US2049186A - Internal combustion engine - Google Patents

Internal combustion engine Download PDF

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US2049186A
US2049186A US687659A US68765933A US2049186A US 2049186 A US2049186 A US 2049186A US 687659 A US687659 A US 687659A US 68765933 A US68765933 A US 68765933A US 2049186 A US2049186 A US 2049186A
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valve
exhaust
exhaust valve
head
bore
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US687659A
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Victor F Zahodiakin
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Victor F Zahodiakin
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01LCYCLICALLY OPERATING VALVES FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01L1/00Valve-gear or valve arrangements, e.g. lift-valve gear
    • F01L1/28Valve-gear or valve arrangements, e.g. lift-valve gear characterised by the provision of coaxial valves; characterised by the provision of valves co-operating with both intake and exhaust ports

Description

T July 28, 1936- v. F. zAHoDlAKlN 2,049,186
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Aug. 3l, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 f Fx: 5
1 I f y \.4 4 www-PIE E T R ATTORNEY Patented July 28, 1936 :2,049,186 INTERNAL covs'rroN nimma Applicatian A tra.
of means to shield the exhaust valve head from contact by the exhaust fuel gases; and to pro- 5 vide means adapted to shield the exhaust valve guide, in which the exhaust valve is slidablyY mounted, from contact with the exhaust fuel gases.
'The invention consists in the combination of w the elements, arrangement of the parts and in the details of the construction, as hereinafter fully described and claimed.
in the drawings: Fig. i is a central vertical section, with parts broken away, taken through an internal combustion engine,'showing the exhaust and intake valves in closed position;
' Fig. 2 is the same showingv in full lines the exhaust valves in open position and showing au the intake valve in closed position and showing in dotted lines the exhaust valve in closed position and the intake valve in open position;
Fig. 3 isaI vertical section showing a modied 'form ofthe rocker arm; and- Fig. ils a plan elevational View of arm plunger.
In the preferred construction of the' invention provide the internal combustion engine i comprising the block 2 having suitably secured to its top the engine head 3. In the engine block 2 is the rocker the cylinder il having therein the reciprocating l piston E having the grooves 6 circumferentially of the top 'Il for receiving the usual piston rings m e for the purpose of preventing escape of compressed gases irom the combustion chamber 9 downwardly between the cylinder walls and the piston. Eiuitably4 secured inthe sides of the piston Si is the usual wrlst'pin I0 having rotat- 50 ably mounted thereon the usual connecting rod il which is connected-with the usual crank shaft (not shown).
The top wall of the piston is relatively thin.
' Centrally disposed of the top l of the piston 5 e@ is the electrode I3 having its top l projecting orrica i upwardly from the top surface of the piston. 'I'he lower end l5 of the electrode i3 projects downwardly into the interior l2 of the piston.
Secured to the upper surface of theV engine' head 3 is the valve housing i6. The lower edge 5 of the valve housing has the inwardly extend! ing flange il through which is received the bolt I8 which is received through the ange l1 and into the engine head.
The upper end of the valve housing shaped having the chamber i9 therein which communicates with the chamber 2|! formed by the spaced apart walls 2i' and 22 of the top 23 of the pressure guide or casing 26. The top 23 of the guide 2t is curved outwardly and the l5 chamber 26 communicates with. the chamber I9 in the valve housing which communicates with the usual inlet 25 through which the intake fuel charge passes.
The engine head 3 is provided with the bore 20 26 which is in axial alignment with the cylindrical bore d in the block. The bore 26 'is relatively smaller in diameter than the cylinder 5. 'I'he inner walls 21 of the head 3 are inclined downwardly and outwardly and their lower edge 23 is aligned with the walls 29 of the cylinder.
The vertical tubular downwardly extending body 30, integral with the wall 22 of the guide 2e, has therein a circular chamberl 3l in which is disposed the vertical tubular valve guide support 32 integral withthe walls 2| of the pressure housing or guide top 26. The tubular support 32 has' axially disposed therein the valve .guide 33 having the bore 33'inwhich is slidably mounted the intake valve 3d.
