US2111212A - Hat - Google Patents

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US2111212A US4866A US486635A US2111212A US 2111212 A US2111212 A US 2111212A US 4866 A US4866 A US 4866A US 486635 A US486635 A US 486635A US 2111212 A US2111212 A US 2111212A
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Jesse B Hawley
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Jesse B Hawley
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    • A42C1/00Manufacturing hats
    • A42C1/04Blocking; Pressing; Steaming; Stretching
    • A42B1/00Hats; Caps; Hoods
    • A42B1/02Hats; Stiff caps


'4l sheets-sheet 1 J. B. HAWLEY HATA 'l Filed Feb. 4,"1955 Mmh 15, 1938.'
March 1.5, 1938- J. B. HAWLY I l v HAT March 15, 1938. J. B. HAwLEY HAT Filed Feb. 4, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 March 15, 1938.
l. spHAwLEY HAT A Filed Feb. 4, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 l have coverings of any desired material, which are accreted, interlaced'and integrated. 15 l will maintain its shape or form, and which may Other objects, advantages, capabilities, features havethe appearance of a hat made ofv other maand the like are comprehended by the invention terial. as will later appear and as are inherently pose A further object of the invention is to provide SeSSed by the invention a novel h'atwhich may be produced quickly with Referring t0 the drawings: 20 simple operations at small expense and cost and Fig- 1 iS a Vertical Sectional VieW through a on a large scale or in a large capacity of producmeans for forming the hat flOIn bIOllS Ination without the necessity of making the hats of teriali A durement sizes to nt the durerent sizes -of heads Fis. 2 is a similar View with parts broken away thus eliminating the need for different equip- 0f a male drying die; i5 ment, machinery and apparatus for 'different Fig- 31S a VieWSmiiai t0 Fig- 2 0f the male sizes of hats, which will be accurately and unidrying die With a female drying die: formly made, which in the manufacturing there- Fig- 4 iS a Vertical Sectional View 0f a heat 0f may be made in any desired shape or form, ltransfer die or die means which may be used in which will be compressed or compacted as delieu of dies shown inA Figs. 2 and 3; 30 sired, which will have sharp, well defined and Fig- 5 iS a fragmentary tcp Dian View 0f a distinct features, ornate or otherwise, which will Dart 0f tbe die means ShOWn n Fig. 4; be practically reproof, which will have any sur- Fig. 6 is a horizontal sectional view taken in face finish desired and any color or combination planes represented byline 5-45 in Fig- 4 0f the .35 of colors as desired, and which will have an atdrawings; tractive appearance. j Fig. 'I is a vertical sectional view of a hat blank The invention also comprehends the producing made in accordance With the nVenticn; of a novel hat composed of fibrous material ini- Fig. 3 iS a Similar View ShOWing a hat 11a-ving tially deposited, accreted, interlaced and inteccatngS O1' coverings;
4o grated so as to form a seamless integral and stiff Fig. 9 is a'fragmentary sectional view 0f a male 40 hat in the final desired shape, form or contour die and a hat blank SbOWng the application 0f and character, free of internal stresses tending coverings or coatings on the blank; to change its form, shape or contour as initially Fig. l10 is a view in elevation of a hat conprcduced, thus avoiding warping, distortions and structed in accordance with the invention;
43 the like.- The hat of the present invention is v Fig. 11 iS a bOttOIn Plan VieW 0f the Same and 45 i the member so produced is seamless, of the de- Referring more in detail to the drawings, the 50 A contour or even to become distorted to any dematerial, the term pulp being herein used generi- 55 e Patented Mar. 15,' 193s l i e 2,111,212
Application February 4, 1935, Serial No. 4,866
,2 Claims. (Cl. 2-192) The present invention relates to hats and more gree, because it is not deformed from any other particularly to hats made of fibrous material. shape or contour, and hence it remains normally Among the objects of the invention is to provide of the shape it initially received when molded a novel hat composed of a novel composition and or accreted etc. Should anything tend to change the novel composition thereof. its shape, it will restore itself to its original shape 5 Another object of the invention is to provide a or state, thus making for permanency of form novel hat which will be-light in Weight, which has and condition. excellent heat transfer insulating properties, l Another advantage of making the hat by acwhich will not absorb and hold fluids and thus creting fibrous material upon a contoured porous 10 will be fluid proof, lwhichis impervious to fluids, former is that any desired shape, contour and 10 which may be easily cleaned by the usual cleandesign feature may be obtained which would be ing. agents withoutany injurious effects to the impossible to effect by the deformation of a sheet I hat,which is stiff, tough and durable, which may of material, the final desired form being produced A be colored and decorated as desired, which may by the present invention initially when the. bres 'made or composed initially in its final and inshowing the application of a sweat band 'and a tended form of fibrous material deposited, acl -chin strap; and, y
creted, interlaced, molded and integrated pref- Fig.' 12 is'a fragmentary sectional View of the `erably upon a contoured porous former .so that means for connecting the sweat band to the hat.
