US2116732A - Coding and decoding machine - Google Patents

Coding and decoding machine Download PDF

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US2116732A
US2116732A US9827136A US2116732A US 2116732 A US2116732 A US 2116732A US 9827136 A US9827136 A US 9827136A US 2116732 A US2116732 A US 2116732A
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coding
machine
means
contacts
associated
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Austin R Noll
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International Business Machines Corp
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International Business Machines Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09CCODING OR CIPHERING APPARATUS FOR CRYPTOGRAPHIC OR OTHER PURPOSES INVOLVING THE NEED FOR SECRECY
    • G09C3/00Typewriters for ciphering or deciphering cryptographic text
    • G09C3/02Typewriters for ciphering or deciphering cryptographic text with auxiliary keys or keyboards acting on the original keys or keyboards
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09CCODING OR CIPHERING APPARATUS FOR CRYPTOGRAPHIC OR OTHER PURPOSES INVOLVING THE NEED FOR SECRECY
    • G09C3/00Typewriters for ciphering or deciphering cryptographic text

Description

May 10, 1938. A. R. NOLL.

I CODING AND DECODING MACHINE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 28, 1956 INVE Ma Y 'gjz W05 ATTOR N EY "May 10; 1938". AQIL QLL 2,116,732

CODING ANUbEC ING MACHINE Filed .Aug. 28, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG.3.'

EIEIVENTOR ATTORNEY Patented May 10, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE- CODING AND DECODING MACHINE Application August 28,

13 Claims.

This invention relates to the art of secret writing and more particularly to a new system for transforming language messages into decodable -.secret code. i An object of the present invention is to provide an improved system for more accurate coding and decoding of characters or signs used in various communications.

Another object of the invention is to prevent 1Q periodical recurrences by causing irregularities in the coding process by a new system so as to introduce a new order of complexity of code according to an arbitrary system.

A further object of the invention is to produce a resultant which is most complex but whereby the coding and decoding operations are simplified.

Still another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus which will automatically code uncoded message, and which will automatically decode the message as a result of the mere typing,of the coded message.

Still other objects and features of the present 0- invention are: to provide a plurality of coding units or circuit changing devices and associated means to operate two or more simultaneously: to provide means independent of the operating machines to control the positioning of the cod- 3Q ing units; means operated selectively for different selections of the independent means to control the positioning of the coding units accordingly; means whereby the coding units are operated upon each operation of the primary ma- 3.; chine; means whereby the coded message can be decoded by operation of either the primary or secondary machine; means whereby all the coding units can be returned to a normal starting or home position.

40 Various other objects and advantages of the invention will be obvious from the following particular description-of one form of mechanism embodying the invention or from an inspection of the accompanying drawings; and the invention also constitutes certain new and useful features of construction and combination of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram showing one em- 54) bodiment of the present invention.

Figs. 2, 3, and 4 are detailed views of one form of a coding unit and the positioning means therefor.

Referring now to Fig. 1, the primary and sec- 55 ondary machines are designated generally T-l no a message as a result of the mere typing of the 1936, Serial No. 98,271

and T-2. For purposes of illustration the machines are shown to represent standard typewriting machines having the usual keyboards comprising a plurality of key bars, I, of which only several have been shown. Associated with the key bars are individual contacts 2 for the purpose of transmitting a coding impulse through the associated circuits upon selection and depression of the associated key bar I, thereby recording the selected character and transmitting m the coding impulse. Also associated with the key bars are shown the solenoids 3- which upon energization are adapted to operate or depress the associated key bar to operate the associated type bar in the usual manner to record the cor- 5 responding character. It .will be shown later herein upon energization of the solenoid and depression of the key bar, a coding impulse is not transmitted by said key bar. Provision is made at one of the machines, let it be assumed to be the primary machine T-l, that each operation of any key bar operates a common set of contacts 4. The method of providing common operated contacts for a typewriter keyboard is well known and requires no detailed description. One meth- 0d commonly used is to have a common bail or rod disposed beneath the key bars of the keyboard so that the depression of any one key bar depresses the common bail which in turn operates, in this example closes the associated contacts 4.