Received inthe downwardly disposed cup portion 35 ofthe spring retainer 36 is the upper end 37 of the intake coll spring 38 which has its lower'end 39 received on the shoulder dll cen- 40 trally disposed of the top 23 of the pressure housing 2, and in the depression formed by the upwardly and outwardly curved walls 2i. The coil spring 38 surrounds the upper end of the intake valve guide 33. 'I'he valve guide has 45 integrally formed therewith the outwardly extending lange il which is supported by the shoulder d.
` The lower ends 62 and 43. respectively, of the support 32 and the guide 33 are substantially 5o aligned horizontally. The intake valve stem 4B, of the valve '36, has integrally formed with its lower end the intake valve head d5. During the intake stroke of the piston 5 the intake valve head is in open position, whereas during the 55 le rsu- 10 formed at the lower end of the body '30. The desired movement ofthe intake valve 34 is `supplied by contact of the inner end 41 of the rocker arm 48 therewith which forces the valve 34 into open position during the intake stroke of the piston, whereas during'the compression, explosion and exhaust strokes of the piston 5 the end 4'! of the rocker arm 48 is moved to an upward position which permits the intake valve coil spring 38 to exert upward pressure against the spring retainer, thereby imparting 'upward movement to the valve which forces the valve headl 45 into contact with its seat 45.
In the upper end 49 of the valve stem is the annular groove 50 into which is tted the split washer 5l having its outer side inclined inwardly and downwardly and being received in the centrally disposed bore 52 in the spring retainer,
whereby the spring retainer is retained in iixed Y position with respect to verticalmovement on the valve stem.
The hollow horizontal intake valve rocker shaft 53, which extendslongitudinally above the engine head 3, is mounted in the bearing 51B of the upwardly extending support lug 55 which is integrallyiormed with the top 23 of the pressure guide 24.
The rocker arm 48 is rotatably mounted on the shaft 53 and has in its rear end 5 5 the threaded bore 5l into which is threadedA the bolt 55, the
lower end of which is contacted by the push rod 59 which is slidable in the boss 6d of the bracket 5l integral with theV housing I6. The lower end ofthe rod 59 is in contact with the intake cam 62 which is' parallel to the exhaust cam 63, both cams being xed to the cam shaftl 84. Suitable means are provided for connecting the camshaft with the usual crank shaft (not shown) oi the engine for the purpose of rotating the cam shaft. l
The exhaust rocker arm. shaft 65 is suitably mounted on the engine head and has rotatably mounted thereon the exhaust rocker arm 56 the end of which 57 has the bore St therein in which is threaded the bolt 69 the end of which 'it -is adapted to contact the lower end of the push rod 'Il which is slidably mounted in the bore l2 in the boss i3 integrally formed with the lower portion of the bracket 6|. The inner end 14 of the rocker arm is adapted, when the push rod li lis actuated by the exhaust cam 53, to be forced upwardly by contact of the push rod 'Il with the bolt 69 which imparts downward movement to the outer end 61 of the rocker arm. The end 'i4 of the rocker arm is engaged against the ange 15 of the collar 'I6 which is threaded to the upper y portion of the stem Tl oi the exhaust valve 18. The exhaust valve 1S is mounted around the lower portion of the body portion 30 and Within the exhaust valve guide 19 which is received in -the bore 80, in the engine head, directly above 'the wail 22, of the guide 2,4. The lower end 84 of the spring is received in the depression in the iiange 15 of the collar 16 whereby the compression in the spring 82 is adapted to exert downward force on the exhaust valve for the purpose of causing the exhaust valve head 86 tocontact the top |00 of the cover il.
bore; and valve seats.
` received the electrode 9i having its upper end projecting outwardly from the upper end of the insulation and spaced a slight distance from the lower end 92 of the electrode 83 which has the outwardly extending iiange Q4 integrally formed' with its body 95. 'I'he flange 94 is contained in the hole S5 in the insulation Y9T. The insulation is formed about the ange and within the\plug 98 having its lower end threaded in the hole 9S in ably retained in xed position by the bolt H12 which is screwed into the support 55. A suitable conductor (not shown)`l may be connected with lthe upper end m3 of the electrode 93. This ccnductor may be suitably connected with suitable20 outside source of electric supply for the purpose of supplying electric current for the purposes hereinafter fully explained.