sired thickness and compactness or densitylight hat is produced from fibrous material, such as in weight, stiff, tough and durable, and without pulp or the like, and may include any other any deforming stresses and strains. There is no fibrous material such as Wool, cotton, linen, silk, tendency for it to change to any other shape or jute, hemp,asbestos, kapok and similar fibrous the fibres.
cally to include any or any combination of the, various fibres thatv may be used. For the purpose of carrying out the invention the fibrous material is placed with water in a beater or beater engine to beat the fibres and to disintegrate and disperse them in the water, and also to shorten and hydrate the fibres to the desired point or extent.
The mixture or batch as it is usually called is then treated with suitable substances to proof 'I'his may be effected in any of several ways. As for example, while continuing the beating of the material in the beater engine, water proofing wax or wax emulsion may be added to the mixture, as in the proportion of about 0.25to 8% of the weight of the dry material first placed in the beater. The beating and stirring may be continued for a sufiicient period of time, such as from about-10 to 15 minutes until the wax or wax emulsion has been thoroughly dispersed and mixed or incorporated with the fibres, after which powdered alum or a solution of alum may be added in a quantity sufficient to set the wax on or in the fibres. 'I'his wax or wax emulsion has the property of softening, and water and moisture proofing the fibres, as also smoothing the surfaces of the fibres. The beating and stirring may continue until the setting has been effected, and then the material, termed stock, maybe stored in a suitable tank or vat for use when molding or accreting on the porous former or die.
As other examples, in lieu of wax or wax emulsion, paper makers resin in an amount of about 1 to 5% of the weight of the dry material first placed in the beater may be used, or latex, or powdered or emulsied asphalt, and the like may be used, each of which may also be set with alum as above described in connection withwax. 'I'he rosin has the property of stiffening, and water and moisture proofing the fibres. The latex toughens 4and renders the libres resilient or resistant to deformation and the like. The asphalt is' used to give the fibres water and moisture ioofing characteristics asalso for stiifening the res.
As further examples, proofing may likewise, by a like or similarprocess, be effected withstarch, glue, casein, or silicate of soda, and the like, in
which case setting with alum is not necessary as in the cases referred to above. The starch stiffens and smooths lthe fibres. The glue, casein and the silicate of soda stiffens the fibres. The glue is particularly useful in connection with wax to counteract the softening effect the wax has on the fibres.
The fibrous material preferably used is that of pulp or pulp mixed with other fibres as de,- sired. The pulp or pulp component may be of kraft fibres such as southern kraft fibres', sulphlte pulp, or rope pulp, wherein the material is stiff and will produce a comparatively stiff hat. When using softer fibres such as soda pulp, the material is softer and produces a less stiff hat. 'ihe sulphite pulp reduces the shrinkage of the `kraft pulp and adds strength when used with the soda pulp, and hence itis preferable to use sulphite pulpespecially the Mitscherlich pulp, with either the kraft or soda pulp. 'I'he unbleached fibres are stronger than the bleached fibres, while the Mitschelich sulphite pulp is `stronger than the common type of pulp fibres. Preferably the -kraft and 'sulphite pulp, both common and the Mitscherlich type, are used. By mixing the stiffer with the softer materials water of the bath through the holes 2.
with or without the other fibrous material mentioned above, any desired degree of stiffness or softness may be had.
The means selected to illustrate the invention comprises a molding or forming die in the form of a contoured plate I provided with a plurality of openings or apertures 2, the lower rim 3 of the plate being seated upon a table or platen 4 having an apertured hub 5 in which is secured the upper end of a duct V6 leading to a suitable source of suction or pressure (not shown). The platen 4 is 'adapted by suitable. means (not shown) to be lowered into and raised out of the bath 1 in a vat or tank 8. 'I'he plate I and the platen 4 enclose a chamber 9 in which is normally created a suction for the drawing of the The bath 1 consists of Water and fibrous material which is 'maintained in dispersed suspension in the water by suitable agitationl of the bath by any desired means (not shown).
