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US2054383A - Wind power apparatus - Google Patents

Wind power apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
US2054383A
US2054383A US7178436A US2054383A US 2054383 A US2054383 A US 2054383A US 7178436 A US7178436 A US 7178436A US 2054383 A US2054383 A US 2054383A
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
blades
hub
axle
blade
wind
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Ludewig Hercel Joseph
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Ludewig Hercel Joseph
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D7/00Controlling wind motors
    • F03D7/02Controlling wind motors the wind motors having rotation axis substantially in wind direction
    • F03D7/022Adjusting aerodynamic properties of the blades
    • F03D7/0224Adjusting blade pitch
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2260/00Function
    • F05B2260/70Adjusting of angle of incidence or attack of rotating blades
    • F05B2260/74Adjusting of angle of incidence or attack of rotating blades by turning around an axis perpendicular the rotor centre line
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2260/00Function
    • F05B2260/70Adjusting of angle of incidence or attack of rotating blades
    • F05B2260/75Adjusting of angle of incidence or attack of rotating blades the adjusting mechanism not using auxiliary power sources ("servos")
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2260/00Function
    • F05B2260/70Adjusting of angle of incidence or attack of rotating blades
    • F05B2260/77Adjusting of angle of incidence or attack of rotating blades the adjusting mechanism driven or triggered by centrifugal forces
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG] EMISSION, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • Y02E10/723Control of turbines

Description

p 5, 1935- H. J. LUDEWIG 2,054,333

WIND POWER APPARATUS Filed March 50, 1936 FIG. 1. FIG. 2.

INVENTOR.

ATTORNEYS.

Patented Sept. 15, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE WIND POWER APPARATUS Hercel Joseph Ludewig', Pittsville, Application March 30, 1936, Serial No. 71,784

6 Claims.

This invention relates to improvements in wind power apparatus and a primary object is to provide an apparatus having wind rotated blades so mounted as to be self-governing in that their speed of rotation will be practically constant even though the wind velocity may vary considerably.

Another object of the invention is to provide a wind power apparatus wherein the pitch of the blades will be automatically regulated: to suit the velocity of the wind by the action of the wind upon the blades and by the centrifugal force created upon rotation of the blades.

A further object of the invention is to provide apparatus of the class described including a blade controlling mechanism which may be adjusted to alter the pitch of the blades.

A still further object of the invention: is to provide a self-governing wind power apparatus having relatively few moving parts.

Another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus of the character described provided 1 with a protective housing enclosing the blade controlling mechanism and preventing the formation of ice on the moving parts thereof.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent during the course of the following detailed description, taken in connec tion with the accompanying drawing, forming a part of this specification and in the drawing:--

Figure 1 is a front elevation of the improved wind power apparatus and showing the blades in a normally pitched position.

Figure 2 is a side elevationof the improved wind power apparatus and showing the blades in a normally pitched position, the dotted lines representing the position of the blades when the pitch thereof has been reduced to approximately zero due to the action thereon of an extremely high wind.

Figure 3 is a vertical sectional View of the blade controlling mechanism with the blades detached and showing the relative position taken by the parts thereof when the blades are in a normally pitched position.

Figure 4 is a View similar to Figure 3 but showing the relative position of the parts when the pitch of the blades has been reduced to approximately zero.

Figure 5 is a perspective view of the blade controlling mechanism with the blades detached and with the parts relatively positioned as in Figure 3.

In the drawing, wherein for the purpose of illustration is shown only a preferred embodiment of the invention and wherein similar reference characters may designate corresponding parts thruout the several views, the letter A may generally designate the improved wind power apparatus comprising an axle and hub assembly B supporting a pair or hinged blades C, blade control; mechanism D and a protective cover Referring first to the axle and hub assembly B, it may include a suitable axle [0 provided with threads H extending inwardly of its end l2. 'A hub l3 may be fixed on'the axle inwardly of the end I 2 as by suitable nuts I4 threaded on the axle at opposite sides of the hub.