interposed between the machines Tl and T-2 is a plurality of coding units or circuit changing devices 6. These coding units are of the usual segmented commutator type which are well known in the art and need no detailed de- .scription. The arrangement which may be embodied in the present invention is shown in Patent No. 1,502,376, issued to Damm, July 22, 1924. Another arrangement of the coding units is shown in the Patent No. 1,510,441, issued to Hebern, September 30, 1924, which may be embodied in the present invention. Both types of coding units employcontacts or brushes I and 8 associated wit-ha segmented section 9. Referring to Figs. 2, 3, and 4, a form of the coding units will be described briefly. A stationary insulating ring member I0 is provided to support a plurality of individual brushes 1 arranged to engage individual insulated conducting segments II; The commutator section. comprising segments II, is secured to shaft l2 and adapted to be rotated thereby upon operation of the motor magnet 13. The number of brushes and conducting segments provided is to correspond to the number of characters desired to be included nels I5. A ratchet I6 is secured to the shaft I2 and adapted to be stepped ahead by the pawl II upon operation of the motor magnet l3. It is obvious that upon energization of the magnet the armature I8 is attracted and due to being pivoted at I9 the extension arm of the armature is moved downwardly carrying with it the pivoted pawl |'l. Upon deenergization of the magnet, the spring 2| restores the arm 20, armature I8 and pawl H to the normal position shown in the figure, thereby advancing ratchet I 6 and shaft l2. It is also seen that upon energizatlon of the magnet I3 and the attraction of the armature I8, the extension arm 22 is urged outwardly so that the attached pin rod 23 is adapted to open the normally closed contacts 24. Also secured to the shaft I2 is a rotary contact arm 21 associated with a commutator 25 having a single conducting segment 26, the purpose of which will be understood -as the description pro- Isis gresses.

The coding units or drums 6 are arranged to be wired in a reciprocal arrangement, the general principle of which is to produce the result that when a given character is struck in coding a substitute character is produced on the secondary machine and that when the substitute character is struck in decoding the original character is produced upon the secondary machine. This arrangement makes it possible to spell words in cipher and by copying the cipher words to return them or translate them into their true meaning, and this method is well known in the art' and therefore it is believed requires no further description. A detailed arrangement thereof is shown in Fig. 20 of the Hebern patent cited hereinabove. r

Therefore, it is evident that upon depression of a selected character key bar I, a circuit is completed as follows: from grounded battery 30 to normally closed contact 3| of relay 32, common conductor 33, the selected contact 2 now closed, key bar I through the associated circuits connected to brushes I and 8 of the coding units 6,

tothe normally closed contacts 34 of relay 35 to the associated grounded solenoid 3, energizing said solenoid to depress and operate the corresponding key bar of the secondary machine T-2 to record the substituted character. It is to be noted at this time that depression of the selected key bar at the secondary machine, the closure of the associated contact 2 is not effective to cause faulty operation of the system, due to the fact that contacts 36 of relay 35 are normally open. Similarly, due to the normally open contacts 31 of relay 32 the solenoids 3 of the primary machine T-| are not energized upon depression of a key bar of said machine.

In addition to energizing the solenoid and operating the key bar or translating instrumentality to record the substitute character upon depression of a key bar of the primary machine, it is remembered that the common contacts 4 associated therewith are also operated. Operation of contacts 4 causes battery 40 to energize and operate certain of the motor magnets I3 (and thereby advancing or positioning the associated coding units one step) through the contacts 4| ana'rae which are closed in certain selected combinations. The manner of controlling the contacts 4| will now be described.

The unit generally designated 42 represents a perforated tape transmitter which is so well known in the art of printing telegraphy that no detailed description is necessary. It is sumcient to state that it has five contact levers 43 which are positioned from the normally shown position to engage the contacts 4| under the control of a perforated tape 44, by means of five finger pins (not shown) which are present under the tape. Upon the presentation of a perforation in the tape over any of the finger pins, the act of the pin rising through the perforation allows the associated contact lever to be positioned to engage the corresponding contact 4|. -When the pin does not engage or sense a perforation in the tape the con tact lever remains in the position normally as shown in the figure. The tape is perforated to correspond to the permutations of the Baudot code or like code and thus there are thirty-two difierent permutations of the contact levers 43. The finger pins are withdrawn and the tape is stepped forward in the direction of the arrow upon operation of the magnet 45. The magnet 45 is operated each time a key bar of the primary machine is depressed, due to the closure of the common contacts 4 connecting battery 4|] to the magnet. Energization of the said magnet attracts the armature 46 to move downwardly the pawl 41 pivoted thereto. Upon deenergization thereof the pawl 41 under action of spring 43 steps the ratchet wheel 49 ahead. The ratchet wheel is secured to shaft 50 upon which is mounted a star wheel 5| to advance the tape 44 past the finger pins. Thus it is seen that upon operation of a key bar of the primary machine a different perforation combination on the tape is presented to the sensing or finger pins to position the contact levers 43 in accordance with the perforations. Operation of the contact levers 43 to engage the associated contacts 4| permits grounded battery 40 to be connected to the selected motor magnets I3 to operate said magnets, thereby causing the coding units 6 to be positioned accordingly and altering the associated coding circuits. It is evident that the coding units will be positioned in accordance with the perforations on the tape; that is, one, two, three, four, or five of the units may be positioned simultaneously to change the circuit connections between the machines T--| and T2. The tape may be perforated in the usual manner to correspond to any text, copy, or character arrangement designated. It is evident that the perforations representing the characters will not be arranged in a periodic manner, but in accordance with the text used so that the positioning of the coding units will not follow a certain definite and periodic pattern. In this manner a most complex coded message may be obtained, and one in which the sequence of the coded characters is not in accordance with a definite predetermined pattern which is repeated periodically.