'Ihe upper and outer surface of the plate I is shaped orv contoured to conform with the shape -or form of hat to be molded thereon. Upon this l in the form of a contoured layer or stratum II on the screen I0, the thickness and compactness or density of this stratum depending upon the time of immersion, the magnitude of the suction,
the nature of the fibres, and the percentage of fibres in the bath. In some cases'setting up a vibration in the mold will also have some effect, particularly in the interlacing of the fibres.
When the desired layer or stratum is accreted, interlaced and integrated, the platen 4 and the mold die I-IU with the fibrous stratum thereon are raised out of the bath. The suction during emergence is continued to prevent the washing away of some of the fibrous material, and also, after emergence, to draw air through the vfibrous blank or stratum for removing surplus water, that is, as a preliminary drying of the same. If desired warm or heated air or the like may be thus drawn through the blank to dry the blank but it is preferable to drythe blank in a manner hereinafter disclosed.
To assist in expelling the, surplus water in the blank, a female die I2 shown in dotted lines in Fig. 1 may be applied to the blank with pressure vedge portion I 6 of the housing or casing I1 of the female die, this casing comprising walls I8 and a. top I9, thus enclosing a chamber about the wall I3. At a suitable low point is connected a pipe or duct 2| for the discharge of any water that may be drawn through the apertures I4 under the influence of the vacuum created in the is compressed between the die walls I 'and I3.
' blank u.
The die |2- serves as a transfer means forthe After the blank |I has been compressed, the vacuum in` chamber 9 is discontinued and a pressure is effected therein while a suction is created in chamber of the female die. The die I2 is then lifted and the blank I I will be lifted with it, the blank adhering to the wallA I3 of the die I2. The die I2 with the blank clinging to it are-then brought over a hot male die 22 having a contoured wall or plate 23 provided with a plurality of holes or apertures 24. The lower portion of the wall 23 has a rim 25 which seats upon a table or platen 26 having an apertured hub 21 in which is connected a pipe or duct 26 leading to a suitable source of suction or pressure (not shown). The wall 23 and platen 26 thus enclose a chamber 29. .The die I2 and blank |I are moved down so as to set the blank on the contoured Wall 23 as shown in Fig. 2, the die I2` applying rthe necessary pressure to compress and compact the brous material of the blank I I, and the vacuum therein being changed toa pressure so as to relieve the blank from the die I2 and to cause it to adhere'` to` the die 22, after which the die I2 is removed. The heat ofthe die wall 23 converts the moisture or water remaining in the blank to steam, vapor and the like, which are drawn through the apertures 24 by reason of the vacuum in chamber 29 and are discharged through the duct 28. If desired heated or hot air, gas, or other medium may be drawn through the blank and the holes 24 to effect a drying of the blank, but it is preferable to apply a hot female' die 38 comprising an imperforate con toured wall or plate 3| the lower edge portion of which has a flange 32 upon which the lower edge portion 33 of the housingor casing 34 seats. The casing 34 maybe octagonal in shape and comprises end walls 35 and 36 (see Fig. 6), side walls 31 and 38, anglewalls 39, 48, 4| .and 42 provided with openings 43, 44, 46, and for the projection of flames from burners `41, 48, and 49 into the chamber 5|, and a top wall 52. Besides applying heat the wall 3| also applies pressure to compress and compact the fibrous material of .the blank II as also to give the blank the desired finished definition of contour. The steam, vapors, moisture, and the like .are drawn through the holes 24 and discharged through the duct 28.
If desired, and preferably, the drying and compressing may be effected on the heat-transfer die shown inFigs. 4, 5 and 6 wherein is shown a male die comprising a wall' or plate 53 having at its lower edge a flange 54 seated upon a table or platen 55, thus enclosing a chamber 56 for containing a heat transfer medium. At the top the wall 53 has an opening 53.a with which communicates a duct 51 preferably formed integral at its upper end to the plate 53 and having its lower open end 58 located in an aperture provided in the platen (Fig. 4). The platen 55 is clamped to a platen 59 which has an opening 6|) in line with the opening in platen 55 in which the duct portion 58 is located, and in which isconnected an end of a duct 6| leading to a suitable source of suctionl (not shown). Both platens 55 and 59 are provided with openings 62 and 63 for projection therethrough of flames from burners 64 into the chamber 56.