Projecting from the lower end of the insulation is the lower end Aof the electrode 9i which 25 is positioned centrally and above the piston 5 and in vertical alignment with the electrode I4.
The inner surfaces or the exhaust 4valve head 8S and the`r exhaust valve stem 11 are in vertical alignment. The inner surface oi' the walls of 30 the exhaust valve are substantially parallel with the walls 29 of thecylinder 4, or at least alinel extended downwardly from the inner surface of the exhaust valve walls would be parallel with lthe inner walls of the cylinder. -The exhaust 35 valve, 'inlet valve, valve guides or supports are concentric and are coaxial with the cylinder The walls of the exhaust valve seat 8l' are inclined downwardly and inwardly and the lower. end of the open exhaust valve head 85 is also inclined downwardly and inwardly in substantial parallel relation with the Iwalls of the exhaust valve seat. When the exhaust cam 83 is not actuating the push rod il and the end 14 of the rocker arm to is permitted to move into its downward position, as shown in Fig. 1, the coil spring 82 exerts downward force in contact with thefcollar 16 which imparts downward movement to the exhaust valve whereby the exhaust valve head BB contacts its seat and thereby closes the outlet H0. which leads from the combustion chamber) outwardly of the engine head 3, whereby during the intake, compression and explosion strokes of the piston 5 the exhaust outlet I i6 is closed. -55
The intake valve head 45 remains in contactv with its seat during the compression, explosion and exhaust strokes of the piston 5 for the purpo of preventing passage of burned .i'uell gases from the combustion chamber 9 into the cham-"00 ber 8l of the body 38. During these periods the intake cam 52 is not active on the lower end of the rod 59 whereby the end 4l of th'e rocker arm Y 481s permitted to be in its uppermost position.
However during the intake stroke of the piston 65 5 the cam 62 actuates the push rod 59 whereby the end 56 of the rocker arm 48 is elevated upwardly thereby causing the end 41 of the rocker arm. to act against the upper end of the intake valve stem thereby forcing the stem downwardly. The70 intake valve head 45 is moved from lts seat 48 to permit the f uel charge to pass from the -inlet 25 through the chambers i9, 20 and 3l to the combustion chamber 9. i
.tust prior to the beginning of the exhaust' stroke 75 The cover is suitis' accesso of the piston 5 the exhaust cam 68 actuates the push rod 7|, thereby forcing the end tl of the rocker arm downwardly, whereby the inner end le of the rocker arm is caused to move upwardly against the collar 'l for the purpose of elevating the exhaust valve from contact with its' seat, and the burned fuel gases are permitted to be forced from the combustion chamber 9, through the bore 2S, into the exhaust outlet IIB.
Just prior to the explosion stroke of the piston 5, and immediately' after the compression stroke of the piston, electrical current is received by the electrode 93 whereby a spark is adapted to jump the gap between the electrode and the upper end of the electrode 9| and the electrical current continues downwardly through the electrode. When the piston 5 has reached its uppermost p0- .sition the upper end It of the electrode i3 is -igniting the compressed charge of fuel within the combustion chamber s.
The inner surface of the exhaust valve head llt is aligned with the inner surface |05 ot the engine head 3. Therefore, the compression with- 'Iin the combustion chamber has no eifectgin causlng opening or closing movements of the exhaust valve. Also, the lower end |06 of the exhaust valve guide 'is has its inner surface inclined downwardly and outwardly, whereby a space |87 is left between the stem 'il of the exhaust valve it, and the lower end ot the guide le, when the valve it is in downward or seated position as shown in Fig. l. When the valve 'le is in its open position, as shown in Fig. 2, the downwardly and outwardly curved outer surface, or heel itt of the exhaust valve head 86, nts the contour of the inner surface of the lower end of the valve guide 'le whereby only the contact or seating surface it@ of the exhaust valve head 86 is exposed to contact of the burned fuel gases which escape from the chamber 9 into theeoutlet passageway lit in' the engine head 3. Therefore, since the heel Hit shields the exhaust valve stem l?, of the exhaust valve, against contact by the heated exhaust gases, the stern 'il is adapted to remain relatively cool during operation oi the engine, particularly because the inlet charge passes in contact with the inner surface of the lower end o the exhaust valve, thereby reducing its temperature.
