is relatively low and the temperature relatively high and which does not readily absorb the heat from these accessories. It has previously been the practice to cover the rear section of the engine and all of the accessories in a cowl, known as a wrapper cowl and in necessary cases to provide air vents for ventilating the interior of this wrapper cowl to carry away the excess heat of the engine accessories. In the present arrangement, however, it has been found that this wrapper cowl may be entirely eliminated, thus considerably reducing the weight of the power plant and at the same time rendering the engine accessories much more easily accessible to inspection and repair as, in the present device, these accessories may be exposed by simply removing one of the panels 30 of the intermediate section of the outer cowl without the necessity of removing any portion of an inner or wrapper cowl. However, as it may still be necessary in some cases to provide additional cooling for the engine accessories, my improved cowl is provided with a ventilating means in the form of a box-like channel 56 secured to the inner side of one of the panels of the intermediate portion of the cowl and having an opening 60 forward of the pressure baffles 56 so that air from the high pressure area in front of the pressure baffles may flow into this channel and be directed by suitable means, suchas the tube 62, to those engine accessories, such as the magneto 64 which may require additional cooling. While only one such air conducting channel is illustrated, it is to be understood that if desired additional air conducting channels may be provided. The drawings also illustrate a similar air conducting channel 65 provided on the lower panel of the intermediate section of the cowl leading from the forward side of the pressure bafiles -56 to the air intake 66 of the carburetor 68. Besides providing convenient air passages for carrying necessary quantities of air from the forward side to the rearward side of the pressure bafiles, these box channel structures serve to stiffen the panels of the intermediate portion of the cowl and thus render these panels rigid and durable without the addition of the unnecessary weight.

When the inner or wrapper cowl mentioned above is used it is placed at its forward end within the exhaust collector rings 10 to direct the air heated by the exhaust gases away from the engine accessories. Without this inner or wrapper cowl it has been found desirable to enclose the exhaust collector rings in a shroud or muff 12 to prevent the exhaust gases from raising the temperature of the air surrounding the engine accessories to an undesirably high value. Each muff or shroud T2 besides enclosing the collector ring itself is provided with extensions 14 which enclose the major portions of exhaust stacks 16. All of the extensions 14 terminate in a plane immediately rearwardly of the pressure bafiles 56 so that the cooling air flowing between the pressure baliles and the engine cylinders is blown into the open ends of the extension [4 creating an air stream between the extensions and the exhaust stacks I6 and the shrouds 12 and the exhaust collector rings 10 to continuously remove the heat radiated by the exhaust stacks and collector rings. Each shroud I2 is provided at its lower end with a duct 18 leading to openings 19 in the air duct 65 adjacent to the air intake 66 of the carburetor 68 and to a second opening 80 venting to the atmospherc, the two openings being controlled by a pivoted triangular valve 82 so that the heated air flowing through the exhaust shroud 12 may be utilized to furnish additional warm air to the carburetor air intake when this is desirable or may be vented to the atmosphere along with the exhaust gases. The main function of the exhaust shroud, however, is to remove the exhaust heated air from the interior of the cowl to thereby facilitate the cooling of the accessories mounted upon the rear section of the engine. A spring closed door 8! is positioned over the opening 86 and through the opening 80 to the atmosphere.

moved to open position by a tongue 83 when the valve 82 is moved to vent the exhaust heated air outside of the cowl.

