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US2058774A - Marking petroleum products - Google Patents

Marking petroleum products Download PDF

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Publication number
US2058774A
US2058774A US71851934A US2058774A US 2058774 A US2058774 A US 2058774A US 71851934 A US71851934 A US 71851934A US 2058774 A US2058774 A US 2058774A
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US
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Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
petroleum
radioactive
product
products
radioactivity
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Colligan Francis Xavier
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Texaco Inc
Original Assignee
Texaco Inc
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Publication date
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L1/00Liquid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10L1/10Liquid carbonaceous fuels containing additives
    • C10L1/14Organic compounds
    • C10L1/18Organic compounds containing oxygen
    • C10L1/188Carboxylic acids; metal salts thereof
    • C10L1/1886Carboxylic acids; metal salts thereof naphthenic acid
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M1/00Liquid compositions essentially based on mineral lubricating oils or fatty oils; Their use as lubricants
    • C10M1/08Liquid compositions essentially based on mineral lubricating oils or fatty oils; Their use as lubricants with additives
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N23/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation not covered by G01N21/00 or G01N22/00, e.g. X-rays or neutrons
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01VGEOPHYSICS; GRAVITATIONAL MEASUREMENTS; DETECTING MASSES OR OBJECTS
    • G01V5/00Prospecting or detecting by the use of nuclear radiation, e.g. of natural or induced radioactivity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2207/00Organic non-macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds containing hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2207/10Carboxylix acids; Neutral salts thereof
    • C10M2207/16Naphthenic acids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2210/00Nature of the metal present as such or in compounds, i.e. in salts
    • C10N2210/02Group II, e.g. Mg, Ca, Ba, Zn, Cd, Hg
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2210/00Nature of the metal present as such or in compounds, i.e. in salts
    • C10N2210/04Group IV, e.g. Sn, Pb, Ti, Zr
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2210/00Nature of the metal present as such or in compounds, i.e. in salts
    • C10N2210/06Group VI, e.g. Cr, Mo, W
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2250/00Form or state of lubricant compositions in which they are used
    • C10N2250/10Semi-solids or greases
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2223/00Investigating materials by wave or particle radiation
    • G01N2223/01Investigating materials by wave or particle radiation by radioactivity, nuclear decay
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2223/00Investigating materials by wave or particle radiation
    • G01N2223/60Specific applications or type of materials
    • G01N2223/626Specific applications or type of materials radioactive material
    • G01N2223/6265Specific applications or type of materials radioactive material sample with radioactive tracer, tag, label
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2223/00Investigating materials by wave or particle radiation
    • G01N2223/60Specific applications or type of materials
    • G01N2223/637Specific applications or type of materials liquid
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T436/00Chemistry: analytical and immunological testing
    • Y10T436/13Tracers or tags

Description

Patented Oct. 27, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MARKING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS No Drawing. Application March 31, 1934, Serial No. 718,519

3 Claims. (Cl. 87-9) This invention relates to the marking of petroleum products. More particularly, it relates to the combination with petroleum products of radioactive compounds whereby the authenticity or origin of such petroleum products is determinable.

More specifically, my invention relates to pe troleum products in which there have been incorporated small quantities of radioactive com- .0 pounds which may with advantage be oil soluble radioactive salts. Since the presence of these radioactive compounds can be determined quantitatively with a high degree of accuracy, petroleum productstreated in this way bear a distinctive and characteristic marking which may be employed for identifying the same.

In the practice of my invention, I propose the use of oil soluble salts of such radioactive elements as, for example, radium, thorium and uranium. The advantages underlying the use of oil soluble radioactive compounds are manifold.

The radioactive compounds being oil soluble, it

is possible to impart a uniform radioactivity to petroleum products by dissolving the radioactive 55 compounds therein. Furthermore, since radioactivity is an atomic phenomenon which is substantially unaffected by temperature, light and ordinary conditions, petroleum products to which radioactivity has been imparted are substantially 30 permanently marked.