The blades 0' may be elongate and of substantially plane formation and the leading edges l5 may be beveled if desired. Each blade may be provided with a suitably rounded end It: and an oblique end H. In the example shown, the ends [1 are at an angle of 30to the longitudinal axes or the blades. The blades C may each be ob-- liquely' hinged to the hub l3' so that theylwlll swing into and out of a plane radial to the axle. For this purposes; pair of suitable hinges l8 may be provided each of which may include a U- shaped bracket l9 riveted as at20 to the hub l3 and carrying a rod 2|. Therod 2! may be bent so that one end portion 22 will form an angle other than'a right angle with the opposite end portion 23', and in the example shown, an angle of 30 is formed. The portion 23 is adapted to swing or hinge on the bracket I9 with the portion 2| turning on the axis 24. This axis 24 may be in a plane perpendicular to a radius 25 of the hubbut it is to be distinctly understood that the scope of this invention is not limited to any specific positioning of the hinges I 8 on the hub. A pair of U shaped brackets 26 one secured to each blade at its" oblique end may be provided. The portions 23 of the hinges may be rigidly connected one'to each bracket and in parallel relation to the 1on-" gitudinal axes of the blades. A pair of leaves 21 may be provided one for each. blade if additional support is desired. The curled ends 28 or the leaves may be positioned one about each rod portion 22 between the ends of the U-shaped brackets l9, while the opposite flat ends 29 may be suitably secured one to the oblique edge ll of. each" blade. A pair of crank" arms 30 may be fixed one to the axle portion 220i each hinge. The bladewill thus be obliquely hinged in that the longi tudinal axis of the blade Will fdlm an angle other a circumferential notch 32 for co-action with a headed and threaded stop pin 33 removably fixed at its headed end to the hub as by a suitable nut 34. A pair of links 35 each suitably pivoted at one end 36 to the periphery of the disc and suitably pivoted at the opposite end 31 one to each of the blade crank arms 30 may be provided in order that the hinging of the blades toward'and away from a plane radial to the axle may be controlled and limited by the co-acting disc and stop pin. A pair of contractile coil springs 38 may be suitably anchored at one end to. the hub. The opposite ends of the springs may be connected one to each link 35 at the end 31 in order to urge the hinged blades away from the radial plane toward which they are adapted to swing.

Referring now to the protective cover E, this may be in the form of a cup having an open end 40 and a closed end 4|. The cover is adapted to be placed over the blade controlling mechanism and in this position, the open end 40 will abut the peripheral edge of the hub l3, it being understood that suitable notches 42 are provided in the wall of the cover for the accommodation of the outwardly extending portions of the hinges. The threaded axle may extend thru a suitable aperture in the end 4| and a nut 43 maybe threaded thereon to hold the protective cover in place.

The operation of the improved wind power apparatus is as follows. When there is little or no wind the blades will be positioned out of V a plane radial to the'axle and will be pitched-as shown-in Figure 2 and the blade control mechanism will be positioned as shown in Figure. 3 due to the action of the springs 38. When the wind strikes the blades it will tend to blow them b'ackwardly toward the plane radial to the. axle as represented in dotted lines in Figure 2. This tendency to swing backward will be resisted by .the springs 38, but because the blades are pitched, they will begin to rotate, and thereby create a centrifugal force which will also tend to cause the blades to swing into a plane radial to the axle. If the wind is sufiiciently strong the bladeswill swing against the resistance of the springs and their pitch will automatically de crease due to the obliquely hinged relation 'of the blades to the hub. It will thus be seen that as the wind velocity increases the pitch of the blades automatically decreases and the blades rotate at asubstantially uniform rate of speed. However, during extremely high winds the blades will be blown backwardly until limited by the action of the stop pin on the disc as shown in Figure 4. In this position, the pitch of the'blades will have decreased to substantially zero thereby causing the blades to slow down or stop entirely. The speed of rotation may be regulated by changing the strength or the number of springs. The pitch of the blades may be increased by removing the stop pin and the links 35, and threading the disc a suitable number of turns on the axle in the direction of the hub after which the stop'pin and links may be replaced. The outer end 38 of the links will thereupon be drawn inwardly a predetermined distance, the blades will 'be swung farther away from the radial plane of the axle and the pitch of the blades will accordingly be increased.

A greater number of blades may be employed if desired and various other changes may be made to the form of invention herein shown and described without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the following claims.

I claim:

a 1. Wind power apparatus comprising a threaded axle provided with a hub, a plurality of blades pivoted to the hub, a rotatable disc threaded on the axle in adjustably spaced relation to the hub, means limiting the rotation of the disc relative to the hub, and means connecting each blade to the disc.

2. A device of the class describedcomprising a threaded axle provided with a hub, a blade mounted on the hub and movable toward and away from a pitched position, means urging the blade toward the pitched position, but permitting the bladefto move away from the pitched position when acted upon by a force'of predeter mined strength, a disc threaded on the axle in rotatable relation to the hub, means connecting the disc and blade, and means mounted on the hub and co-acting with the disc to limit movement of the blade toward and awayfrom the pitched position.

3. A device of the class described comprising a threaded axle provided with a hub, blades mounted on the hub and movable toward and away from a pitched position, spring means anchored to the hub and urging the blades toward the pitched position but permitting the blades to move away from the pitched position when acted upon by centrifugal force,.a disc threaded on the axle in rotatable relation to the hub, means operatively connecting the disc and blades, means mounted on the hub and co-acting with the disc to limit movement of the blades toward and away from the pitched position, a

protective cover on the axle and cover securing means threaded on the axle.

4. A device of the class described comprising a threaded axle, a hub secured thereon, blades axle and co-acting with the hub to protect the a controlling mechanism and cover securing means threaded on the axle.

5. A device of the character described com.- prising an axle provided with. a hub, a bracket secured on the hub, an angularly bent rod having one leg rotatably mounted in the bracket, means for controlling the rotation of said leg, and a blademounted on the opposite leg of said rod.