The valve 82 has a shape substantially resembling the diagonal half of an oblong box structure and has a complete top wall and a side wall adjacent to the carburetor air inlet 65 and has diagonal end walls. As shown in Fig. 6, this valve structure extends entirely across the carburetor air inlet opening from one shroud opening 18 to the other. When in the full line position illustrated in Fig. 5, the valve is so positioned that its top wall extends across the tops of the two shroud openings I9 and its side wall extends across the vertical sides of the shroud openings adjacent to the carburetor air intake. The diagonal end walls cover a portion of the shroud opening but leave a portion, substantially one-half, of such shroud openings uncovered. When in the full line position shown in Fig. 5, air from the shrouds flows to the interior of the box-shaped valve member and from this valve member downwardly The openings 19 are never closed since it is necessary to maintain at least a portion of these openings uncovered to permit air to circulate. through the shroud member to cool the exhaust stacks and collector ring, but when positioned as illustrated in full lines in Fig. 5, the valve member functions to divert the hot air from the shroud to the atmosphere through the opening instead of intothe carburetor air intake, the carburetor air in this case being drawn through the air inlet opening 65 into the carburetor intake 66. When the valve is in the dotted line position illustrated in Fig. 5, the openings 19 are completely uncovered and the passage from the carburetor air inlet 65 to the air intake 66 is substantially closed by the top and side wall members of the valve. When the valve is moved to the dotted line position by suitable means such as the manually operable,

push and pull cable 85, the flap BI is closed so that the hot air will pass from the shrouds through the opening 19 directly into the carbu retor air intake 66.

The ring 46 carries at its rear edge a series of trailing edge flaps 32, the flaps being hinged at their forward ends to the rear edge of the ring by hinges as indicated at 84 and extend from the ring 46 to the plane of the fire wall l8. From an inspection of Fig. 2 it will be observed that this improved engine cooling construction provides an unobstructed gill opening between the fire wall l8 and the ring 46 so that the air flowing through the cowl may be easily and rapidly vented from the interior thereof without encountering the re sistance oifered by an internal cowl shoulder, and that, as the area within this gill opening is not obstructed by an inner or wrapper cowl, the air stream is not divided but air blowing from any part of the engine may be vented from any portion of the gill opening. Each of the flaps 32 preferably comprises a substantially rectangular sheet metal member having secured to the underside thereof a box-like reinforcing member 86 also formed of sheet metal, to render the flap rigid against twisting and bending forces induced by the air pressure on the flaps when they are in the extended position as indicated by the dotted lines at the bottom of Fig. 2.

Suitable means are provided for extending and retracting the flaps in order to vary the gill opening between the ring 36 and the fire wall l8 such suitable'fiap operating means being illustrated and described in detail in application Serial No. 26,631, filed June 14, 1935 by James M. Shoemaker, for Engine cooling means for internal combustion engines. Such a flap operating mechanism may comprise a plurality of units in which each unit consists of a substantially triangular lever member 88 hinged at its base to the ring 46 by two widely separated hinges and connected at its free end to each of two adjoining flaps 32 by means of pivoted link members 96 so that movement transmitted to one flap or hinged lever member will be transmitted through the pivoted links and the hinged lever members'to all of the other flaps in the series. The flaps are also preferably overlapped at their adjacent edges to avoid gaps between adjacent flaps when extended and, in some cases, assist the lever members and links in maintaining the flaps in alignment so that all of the flaps will move consecutively and to the same degree of movement when a moving force is applied to one of the flaps. A manually operable device such as the screw shaft 92 and screw threaded stud 94 may be applied to one of the hinged lever members 88 so that manual rotation of the shaft 92 will move the stud 94 to extend or retract the flaps.

When the flaps are extended as indicated in dotted lines at the bottom of Fig. 2 air flowing past the cowling creates a low pressure area between the free ends of the flaps and the fire wall l8, thus creating a partial vacuum in the interior portion of the cowl rearward of the pressure baffles 56 thereby increasing the pressure differential upon the opposite sides of the pressure bafiles and increasing the speed of the cooling air streams flowing between the pressure baflles and the cooling surfaces of the engine. The present invention materially increases this cooling effect by increasing the facility with which the air is vented or exhausted from the interior portion of the cowl rearward of the pressure baffles.

From the above description it will be observed that the improved engine cooling means herein illustrated and described provides a construction in which the nose section of the cowl is rigidly attached to the engine, the intermediate portion of the cowl is divided into four panels each of which is readily separately detachable and in which the trailing edge flaps, forming an integral part of the improved cooling system, are hinged to a ring which is rigidly secured to a fixed portion of the airplane and does not depend upon any portion of the cowl for its support, and that the construction further provides improved cooling of the engine by eliminating the inner or wrapper cowl or the engine accessories and provides the exhaust collector ring with a shroud for venting the heat radiated by the exhaust gases directly to the exterior of the cowl.