In the upper or outer contoured surface of the l wall 53 are provided a plurality of channels or grooves 65, 66 and 61 extending more or less radially and of which channels 65 lead to and communicate vwith the'opening 53a, there being also cross channels 68, 69, 18 and` 1| more or less circular or oval shaped for establishing communications between and among the channels 65, 66 and 61 whereby steam, vapors etc. may be led to the opening 53a and duct 51.
Upon the wall 53 is located a contoured die wall 12 having a plurality of holes or apertures 1'3, and
being provided at its lower edge portion with a flange 14 seated upon the flange 54 of the Wall 53. At the top the wall 12 has a boss 15 to con form with the top knot feature in the hat blank to be later more fully described.
The upper and outer contoured surface of the wall 12 is covered by a thin fine mesh reticulated member or screen 16 having the same contour 'as the wall 12, and having a base flange 11 seated upon the flange 14 of the wall 12 and an upper boss 18 conforming to the boss 15.
The hat blank reposes on this screen having been transferred from the molding die shown in Fig. 1 by the transfer die I9 and placed upon the screen 1 6 by changing the vacuum in the chamber 28 of the transfer die I9 to a pressure,
. aft-er which the transfer die is removed, and the female die 30 is nbrought in place to compress the blank I|.
The wall 3| of the 'female die 30 is contoured to the desired shape to be given to the hat blank, and has its base flange 32 above orover the flange 11 of the screen 16 and has at the top a boss 19. It willbe noted that vthe die walls 12 and 3| as also the screen 16 have contoured design features, such as bosses 15, 19 and 18 to form a boss in the blank I I in representation of a top knot on` the hat (Figs. 7, 8, 10 a'nd 11) also ribs running radially over the crown part to form ribs 8| in the hat blank in representation of seams or the like on the hat crown (Figs. 7, 8, 10 and l1), and also ridges 82, 83 and 84 to form ridges 85 in the hat blank in representation 'of folds or pleats V85 on the hat (Figs. '1, 8, 10 and 11).
While the female die compresses the blank hotI products of combustion are projected through the burner holes into the chambers 56 and 5| so as to heat the walls 53,'and 3| and to supply heat to the wall 12 and to the blank 4A suction is effective in the duct 51 whereby the steam, vapors, and moisture formed in the material of the blank will be drawn oil by way of the reticulations of the screen 16, the holes 13 in the wall 12, the channels 65--1I in the surface of the wall 53, and thence to the opening 53a vand through the ducts 51 and 6|. .The blank is thus dried and set with the desired finish definition as impressed by the particular surface contour of the die walls and the screen 16. The female die 38 may then be removed and the blank taken off of the screen 16. If desired a transfer die similar to that shown in Fig. 1 with a suction in itschamber may be used to remove the blank from the screen 16, after which a pressure in the chamber of the transfer die will suflce to blow off the blank.
The hat blank or carcass shown in Fig. 7 is therefore substantially stiff, strong, tough, and Water and moisture proof, the fibres from which itis composed having been treated in the beater with the proofing substances .mentioned above.
AThe material of the blank is particularly of the is not present in articles accreted in the usual way from the usual fibres, the proong" substances and the mode of proofing. giving the material, in this invention, the peculiarly new and beneficial properties and characteristics mentioned above. The moisture and water proofing quality is such as to make it unnecessary' to coat the hat with a coating or covering of water and moisture proofing substance, but in the present invention it is preferable to apply zal. coating either on the outside or inside surface or both to form a covering or skin which will seal 01T. the interstitial spaces or cells in the fibrous body of the blank particularly for effecting insulation against heat transfer, although incidentally the coating will also add to the water and moisture proofing property or characteristic of the hat body.
After the blank, as shown in Fig. 7, has been thus dried and set, it is preferable to coat, as by brushing, the outer surface of the blank with a size so as to form the coating or skin referred toabove. If desired, particularly in the case of where the inside of the hat is to have no cloth covering or to have only a cloth liner on the inside of the brim, a like coating may be applied on the inside surface of the hat. In the case where both the inside and outside surfaces of the hat are to be wholly cloth covered, it is preferable to omit the inner coating of the size. For the purpose of illustration the coatings are designated by the reference characters 86 and 81 in Fig. 8 of the drawings.
