US2093169A - Automatic firearm, in particular machine gun - Google Patents

Automatic firearm, in particular machine gun Download PDF

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Publication number
US2093169A
US2093169A US713483A US71348334A US2093169A US 2093169 A US2093169 A US 2093169A US 713483 A US713483 A US 713483A US 71348334 A US71348334 A US 71348334A US 2093169 A US2093169 A US 2093169A
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Prior art keywords
breech block
casing
piston
unit
mechanism
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Expired - Lifetime
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US713483A
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Holek Vaclav
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Firm Ceskoslovenska Zbrojovka
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A25/00Gun mountings permitting recoil or return to battery, e.g. gun cradles; Barrel buffers or brakes
    • F41A25/10Spring-operated systems
    • F41A25/12Spring-operated systems using coil springs
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A11/00Assembly or disassembly features; Modular concepts; Articulated or collapsible guns
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/12Bolt action, i.e. the main breech opening movement being parallel to the barrel axis
    • F41A3/14Rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements rigidly mounted on the bolt or bolt handle and on the barrel or breech-housing respectively
    • F41A3/32Rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements rigidly mounted on the bolt or bolt handle and on the barrel or breech-housing respectively the bolt being rocked about a notional axis transverse to the barrel axis
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/64Mounting of breech-blocks; Accessories for breech-blocks or breech-block mountings
    • F41A3/78Bolt buffer or recuperator means
    • F41A3/82Coil spring buffers
    • F41A3/84Coil spring buffers mounted within the gun stock
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A5/00Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock
    • F41A5/30Gas- or recoil-operated, e.g. selection of gas- or recoil-operated systems
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41CSMALLARMS, e.g. PISTOLS, RIFLES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • F41C23/00Butts; Butt plates; Stocks
    • F41C23/06Stocks or firearm frames specially adapted for recoil reduction

Description

Sept. 14, 1937. v. HoLEK AUTOMATIC FTREARM, 1N PARTICULAR MACHINE GUN Filed March 1, 1934 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVEN-roR Vm-,lov HoleK 2b. ATTORNEY,

mwm. TTI! A Sept. 14, 1937. v. HoLEK AUTOMATIC FIREARM, IN PARTICULAR MACHINE GUN Filed March 1, 1954 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Vaclav Ho\eK INVENTOE @K @MM an ATTV.

sep1.14,1937. v,H0| EK 2,093,169

AUTOMATIC FIREARM, IN PARTICULAR MACHINE GUN Filed March 1, 1934 3 Sheets-Sheeil 3 Figli 1F Figs V ,2 l 2 ,g /7-V Y, Y /za,

J6 ,Il 4s lrl- 49 9.9 l (If/?! T u 48 1 L l 1' q' l 2l, 24

Fig] F198 l0 #e la Voie/lav Hol ek "EJ ATTORNEY Patented f Sept. 14, 1937 PATENT' GFFICE AUTOMATIC FIREARM, IN PARTICULAR MACHINE CUN Vclav Holek, Brunn, Czechoslovakia, asslgnor to firm Ceskoslovenska Zbrojovka akciova spolecnost v Brne, Brunn, Czechoslovakia Application March 1, 1934, Serial No. 713,483 In Great Britain March 15, 1933 13 Claims.

The present invention relates to an automatic rearm and more particularly to a machine gun vhich operates on the gas pressure loading priniple, that is to say a firearm in which the gases f discharge are made use of to drive the breech lock mechanism.

It is already known to provide many kinds of irearms, including gas-operated guns. with a rei ilient butt-plate in order to damp the recoil hocks produced by the discharge. In such an .rrangemelm however, the mass which moves in esponse to the discharge is very great and, herefore, the recoil against the shoulder of the :unner is considerable.

Various arrangements for damping recoil hooks have also been proposed in connection lith firearms other than gas-operated guns.

For instance, it has been proposed to provide esilient damping means between a firearm and n adjustable shoulder support.v

It has also been proposed to provide a gun with telescopic stock, the parts being normally kept a their extended position by a spring which is ompressed by the recoil on discharge thus stor-l ig the energy necessary for forcing the next artridge into the barrel and for closing the reech.