While a particular mechanical embodiment of the idea of my invention is illustrated and described herein, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the particular embodiment so illustrated and described, but that such changes in the size, shape and arrangement of parts may be resorted to as come within the scope of, the sub-joined claims.

Having now described the invention so that others skilled in the art may clearly understand the same, what it is desired to secure by Letters Patent is as follows:

What I claim is:

1. In a vehicle having a fuselage, an engine compartment, and an engine in said engine compartment, cooling means for said engine comprising, an open ended cowl surrounding said engine and having its trailing edge spaced from the forward edge of said fuselage to form a gill opening for the exit of engine cooling air, a fuselage carried support for the trailing edge of said cowl, a series of flaps hinged to said support and extending across said gill opening adjustable to control the amount of engine cooling air vented through said gill opening, and manually actuatable means for adjusting said fiaps.

2. In a vehicle having a fuselage provided at its front end with a fire wall, an engine compartment forward of said fire wall, an open ended cowl surrounding said engine compartment and having its trailing edge spaced from said fire wall to provide a gill opening for the exit of. engine cooling air, a support at the trailing edge of said cowl, a series of adjustable flaps hinged to said support and extending to said fire wall to control the extent of said gill opening, and means for adjusting said flaps.

3i In a vehicle, an engine compartment, a fire wall atthe rear of said engine compartment, an open ended cowl surrounding said engine compartment and having its trailing edge spaced from said fire wall to provide a gill opening for the exit of engine cooling air, a support at the trailing edge of said cowl, a series of adjustable flaps hinged to said support and extending across said gill opening to said fire wall, and means for adjusting said flaps.

4. In a vehicle, an engine compartment, an engine in said compartment, a plurality of. air baflles mounted on said engine and forming with said engine an air pressure partition dividing said engine compartment into a forward portion of relatively high air pressure and a rear portion of relatively low air pressure, engine accessories exposed to the relatively low pressure air in said rear portion, an exhaust collector ring in said rear portion, and a shroud for said exhaust collector ring for carrying the heat radiated by exhaust gases to the exterior of said rear portion of said engine compartment and away from said engine accessories.

5. In a vehicle, an engine compartment, an engine in said compartment, a plurality of air batlles mounted on said engine and forming with said engine an air pressure partition dividing said engine compartment into a forward portion of. relatively high air pressure and a rear portion of relatively low air pressure, engine accessories exposed to the low pressure air in said rear portion,

an exhaust collector ring and exhaust stacks in said rear portion, and a shroud surrounding said exhaust collector ring and portions of said stacks having said stack surrounding portions terminating in the vicinity of said air baflles whereby air flowing through restricted openings in said air pressure partition will flow through the space between said shroud and said exhaust collector ring and said exhaust stacks to carry the heat radiated by the exhaust gases out of said rear portion of said engine compartment and away from said engine accessories.

6. In a vehicle, an engine compartment, a cowl surrounding said engine compartment, an engine having a carburetor and an exhaust collector ring and exhaust stacks in said compartment, a shroud surrounding said exhaust collector ring and portions of said exhaust stacks, said stack surrounding portions being open to receive air from the cooling air stream flowing past said engine, an air duct having an opening at one end connected with said shroud for venting the air flowing therethrough outside of said cowl and a second opening connected with the air intake of said carburetor, and a valve opposite said openings operable to selectively direct the air flowing through said shroud through one or the other of said openings.

7. In a vehicle, an engine compartment, an engine and an engine carrying frame in said engine compartment, a streamlined cowl enclosing said engine compartment, a supporting ring for the trailing edge of said cowl supported on said engine carrying frame, a series of cowl trailing edge flaps hinged to and carried by said ring, and flaps actuating mechanism also carried by said ring.