It is an object of my invention to make possible a ready and accurate method of identifying salable petroleum products so that these products may be identified and counterfeiting and substig5 tution determined without question of doubt. The

method of identification embodied in my invention is necessitated by conditions which have come about within recent years and which have resulted in the marketing of inferior petroleum 0 products under the trade names of reputable manufacturers. In many cases there have not been complete substitutions, but merely adulterations of reputable products with varying quan tities of inferior products which have the gen- 5 eral appearance of the original products. By employing the method of marking which forms the basis of my invention, it is possible to readily and accurately determine whether a particular petroleum product has been adulterated or whether i0v an inferior product has been substituted therefor.

The invention provides for the solution of a small proportion of an oil soluble radioactive compound in the petroleum product to be identified. The quantity of the radioactive identifying material is preferably so regulated that there is imparted to the petroleum product a certain, definite and measurable radioactivity. At any time in the history of the marked specimen, it is possible to remeasure its radioactivity and by com- 5 paring it with the radioactivity originally imparted to it, determine whether any dilution or substitution has been practiced.

In practicing the invention, any oil soluble radioactive compound may be used. This includes particularly the fatty acid and naphthenic acid salts of radioactive elements such as radium, thorium and uranium. From the practical standpoint, I have found that the use of radioactive derivatives of naphthenic acids such as are dis- 5 closed in my copending application Serial No. 716,334 are preferable for the purposes of my invention. I do not, however, intend to limit myself to such compounds but prefer to embody in my invention all oil soluble compounds which display a definite and measurable radioactivity.

In a preferred embodiment of my invention, as applied to the marking of petroleum hydrocarbon lubricating oils, I add to the lubricating oils a definite quantity of a mixture of barium and radium naphthenates. A suflicient quantity of the radioactive material is used to impart to the oil a standard measurable radioactivity. The radioactivity may be determined by any of the well-known electroscopic methods. In this connection it may be observed that the method recently described by Robley D. Evans in the April, 1933 issue of The Review of Scientific Instruments, when modified to adapt it to hydrocarbon materials, permits of a high degree of accuracy.

Whenonce radioactivity has been imparted to any petroleum hydrocarbon oil or product, the same is permanent insofar as ordinary conditions of storage and transportation are concerned. This being so, it is apparent that thereafter by again determining the radioactivity of a sample of the product under investigation, and comparing it with the radioactivity originally imparted to the product, it is possible to determine definitely whether or not the petroleum product has in any way been diluted or adulterated. The present method of identification is not limited only to oils but is advantageously applicable to all types of products containing liquid or solid petroleum hydrocarbons and includes motor fuels, kerosenes, lubricating oils, greases, paraiiin waxes, insecticides, petroleum product emulsions and in fact any materials containing petroleum hydrocarbons. Although I prefer to use oil soluble radium compounds, oil soluble radioactive derivatives or thorium and uranium may also be employed.

Obviously many modifications and variations of the invention, as hereinbeiore set forth, may be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereoi, andtherefore only such limitations should be imposed as are indicated in the appended claims.

I claim:

1. A method of identifying normally liquid and solid petroleum products which comprises dissolving therein a predetermined quantity of an oil soluble substantially permanently radioactive salt selected from the group consisting of naphthenic acid salts of radium, thorium and uranium, which serves as a unique marking of the hydrocarbons, and then quantitatively determining the radioactivity of the said products.

2. A marked petroleum product comprising a petroleum product and a predetermined quantity oi! an oil soluble substantially permanently radioactive salt selected from the group consisting oi! the naphthenic acid salts oi radium, thorium and uranium, the said salt being dissolved in the petroleum product in an amount to permit identii'lcation of the petroleum product.

3. A marked petroleum product comprising a petroleum product and a predetermined quantity of a substantially permanently radioactive mixture of barium and radium naphthenates dissolved in the said product in a quantity to permit identification of the petroleum product.