It has further been proposed to construct a un for firing signal rockets and the like in two lain parts, namely a xed part and a movable art, connected by a resilient telescopic damping evice, the gun stock, gun frame, trigger and rigger bar being comprised in the fixed part in Fhich the movable part, comprising the barrel nd the firing mechanism (excluding the trigger nd trigger bar),is adapted to slide longitudially.

The object of the present invention is to proide a gas operated gun in which the recoil cocks caused by the firing of a shot are damped `ithin the firearm itself, without substantial aleration in the manner of construction of the rearm. The gun is composed only of such parts s are found in existing gas operated guns.

According to the present invention this object attained in that the firing mechanism of the rearrn, together with the ring casing and the utt adjoining it form one unit and the breech lock casing, together with the barrel and the is pressure motor form a second unit, the secid unit being so connected for longitudinal Iovement with the first mentioned unit that the :cond unitcan perform a recoil movement when shot is red. v

A light machine gun is illustrated in the acturn can be operated by the trigger l1.

companying drawings as a constructional example of the invention.

Fig. 1 shows the machine gun in longitudinal section in the rest position.

Fig. 2 shows the machine gun in'partial longitudinal section, after a shot has been tired, with the breech block mechanism and the breech block casing occupying the rearward position.

Fig. 3 shows the rearm in the rest position in side elevation. 10

Fig. 4 shows on an enlarged scale a longitudinal section through the rear part of the breech block casing.

Fig. 5 is a section on line V-V of Fig. 4 as viewed from right to left.

Fig. 6 shows a section on line VI-VI of Fig. 1

on an enlarged scale.

Fig. 'l is a cross section on line VII-VII of Fig.

1 on an enlarged scale, but only through the casing .of the trigger mechanism.

Fig. 8 is a section on line VII-VII of Fig. 1

, on an enlarged scale.

section and Fig. 10 is a front elevation of the device.

i is the barrel, 2 the casing of the breech block mechanism `or the breech block casing", 3 is the gas junction, d is the gas pressure cylinder, and 5 .the gas pressure piston. The piston rod of the gas pressure piston 5 carries the breech block mechanism which, in the present oonstructional example, consists of the breech block carrier 6 and of the breech block l which rocks towards and away from the breech block carrier. 8 is the ring pin provided in the breech block and 9 is the tooth provided on the casing 2 and adapted to lock the breech block 1.

In the breech block carrier 6 is provided a re- 40 cess l0 which co-operates with the tooth of the two-armed sear i2. A spring I4 abuts against one arm of the sear i2 and in the other arm is provided in a known manner a recess with which co-operates the trigger bar i5, which in i6 is the switch member for setting the firearm for iring single shots and for continuous ire, as well as for safety.

The firing mechanism is mounted in the ring casing 20; the latter is provided with a cartridge ejection opening 22 and with a handle I8.

In the rear wall of the ring casing 20 is secured the butt 32. 33 is a spring passing through a tube in lthe butt and adapted to urge forward screwed over the end of the tube 44- also serves for securing the butt 32 to the firing casing 2li, as shown in Fig. 1.

The firing mechanism I2, I4, I5, '|6, I'I of the firearm together with the firing casing 28 and the butt 32 secured thereto form one unit 1:. The breech block casing 2, together with the barrel I and the gas pressure motor 4, 5 form a second unit y. 'I'he second unit y is so connected for longitudinal movement with respect to the unit a: that when a shot is fired the second unit can carry out a recoil movement. 'I'he breech block casing 2 is formed with an opening 62 vparallel to its path of movement (Fig. 5).

'I'he unit a: is movably guided within this opening and the iiring casing 20 is constructed as a closing member for the opening. In the above described constructional example the breech block casing 2 has a box shaped cross section. 'Ihe box shaped breech block casing is openx on one side at the opening 62 and the missing side of the breech block casing is formed by the ring casing 20 (Fig. 8) In order to guide the unit y with respect to the unit :c the breech block casing is provided with guide grooves 24 and the ring casing 20 with guide projections 23. In addition to this guide provided along the opening 62 the unit y is further guided with respect to the unit :c by a support separate from the guide means 23, 24. This support consists of a pin 28 on the casing 2 which passes through an elongated slot 29 in the ring casing 20.

The rearm is provided with an arrangement which stores energy during rearward movement of the breech block casing and liberates energy during forward movement of the breech block casing, and atthe same time acts as a shock absorber for the breech block mechanism by acting upon the breech block carrier 6.