6. A device of the character described comprising an axle provided with a hub, a U-shaped bracket secured on the hub, an angularly bent rod having one leg rotatably mounted in the bracket, means for controlling the rotation of said leg, an elongate leaf having one end mounted on said leg, and a blade mounted on the other leg of the angularly bent rod, said elongate leaf at its opposite end being secured to said blade.

HERCEL JOSEPH LUDEWIG.

US2054383A 1936-03-30 1936-03-30 Wind power apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2054383A (en)

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Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4029434A (en) * 1975-05-22 1977-06-14 Kenney Clarence E Variable pitch mounting for airfoil blades of a windmill or propeller
US4116585A (en) * 1976-11-03 1978-09-26 Mirko Maracic Self-adjusting wind machine
US4183715A (en) * 1978-02-01 1980-01-15 First National Bank Of Lubbock Adjustable vane windmills
EP0009767A2 (en) * 1978-10-11 1980-04-16 Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Single-bladed wind-turbine rotor and a method for starting and stopping same
US4257740A (en) * 1979-01-15 1981-03-24 Duez Wayne G Speed governing hub for windmill
US4348154A (en) * 1978-02-01 1982-09-07 Wind Engineering Corporation Adjustable vane windmills
US4349315A (en) * 1978-02-01 1982-09-14 Wind Engineering Corporation Adjustable vane windmills
US4439108A (en) * 1982-06-08 1984-03-27 Richard Will Windmill having centrifically feathered rotors to control rotor speed
US4443154A (en) * 1979-08-27 1984-04-17 Randolph Arthur J Windmill tower shadow eliminator
US4571156A (en) * 1984-03-05 1986-02-18 D. C. Research, Inc. Air foil with trailing spoiler
US4632637A (en) * 1981-06-04 1986-12-30 Analytics, Inc. Wind turbine
US4838761A (en) * 1983-08-16 1989-06-13 Sheppard Alan R Methods and apparatus for preventing or retarding fruit and vegetable freezing
US6077043A (en) * 1996-12-19 2000-06-20 Emerson Electric Co. Impeller for a fan and a method for making same
US6283709B1 (en) 1998-11-02 2001-09-04 Emerson Electric Co. Variable position fan assembly
US6554573B1 (en) * 1999-03-10 2003-04-29 Vind-Och Vattenturbiner Rotor
US20110210557A1 (en) * 2010-02-27 2011-09-01 Mehboob Lakhani Compact wind and water turbine systems
WO2011158350A1 (en) * 2010-06-16 2011-12-22 A-Wingインターナショナル株式会社 Variable pitch device

Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4029434A (en) * 1975-05-22 1977-06-14 Kenney Clarence E Variable pitch mounting for airfoil blades of a windmill or propeller
US4116585A (en) * 1976-11-03 1978-09-26 Mirko Maracic Self-adjusting wind machine
US4183715A (en) * 1978-02-01 1980-01-15 First National Bank Of Lubbock Adjustable vane windmills
US4348154A (en) * 1978-02-01 1982-09-07 Wind Engineering Corporation Adjustable vane windmills
US4349315A (en) * 1978-02-01 1982-09-14 Wind Engineering Corporation Adjustable vane windmills
EP0009767A2 (en) * 1978-10-11 1980-04-16 Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Single-bladed wind-turbine rotor and a method for starting and stopping same
EP0009767A3 (en) * 1978-10-11 1980-06-11 Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Single-bladed wind-turbine rotor
US4257740A (en) * 1979-01-15 1981-03-24 Duez Wayne G Speed governing hub for windmill
US4443154A (en) * 1979-08-27 1984-04-17 Randolph Arthur J Windmill tower shadow eliminator
US4632637A (en) * 1981-06-04 1986-12-30 Analytics, Inc. Wind turbine
US4439108A (en) * 1982-06-08 1984-03-27 Richard Will Windmill having centrifically feathered rotors to control rotor speed
US4838761A (en) * 1983-08-16 1989-06-13 Sheppard Alan R Methods and apparatus for preventing or retarding fruit and vegetable freezing
US4571156A (en) * 1984-03-05 1986-02-18 D. C. Research, Inc. Air foil with trailing spoiler
US6077043A (en) * 1996-12-19 2000-06-20 Emerson Electric Co. Impeller for a fan and a method for making same
US6283709B1 (en) 1998-11-02 2001-09-04 Emerson Electric Co. Variable position fan assembly
US6554573B1 (en) * 1999-03-10 2003-04-29 Vind-Och Vattenturbiner Rotor
US20110210557A1 (en) * 2010-02-27 2011-09-01 Mehboob Lakhani Compact wind and water turbine systems
US8536725B2 (en) 2010-02-27 2013-09-17 Mehboob Lakhani Compact wind and water turbine systems
WO2011158350A1 (en) * 2010-06-16 2011-12-22 A-Wingインターナショナル株式会社 Variable pitch device

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