FRANCIS XAVIER COLLIGAN.

US2058774A 1934-03-31 1934-03-31 Marking petroleum products Expired - Lifetime US2058774A (en)

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2477776A (en) * 1946-07-24 1949-08-02 Sun Chemical Corp Printing ink and method of using same
US2773196A (en) * 1953-02-18 1956-12-04 Leonard I Hall Identification card
US2936377A (en) * 1954-11-29 1960-05-10 Exxon Research Engineering Co Method for measuring the degree of uniformity of compositions
US2988640A (en) * 1953-08-07 1961-06-13 Steele Francis Eugene Method relating to the production of oil
US3014054A (en) * 1959-08-19 1961-12-19 California Research Corp Radioactive tracers
US3086118A (en) * 1957-03-19 1963-04-16 Sperry Gyroscope Co Ltd Integrating devices
US3809898A (en) * 1971-08-04 1974-05-07 Chevron Res Method of detecting aircraft fuel line leaks with radioactive gas tracers
US3861886A (en) * 1968-11-13 1975-01-21 Melpar Inc Material identification coding methods and systems
US3964294A (en) * 1972-03-13 1976-06-22 California Institute Of Technology Technique and system for coding and identifying materials
US5512066A (en) * 1995-01-23 1996-04-30 Chevron Chemical Company Tagging materials for gasoline
US5525516A (en) * 1994-09-30 1996-06-11 Eastman Chemical Company Method for tagging petroleum products
US5755832A (en) * 1996-11-07 1998-05-26 Chevron Chemical Company Fuel additive concentrate containing tagging material
US7720254B2 (en) 2006-03-13 2010-05-18 Smi Holdings, Inc. Automatic microparticle mark reader

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2477776A (en) * 1946-07-24 1949-08-02 Sun Chemical Corp Printing ink and method of using same
US2773196A (en) * 1953-02-18 1956-12-04 Leonard I Hall Identification card
US2988640A (en) * 1953-08-07 1961-06-13 Steele Francis Eugene Method relating to the production of oil
US2936377A (en) * 1954-11-29 1960-05-10 Exxon Research Engineering Co Method for measuring the degree of uniformity of compositions
US3086118A (en) * 1957-03-19 1963-04-16 Sperry Gyroscope Co Ltd Integrating devices
US3014054A (en) * 1959-08-19 1961-12-19 California Research Corp Radioactive tracers
US3861886A (en) * 1968-11-13 1975-01-21 Melpar Inc Material identification coding methods and systems
US3809898A (en) * 1971-08-04 1974-05-07 Chevron Res Method of detecting aircraft fuel line leaks with radioactive gas tracers
US3964294A (en) * 1972-03-13 1976-06-22 California Institute Of Technology Technique and system for coding and identifying materials
US5525516A (en) * 1994-09-30 1996-06-11 Eastman Chemical Company Method for tagging petroleum products
US5512066A (en) * 1995-01-23 1996-04-30 Chevron Chemical Company Tagging materials for gasoline
US5755832A (en) * 1996-11-07 1998-05-26 Chevron Chemical Company Fuel additive concentrate containing tagging material
US7720254B2 (en) 2006-03-13 2010-05-18 Smi Holdings, Inc. Automatic microparticle mark reader
US7831042B2 (en) 2006-03-13 2010-11-09 Smi Holdings, Inc. Three-dimensional authentication of microparticle mark
US7885428B2 (en) 2006-03-13 2011-02-08 Smi Holdings, Inc. Automatic microparticle mark reader
US8033450B2 (en) 2006-03-13 2011-10-11 Smi Holdings, Inc. Expression codes for microparticle marks based on signature strings
US8223964B2 (en) 2006-03-13 2012-07-17 Smi Holdings, Inc. Three-dimensional authentication of mircoparticle mark

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