'I'he arrangement which. liberates energy consists, in the present constructional example, of a spring controlled piston 48 which is constructed with abutments 49 for the breech block casing. The abutments are, in the present constructional example, formed as wings, which engage in recesses 26 in the breech block casing 2 (Figs. 4'

and 5). The parts 49, 26 form a coupling which operates in one direction Between the piston 48 and the breech block casing. This is of importance, since the spring loaded piston 48 has not only to serve for guiding the breech block casing 2 rearwardly but also forms a shock absorber for the breech block carrier 6. The piston 48 must be able to carry out both functions independently of one another and this is only possible if there is located between the piston 48 and the breech block casing 2 a coupling which operates in one direction. The piston 48 is secured against rotation by guide means 53, 54 consisting of a wing 53 which-engages in a suitable recess 54 in the casing 20. The spring loaded piston 48 is hollow and the parts 34, 40 of the advancing device extend through its hollow interior 48. 43 is the spring which acts upon the piston 48 and abuts with its rear end. against -..vv v.. ..v .nvvsuucuwwc gucuc wir bcuultu I3() M16 piston 48. 'I'he forward end of the spring 43 abuts against the ring 44.

Fig. 2 shows in one and the same figure different parts in the positions which they occupy during two consecutive phases in the cycle of operations of the firearm, namely, the position of the unit y directly after a shot has been :tired and the position of the breech block mechanism a moment later when the shot has just left the barrel. 'I'he sequence of operations of these parts is as follows: When firing a shot the unit y moves rearwardly over the short distance z, with the result that the abutments 26a (Fig. 4) impinge on the wings 48 of the piston 48, move the piston 48 rearwardly and, by compressing the spring 43, charge the latter with the kinetic energy of the unit y. Meanwhile the shot will have left the barrel and the gas piston 5 will have been driven back, carrying with it the breech block mechanism. 'I'he rearward travel of the breech block mechanism is many times greater than the distance 2 and, consequently, the piston 48 and the unit y will have been returned by the shock absorbing spring 43 into the positions illustrated in Fig. 1 before the breech block mechanism has completed its rearward travel. The breech block carrier will therefore impinge upon the piston 48 and the resilient arrangement will operate as a shock absorber for the breech block mechanism. Thus the shock absorbing spring 43 is not only charged with the kinetic energy of the breech block mechanism during the last part of the rearward movement but also with the kinetic energy of the unit y, since the breech block casing 2 is connected with the spring loaded piston 48 through the abutment 26 and the wing 49.

After the rearward movement is ended the unit y is carried forward by the shock absorbing spring 43 into the starting position. The breech block mechanism is driven forward by the advancing spring 33 and its movements are regulated by the ring mechanism which can be adjusted in a known manner by means of the switch member I6 for ring single shots or for continuous lire or can be secured against tripping of the sear.

After the last cartridge has been fired from the magazine 5I the breech block 'I is held fast in known manner in the rearmost position by the feed device located in the magazine 5I which protrudes in the path of movement of the breech block. After removal of the empty magazine the breech block carrier 6 is held back in the tensioned position by the tooth of the sear I2.

The distance between the first cartridge of the newly inserted magazine and the front surface of the breech block 'I is increased by the forward movement of the unit y, so that, upon the subsequent pressing of the trigger I1, the breech block mechanism 8, I thus freed strikes against the first cartridge of the new magazine with greater kinetic energy. This will insure an accurate and definite sliding of the cartridge out of the magazine, the sliding of the cartridge into the firing chamber, and the locking of the breech block mechanism. The greater readiness in firing thus obtained results, without the addition of an auxiliary member, merely from the suitable utilization of the shock absorbing spring 43, which in known firearms is used only to nullify the recoil shock of the breech block mechanism, but is here used also to damp the movement of the unit y. By providing the unit y with a spring, the recoil shock occurring upon each shot is absorbed by the shock absorbing spring 43, so that a soldier ring the gun would suffer no shocks which might aiect the quality of the ring.