The size preferably used is that known as nitrocellulose cotton which is dissolved in lacquer solvents, and is preferably pigmented with any of the various enamel pigments ofthe color the hatis to have, or any suitable dye may be incorporated -for the same purpose. If desired any other similar size" may be used such as that made` from acetate cotton. Even latex or rubber cement and the like maybe used. The. size does not penetrate the fibrous mass but simply forms a sealing coating or skin on the surface of the blank. The coating or coatings, as the case may be, also increase the water proofing properties or characteristics of the hat material. These coatings 'form sealing coverings or skins which hermeticallyseal the interstitial spaces or cells within the fibrous material ofthe blank, so that they will act as heat insulating means.
After thecoatings are dry, 'either the outsideA plied'by spraying in liquid form and having a' volatile solvent. When applying the coating 88 on the outside, and before applying coating 88 A on the inside, it is preferably done by first placpressed against the coated blank with `requi-y ing the hat blank Il on a rubber or like male die 89 fixed to a platen 80 (Fig. 9) having a support 9|. After the volatile solvent has evaporated and the thermoplastic substance has dried,
a hot female die with-the proper contoured wall site pressure. .The heat of the female die causes the thermoplastic substancey to -fuse and be displaced to conform to the definition of the contoured surface of the die wall. Then the die is allowedito cool and the thermoplastic substance sets and congealsl to form a tough durable covvering for the hat, after which the dies are removed and the hat is ready to receive the sweat in the previous case.
I like.
band and the chin strap. The inner coating 88 is omitted at this instant to prevent it adhering to the die. If the thermoplastic substance is to be applied on the inner surface of the blank, the same procedure is used, but the female die in which the hat blank is placed with the inside of the hat blank uppermost is of metal, and after applying and drying the thermoplastic substance, a hot male die is applied to fuse the thermoplastic substance which is set after cooling, as The same result may be effected by simply coating both the inside and the outside surfaces of the carcass with the thermoplastic substance, and after drying, placing the coated carcass between male and female hot dies, then when the thermoplastic substance has suiilciently fused the dies are removed and the thermoplastic substance sets to form a stiff tough coating.
The thermoplastic substance referred to is in the class of synthetic resinous compounds known as the vinyl resins of rthe polymerization group and more particularly those which are permanently thermoplastic; characterized by the bond group or radical CH:CH2, and which are insoluble in most all known solvents,'particularly the hydrocarbon solvents, except the solvents of the ester type or the higher ketones, such as hexone andbutyrone. In other words, the substance use d in this invention is chemically inert to the extent indicated aboveand hence is impervious to and proof against moisture, water, acids; alkalies, alcohols, oils, greases, fats, and the like. In its normally pure state it is odorless, tasteless, colorless, and transparent. It is also non-innammable. It may be given any color or made translucent or opaque as desired by the incorporating or mixing therewith of dyes, pigments, illlers, or the like. It is also tough, durable and resilient. It also has a very strong bonding or adhesive property. It may be applied either in liquid or solid form or both. When using this substance in liquid form, acetone preferably is used as the solvent but it is to be understood other solvents as mentioned above may be used without affecting the idea of inve'ntion herein disclosed.
In the present invention the thermoplastic substance is preferably applied to the surface of the coated hat blank b y spraying in liquid form although it might be applied with a brush. As the volatile solvent evaporates the liquid thickens and even becomes tacky. Air drying may be used but if desired the coating may be dried more quickly in heated air or the like. It is preferable to air dry first to obtain a removal oi' the major portion of the volatile solvents, and then force dry in heated air, to remove the residual volatiles.
As indicated above, the die is applied with pressure. AIt is heated to the necessary temperature to fuse and melt the thermoplastic substance sol that it will be sufficiently plastic or fluida! to be easily displaced and to flow under the influence oi' heat and pressure of the die. The die is'then either removed or cooled or permitted to cool so that the thermoplastic substance will congeal or solidify and set. 'I'his substance acts as a stiifener or reinforcer for the body of the hat, also as a protecting' and preserving means preventing the access of moisture and other deteriorating media,
etc. to the material of the hat, and also in some cases as an adorning or embellishing means to give the hat an appearance of elegance and the If desired the hat blank may have cloth or like coverings on either or both the outer and inner surfaces of the hat. In that case the cloth is stretched over the surface rof the blank by contoured hot dies which fuse the thermoplastic substance which permeates the cloth and on cooling causes the cloth to adhere rmly and permanenti ly to the hat blank. This is more fully disclosed in the cao-pending application of Edward C. Sloan and Gustave A. Sporre identified as Serial No. 4,862, led February 4, 1935 and assigned to me.