Several methods of decoding are disclosed, namely, the coded message may be typed on the primary machine to have the clear message recorded on the secondary or translating machine, or the coded message may be typed on the secondary machine to have the clear message recorded on the primary machine.

To accomplish the first method the circuit arrangement shown in the figure need not be altered. The coded copy is typed on the primary r 3,1 raves machine and the clear copy will be recorded on the secondary machine. Obviously, of course, the coding units 6 must be positioned exactly during decoding as during the coding cycle. The units are positioned to a normal starting position and the perforated tape 44 is advanced through the unit 42 just as advanced during the coding operation. It is understood, due to the reciprocal circuit connections of the coding units that the coding and decoding operations can be effected from the primary machine.

The second method of decoding is effected by closing switch 60 thereby connecting grounded battery 30 to relays 32 and 35, energizing them to open the contacts 3i and close the contacts 31 associated with relay 32 and closing the contacts 36 and opening the contacts 34 associated with relay 35. In this manner, battery is removed from the contacts 2 of the primary machine and applied to the contacts 2 of the sec- I units 6 are positioned to the normal starting position and the tape 44 is presented to the sensin fingers just as during the coding procedure, typing the coded copy on the secondary machine will resultin having the clear message record on the primary machine. Each time a character is recorded at the primary machine during decoding due to the operation of the selected solenoid and character key bar, the common contacts 4 are operated to energize the magnet 45 as described hereinbefore to advance the perforated It is obvious that a reciprocal wiring artape. rangement of the coding units is not necessary if this method of decoding is used. As mentioned before, before starting the decoding cycle the coding units must be positioned to correspond to the initial home position of the units before the coding cycle was initiated. Returningthe coding units to the normal position can be effected automatically as follows: Switches 62 and 63 are closed to connect the respective batteries 64 and 65 to the associated circuits. It was mentioned. hereinbefore that the rotary contact arms 21 are secured to the coding unit shafts l2, and that the number of steps required for the contact arms to complete one revolution is the same as the number of steps required-by'the coding units to complete one revolution. Whenever the'coding units are in home position and the switches 62 and 63 are closed, grounded battery 65 is connected directly to the grounded contact arm 21 through conducting segment and associated relay 66, energizing the said relay to maintain the associated contacts 61 open as shown in the figure. However, when the coding units are not in the home position so that the contact'arms 21 do not engage the conducting segment 26, grounded battery 64 is connected to the associated motor magnet l3--a through the closed contacts 24 associated with magnet l3-a and contacts 61 associated with relay 66. The motor magnet i3a-is similar to the magnet l3 described hereinbefore and is adapted to rotate the shaft l2 similarly as the magnet i3. The normally closed contacts 24 are provided with the motor magnet i3-a (see Fig. 4). Operation of the-motor magnet l 3--a causes the shaft and associated units to be advanced one step due to deenergization of the motor magnet caused by the opening of contacts 24 upon energization of the magnet. This operation permits the coding units tobe advanced to the home position step by step until the contact arm 21 engages the conducting segment 26 to energize the relay 86, thus preventing further positioning of the units. When all the units are in the home position the switches 62 and 63 are opened and the system is then in condition for further coding or decod. ing operations.

While there has been shown and described and pointed out the fundamental novel features of the invention as applied to a single modification, it will be understood that various omissions and substitutions and changes in' the form and details of the device illustrated and in its operation may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is the intention therefore to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims.

What is claimed is as follows:

1. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, movable coding means comprising circuit changing means interposed between and interconnecting the machines, and perforated control means to control the positioning of said coding means thereby altering the circuit connections between said machines.

2. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, movable coding means interposed between and interconnecting the machine, and perforated control means having rows of perforations to control the positioning of said coding means, each said row comprising a code group of perforations.

3. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine having operating instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, a plurality of movable coding means interposed between and interconnecting said machines, and means, one for each coding means, controlled permutatively independently of the selected operating instrumentalities to control the positioning of the coding means.

4. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine having operating instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first,

ing of said coding means, and means to advance the sheet so that the said controlled means is controlled in accordance with the perforations of a different row.

6. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine having operable instrumentalities, a second machine operable from the first, movable ooding means interposed between and'interconnecting the said machines, a control sheet having rows of perforations disposed thereon, means controlled by the perforations in a row on the sheet to control the positioning of the coding means accordingly, and means to advance the said sheet to present a different row of perforations thereon to control the said controlling means in accordance therewith.

7. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, a control sheet having code groups of perforations disposed thereon, a plurality oi movable coding means interposed between and interconnecting the machines, one for each unit of the code, and means controlled by the perforated sheet to position the said coding means permutatively.

8. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, a plurality of movable coding means interposed between and interconnecting the said machines, and means controlled independently of the said machines to control the permutative positioning of the said control units.

9. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, a. plurality of movable coding means interposed between and interconnecting" of perforations disposed thereon, a plurality of movable coding means interposed between and interconnecting the machines, and individual positioning means therefor, and switching means controlled by the perforated control sheet to control the said positioning means.

11. The invention set forth in claim 10 in which an individual coding means and positioning means therefor is provided for each unit of said code group. I

.12. In a. coding and decoding machine, a primary machine comprising operable instrumentalities, a. secondary machine operable from the first, movable .coding meansinterposed between and interconnecting the said machines, a plurality of elements to control the positioning of said coding means, and means to operate said elements diflerently for each operation of said instrumentalities and independent of the selected AUS'I'IN a. NULL.

DISCLAIMER 2,116,732.-Austin R. Noll, New York, N. Y CODING AND Dnooomo MACHINE. Patent dated May 10, 1938. Discla mer filed February 24, 1943, by the assignee, International Business Machtnes Corporation.

' Hereby enters this disclaimer to claims 3, 8, and 12 in said specification.

[O fliciab Gazette March 16', 1943.]

US2116732A 1936-08-27 1936-08-28 Coding and decoding machine Expired - Lifetime US2116732A (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2116731A US2116731A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-27 Coding and decoding machine
US2116732A US2116732A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-28 Coding and decoding machine
US2116733A US2116733A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-29 Coding and decoding machine

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2116731A US2116731A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-27 Coding and decoding machine
US2116732A US2116732A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-28 Coding and decoding machine
US2116733A US2116733A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-29 Coding and decoding machine
FR829244A FR829244A (en) 1936-08-27 1937-08-02 Improvements to machines cryptographier
GB2288537A GB490164A (en) 1936-08-27 1937-08-20 Improvements in or relating to coding and decoding machines
GB2288937A GB490165A (en) 1936-08-27 1937-08-20 Improvements in or relating to coding and decoding machines
GB2288637A GB489321A (en) 1936-08-27 1937-08-20 Improvements in or relating to coding and decoding machines
DE1937J0058941 DE737791C (en) 1936-08-27 1937-08-26 Encryption and decryption typewriter plant

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US2116732A Expired - Lifetime US2116732A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-28 Coding and decoding machine
US2116733A Expired - Lifetime US2116733A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-29 Coding and decoding machine

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US2116733A Expired - Lifetime US2116733A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-29 Coding and decoding machine

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2464608A (en) * 1946-01-24 1949-03-15 Ibm Record controlled printing apparatus
US4124311A (en) * 1940-02-05 1978-11-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Mechanical movements for coding machines
US4143978A (en) * 1978-05-04 1979-03-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Electro-mechanical cipher machine

Families Citing this family (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2941716A (en) * 1960-06-21 Hebel
US4155659A (en) * 1940-02-05 1979-05-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Printing and coding machine
US2434681A (en) * 1943-02-13 1948-01-20 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Remotely controlled electrical calculator
DE974447C (en) * 1943-05-15 1960-12-29 Telefonbau Verschluesselungsgeraet
US6175625B1 (en) * 1944-12-15 2001-01-16 The United States Of America As Represented By The National Security Agency Control circuits for electric coding machines
US2696553A (en) * 1948-01-22 1954-12-07 Int Standard Electric Corp Electric switch
DE960995C (en) * 1952-01-23 1957-03-28 Boris Caesar Wilhelm Hagelin Trigger and drive reversing device for mechanically driven Verschluesselungsgeraete
US8488779B2 (en) 2011-07-25 2013-07-16 Grey Heron Technologies, Llc Method and system for conducting high speed, symmetric stream cipher encryption

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4124311A (en) * 1940-02-05 1978-11-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Mechanical movements for coding machines
US2464608A (en) * 1946-01-24 1949-03-15 Ibm Record controlled printing apparatus
US4143978A (en) * 1978-05-04 1979-03-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Electro-mechanical cipher machine

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Publication number Publication date Type
GB490165A (en) 1938-08-10 application
DE737791C (en) 1943-07-28 grant
US2116733A (en) 1938-05-10 grant
GB490164A (en) 1938-08-10 application
GB489321A (en) 1938-07-25 application
FR829244A (en) 1938-06-15 grant
US2116731A (en) 1938-05-10 grant

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