The assembling and dismantling of the above described rearm can be quickly and easily carried out. The two casings 2 and 22 are disconnected by withdrawing the pin 28. The casing 2. together with the parts of the firearm mounted on it can next be removed from the casing 20. Thus access may be had to the ring mechanism and also to the breech block mechanism. The advantage of easy dismantling of the rearm is oi. considerable importance in adjusting the operation of the gunv and in replacing damaged parts. i

The rearm described above and illustrated in the accompanying drawings represents only one constructional example of the invention which may be altered within the scope of the invention deilned in the claims.

I claim:

1. In an automatic gas pressure loading firearm, a ring mechanism, a ring casing, a butt adjoining the firing casing, said mechanism, casing and butt forming a i'lrst unit, a barrel, a breech block casing xed to said barrel, a gas pressure cylinder in connection with said barrel, a recoillng breech block mechanism slidably guided in said breech block casing, a gas pressure piston arranged in said gas pressure cylinder and operativelyr connected with said breech block mechanism, said barrel, breech block casing, cylinder, breech block' mechanism and piston forming a second unit, and guiding means carried by said units, respectively, to slidably guide said second unit longitudinally with respect to said rst unit for a recoil movement over a distance substantially shorter than the recoil path of the breech block mechanism in the breech block casing.

2. In an automatic gas pressure loadingl firearm, a iiring mechanism, a tiring casing, a butt adjoining the firing casing, said mechanism, casing and butt forming a iirst unit, a barrel; a breech block casing ilxed to said barrel, a gas pressure cylinder in connection with said barrel, a recoiling breech block mechanism slidably guided in said breech block casing, a gas pressure piston arranged in said gas pressure cylinder and operatively connected with said breech block mechanism, said barrel, breech block casing, cylinder, breech block mechanism and piston forming a. second unit, guiding means carried by said units, respectively, to slidably guide said second unit longitudinally with respect to said first unit for a recoil movement over a distance substantially shorter than the recoil path o the breech block mechanism in the breech block casing, a device storing energy during the rearward movement of the breech block casing and means for imparting the energy to the breech block casing during its forward movement, said device constituting a shock absorber for the breech block mechanism.

3. Automatic iirearm as claimed in claim l, and in which the breech block casing has an opening extending parallel to its direction -of movement, and a guide within said opening for said iirst unit.

4. Automatic rearm as claimed in claim 1 and in which said breech block casing is box-shaped and is open on one side, said ring casing being slidably guided within said open side.

5. AV device according to Yclaim Zand a one-Y said device comprising a spring loaded piston,

and means for connecting said piston to the breech block casing said means vcomprising wings on said piston engaging in recesses of the breech block casing.

8. Automatic rearm as claimed in claim 2, and in which said device comprises a spring loaded piston having abutments for connecting said piston to the breech block mechanism and casing, and guide means for securing said piston against rotation.

9. Automatic rearm as claimed in claim 2, and in which said device comprises a spring loaded hollow piston having abutments for connecting said piston to the breech block mechanism and casing, and a rod extending through said hollow piston and engageable with the breech block mechanism to advance the latter.

10. Automatic irearm as claimed in claim 2. and a friction brake cooperable with said device.

11. Automatic iirearm as claimed in claim 2, and a friction brake cooperable with said device, said brake comprising a slotted spring ring and a control coacting with said ring to convert axial forces into radially expanding forces.

l2. In an automatic rearm, the combination with the elements claimed in claim l, of means for guiding said units in their relative movement, said means including guide grooves in the breech block casing and guide projections carried by the ring casing and slidable in said grooves.

13. In an automatic rearm, the combination with the elements claimed in claim 1, of means for guiding said units in their relative movement, said means including a slot and pin connection between said units, guide grooves in the breech block casing and guide projections carried by the. firing casing and slidable in said gTO'OVeS.

voLAv HOLEK.