In Figs. l1 and 12 is shown a method of attaching the sweat band 92 and the chin strap 93. In the form shown the band 92 is connected at spaced points to the upper ends of connecting members 94 preferably of resilient material, each member 94 comprising a lower end portion 95 suitably apertured to receive a shank 96 of a snap lug 9,1 of the glove snap type of connection, the shank 96 having flanges 98 and 99 on each side of the end portion 95 to bear against it with sucient friction to hold the parts in adjusted position as explained later. The lug 91 ts into a snap socket which is set in a hole formed in the hat juncture between the crown and the brim of the hat as shown. The socket |00 has an outer hollow fiange or head |0| of` sufficient size to afford substantial bearing against the outside surface of the hat, and an inner ange |02 `bearing against the inner surface of the hat juncture mentioned. The member 94 at its upper end has a bend |03 and a depending end portion |04 apertured to receive a hollow rivet or eyelet `|05 extending through the sweat band 92 as shown.
The sweat band preferably is made of suitable material so that it will normally hold a general oval shape as shown in Fig. 11, and yet be capable of being tted comfortably to the head. The band 92 has spaced end portions |06 and |01 having eyelets |08 and`|09 through which is threaded a tape `orcord ||0 having free ends and |I2 adapted to be tied into a knot H3 at such a point as to shorten or lengthen the laps of the tape between the band ends |06 and |01 to respectively decrease or increase the size of the band in accordance with the size of the head of the wearer.
The connecting members or elements 94 are so connected as to be angularly adjustable about the axes of the snap lugs 91 and the eyelets |05, so that as the sweat band is decreased or-increased in size the connecting members or element 94 swing in compensation with such change in size of the band. The sweat band is spaced from the crown of the hat to afford an air circulation space between the band and the hat crown. The members 94 are also resilient so that as the sweat band is fitted to the head of the wearer the members 94 Hex in compensation thereto while at the same time resiliently but comfortably pressing the band against the head.
The end portions ||4 and ||5 of the chin strap 93 are connected to the hat by way of snap means IIB and ||1 of the same type and construction shown in Fig. 12 so that the chin strap may be readily detached or attached as desired.'
The hats ,are all made of a size, and the sweat band and chin strap nearest the size of the head of the wearer are readily attached, and the tape or cord l I0 is so tied as to eiect the exact size in the sweat band for the particular head to Wear the hat.
When it is desired to clean the hat or if the hat is to be used by another wearer, the hat band and the chin strap are easily and quickly detached, after which the sweat band and the chin strap, or a new sweat band and chin strap are as easily and quickly attached in place.
Because the hat is covered with a thermoplastic substance not affected by the usual cleaning agents, the hat may be readily cleaned thereby.
A hat constructed and composed in accordance with the present invention, is light in weight, very durable, stiff, water and moisture-proof, imperviousfto liquids, has excellent heat transfer insulating properties, will not become deformed, has a very attractive appearance, and may be of any 4desired color.
While I have herein disclosed an embodiment of the invention, it is to be understood that` the invention is not limited thereto but comprehends other constructions, details, arrangements of parts, features, and the 'like without departing from the spirit of the invention.
Having thus disclosed the invention, I claim:
1. A hat comprising a body composed of cornpressed pulp material the fibers of which have been initially so accreted and compressed as to form a relatively thin substantially rigid integral unit into the final desired form and provided with interstitial spaces among the bers to act as heat transfer insulatingcells, and a waterproof covering on at least one surface of said body for sealing the interstitial spaces at said surface and contributing to the stiffness of said body.
2. A process of making relatively thin substantially rigid hats each having a body composed of fibrous material, comprising the steps of treating the individual bers while suspended and dispersed in a fluid bath with a proofing substance to make the fibers proof against absorption of moisture when composed in said bfrous material, depositing, accreting, and integrating said treated fibers from said fluid bath upon a contoured porous former under a differential of pressures on the opposite sides of said porous former to produce a blank of given thickness of fibrous material and with interstitial spaces among the fibers of said material of said blank, drying and nishing said blank to give it the desired definition of contour, and adhering a covering to a surface of said dried and finished blank to seal the interstitial spaces at said surface against the passage of heat andalr.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2459804A (en) * 1942-08-01 1949-01-25 American Viscose Corp Shaped felted structures

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2459804A (en) * 1942-08-01 1949-01-25 American Viscose Corp Shaped felted structures

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