8. In a vehicle, an engine compartment, an engine and an engine carrying frame in said compartment, a streamlined cowl surrounding said engine compartment, a series of cowl trailing edge flaps, a ring for supporting the trailing edge of said cowl and carrying said flaps, and means for supporting said ring on said engine carrying frame, said means comprising a plurality of strut members secured at one end to the members of. said engine carrying frame and extending outwardly to form a web between said frame and said ring, and a ring carrying pad secured to the outer end of each strut and to said ring.

9. In a vehicle, an engine compartment, an engine and an engine carrying frame in said compartment, a streamlined cowl surrounding said engine compartment, said cowl having a front section rigidly secured to said engine, a ring carried by the front section of said cowl and extending beyond the trailing edge thereof, a second ring supported on said engine carrying frame, a plurality of intermediate cowl section panels secured at their opposite ends to said rings, and a series of cowl trailing edge flaps carried by said engine carrying frame supported ring.

10. In a vehicle, an engine compartment, an engine in said compartment, a streamlined cowl enclosing said engine compartment said cowl having a separate front section and means for supporting said front section on said engine said means comprising, a plurality of brackets secured to said engine at spaced intervals around the outer circumference thereof, a pair of spaced radially disposed apertured ears on each bracket, a plurality of radial fins secured to the inner surface of the front section of said cowl and a plurality of lugs secured to said fins each of said lugs having an apertured portion disposed between one pair of said apertured bracket ears the aper tured portion of said lug having a dimension less than the space between said ears to provide a lost motion connection for the-expansion or contraction of said engine, and a bearing pin extending through each pair of apertured ears and the associated lug portion.

11. Inc. vehicle an engine compartment an engine in said compartment a streamlined cowl enclosing said engine compartment, said cowl having a front section rigidly secured to said engine, an intermediate section and a rear section, and a supporting ring of channel section rigidly secured to said front section and extending beyond the trailing edge thereof to support the leading edge of the intermediate section of said cowl.

12. Engine cooling means comprising, in combination with an engine adapted to be moved relative to the surrounding air, an enclosure for said engine having cooling air inlet and outlet openings, baflies adjacent to said engine to constitute with said engine a partition in said enclosure providing in said enclosure two portions one'connected with the air entrance opening and the other with the air exit opening, said partition stringently restricting the flow of cooling air from said air entrance opening connected portion to said air exit opening connected portion to provide a high velocity flow inducing pressure drop between said portions of the engine enclosure, an engine accessory in a portion of said enclosure filled with air at a pressure below the air pressure in said air entrance opening connected portion, and a blast tube extending from saidair entrance opening connected portion to said accessory containing portion operative to conduct air from said air entrance opening connected portion and direct said air as a cooling air blast to said accessory.

13. Engine cooling means comprising, in combination with an engine adapted to be moved relative to the surrounding air, an enclosure for said engine having cooling air inlet and outlet openings, baffles adjacent to said engine to constitute with said engine a partition in said enclosure providing in said enclosure two portions one connected with the air entrance opening and the other with the air exit opening, said partition stringently restricting the flow of cooling air from said air entrance opening connected portion to said air exit opening connected portion to provide a high velocity flow inducing pressure drop between said portions of the engine enclosure, a carburetor in a portion of said enclosure filled with air at a pressure below the air pressure in said air entrance connected portion, and a carburetor air intake duct extending from said air entrance opening connectedportion to the intake of said carburetor.

REX B. BEISEL.

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080217486A1 (en) * 2007-03-05 2008-09-11 Lockheed Martin Corporation Small unmanned airborne vehicle airframe
US20150345350A1 (en) * 2014-06-02 2015-12-03 Michael Hall Moore Piston engine aircraft exhaust system

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080217486A1 (en) * 2007-03-05 2008-09-11 Lockheed Martin Corporation Small unmanned airborne vehicle airframe
US7699261B2 (en) * 2007-03-05 2010-04-20 Lockheed Martin Corporation Small unmanned airborne vehicle airframe
US20150345350A1 (en) * 2014-06-02 2015-12-03 Michael Hall Moore Piston engine aircraft exhaust system

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