US713483A 1933-03-15 1934-03-01 Automatic firearm, in particular machine gun Expired - Lifetime US2093169A (en)

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GB173795X 1933-03-15

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BE (1) BE401948A (en)
CH (1) CH173795A (en)
DE (1) DE623261C (en)
FR (1) FR770081A (en)
GB (1) GB404494A (en)

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2418946A (en) * 1942-08-15 1947-04-15 Remington Arms Co Inc Breech bolt lock for firearms
US2423740A (en) * 1941-06-10 1947-07-08 Vesely Josef Means for assembling the body and butt of automatic firearms
US2457835A (en) * 1945-12-05 1949-01-04 Schiff Sigmund Gun bolt
US2557134A (en) * 1940-10-23 1951-06-19 Oerlikon Buehrle Ag Breechblock return mechanism
US2779249A (en) * 1953-09-29 1957-01-29 Saetter-Lassen Erik Return and buffer mechanism for automatic shooting weapons
US2780146A (en) * 1954-01-18 1957-02-05 Illinois Tool Works Gear shaving
US2831404A (en) * 1952-02-28 1958-04-22 Gen Motors Corp Recoil buffer for guns
US3057100A (en) * 1947-01-09 1962-10-09 United Shoe Machinery Corp Extractor for automatic guns
US3410175A (en) * 1965-10-23 1968-11-12 Olin Mathieson Recoil assembly for firearm
US4024792A (en) * 1973-05-24 1977-05-24 Heckler & Koch Gmbh Automatic shoulder arm
EP0525309A1 (en) * 1991-07-29 1993-02-03 BENELLI ARMI S.p.A. Bolt repositioning device for firearms
US20060260460A1 (en) * 2005-01-27 2006-11-23 Philippe Plumier Fire arm with improved salvo accuracy and device used to that end
US20110179687A1 (en) * 2008-06-27 2011-07-28 Fabbrica D'armi Pietro Beretta S.P.A. Stock bolt of a firearm equipped with a damping mechanism
US9513074B1 (en) * 2015-06-01 2016-12-06 Everett McDowell Steil Firearm with interchangeable parts

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE755088C (en) * 1936-02-19 1951-05-21 Johannes Schwarz Automatic weapon
US7823313B2 (en) 2009-03-12 2010-11-02 Sagi Faifer Gunstock

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2557134A (en) * 1940-10-23 1951-06-19 Oerlikon Buehrle Ag Breechblock return mechanism
US2423740A (en) * 1941-06-10 1947-07-08 Vesely Josef Means for assembling the body and butt of automatic firearms
US2418946A (en) * 1942-08-15 1947-04-15 Remington Arms Co Inc Breech bolt lock for firearms
US2457835A (en) * 1945-12-05 1949-01-04 Schiff Sigmund Gun bolt
US3057100A (en) * 1947-01-09 1962-10-09 United Shoe Machinery Corp Extractor for automatic guns
US2831404A (en) * 1952-02-28 1958-04-22 Gen Motors Corp Recoil buffer for guns
US2779249A (en) * 1953-09-29 1957-01-29 Saetter-Lassen Erik Return and buffer mechanism for automatic shooting weapons
US2780146A (en) * 1954-01-18 1957-02-05 Illinois Tool Works Gear shaving
US3410175A (en) * 1965-10-23 1968-11-12 Olin Mathieson Recoil assembly for firearm
US4024792A (en) * 1973-05-24 1977-05-24 Heckler & Koch Gmbh Automatic shoulder arm
EP0525309A1 (en) * 1991-07-29 1993-02-03 BENELLI ARMI S.p.A. Bolt repositioning device for firearms
US5279202A (en) * 1991-07-29 1994-01-18 Benelli Armi S.P.A. Bolt repositioning device for firearms
US20060260460A1 (en) * 2005-01-27 2006-11-23 Philippe Plumier Fire arm with improved salvo accuracy and device used to that end
US7350452B2 (en) * 2005-01-27 2008-04-01 Fn Herstal S.A. Firearm with improved salvo accuracy and similar device for a firearm
US20110179687A1 (en) * 2008-06-27 2011-07-28 Fabbrica D'armi Pietro Beretta S.P.A. Stock bolt of a firearm equipped with a damping mechanism
US8677664B2 (en) * 2008-06-27 2014-03-25 Fabbrica D'armi Pietro Beretta S.P.A. Stock bolt of a firearm equipped with a damping mechanism
US9513074B1 (en) * 2015-06-01 2016-12-06 Everett McDowell Steil Firearm with interchangeable parts
US20170067708A1 (en) * 2015-06-01 2017-03-09 Everett McDowell Steil Firearm with interchangeable parts

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Publication number Publication date
CH173795A (en) 1934-12-15
BE401948A (en)
DE623261C (en) 1935-12-20
FR770081A (en) 1934-09-06
GB404494A (en) 1934-01-18

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