In Eig'. 3 there is shown a modified rocker arm lliwhich may be substituted lor either the exhaust rocker arm t@ or the intake rocker grin 53, shown in Fig. l. i
The rocker arm tri l.. has the bushing ||2 -in its hearing which is mounted on the shaft M3 which l has therethrough a bore M3'.l The aperture iid in its side wall communicates with the bore Mt Vand registers with the apenture iii in the bushing il?. The aperture llt communicates with the passageway iid in the rear or outer end lill of the rocher arm. The passageway itt communi- Vcates with the passageway llt, which is formed in the rear end of the rocker arm, and has therein the coil spring i9 the inner endof which contacts the ball itt which is adapted to contact its seat formed between the passageways il@ and lit to prevent escape of oil which may be in the passageway i iii. The other end of the-coil spring contacts the pin |2| which is screwed into the rocker arm.' Formed at the cater end of the roclser arm is a boss |22 having therethrough the passage |23 in the lower end of which is screwed the plug 82d. Between the plug |24 and lower portion ofthe outer end of the rocker arm are a plurality of plates |25 which may be removed 5 from or added to for the purpose of adjusting the plug with respect to the plunger |26, which is slidable in the passage |23, so that the clearance can be provided permitting contact in event of failure' of oil pressure normally developed by 10 the engine oil pump (not sho'wn) which by suitable means supplies oil under. pressure to the bore H3' in the shaft H3. The passageway IIB', in the rear outer end of the rocker arm, communicates with the apertures |28 and circular groove i2@ 15 inthe plunger. The apertures |28 communicate with the bore |30 of the plunger |26. The plug |3| in'the aperture |32 in the side wall of the boss |22, prevents escape of oil from the bore |30. The aperture |32 permits entrance of a drill into 20 the rear end of the arm for drilling the `passageway'iit.
An advantage of the invention is that the arrangement and construction of the exhaust valve is such that the rocker arm 66 and the coil spring 26 t2 are depended upon entirely to effect upward and downward movement, respectively, of the exhaust valve. Y
Another advantage of the invention is that the piston 5 is hollow whereby the oil within the pis- 30 ton, and which is supplied from the crank case of the engine, is adapted to maintain the top 1 ofthe piston relatively cool which results in the electrode it being maintained at a low temperature.
Still another important feature of the invention isthat the spark caused by the close proximity of the electrodegit with the lower end of the electrode 9| resultsin the compressed charge of fuel within the combustion chamber Sbeing ignited immediately above the center of the top of the piston. whereby the ignition of the fuel charges travels rapidly from the center of the combustion chamber outwardly toward the walls of the cylinder, and rapid flame propagation is obtained.
Still another advantage of the invention is that the construction and arrangement ofthe exhaust valve and the associated elements is such that the valve is adapted to'remain relatively cool.
While I believe that the form of the invention illustrated in the' drawings and referred to in the above description, as .the preferred embodiment, is eicient and practicable, yet realizing that the conditions concurrent with the adoption of the device will necessarily vary. I desire to emphasize the fact that changes in the details may be resorted to, when required, without sacrificing any of the advantages of the invention as-dened in the claims. @0
Various changes may be made in the general form and arrangement of mechanical parts described without gieparting ,from the invention. Hence I do not limit myself to the precise details of the materials or the sizeand shape thereof as 65 set forth, but consider myself at liberty to make such changes and alterations as fairly fall. within the spirit and scope of the appended and nal .application Serial Number 687,658 and Patent Nu. lgl.. April 23. 1935. both of which were e,.-
med on August a1, 1933, and entitled "internal combustion engines." What- I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In an internal combustion engine-an engine body including a head and cylinder block, said head including a bore coaxially disposed relative to the cylinder of said block, said head including a lateral exhaust passageway from said bore, a tubular exhaust valve and an inlet valve concentric'ally disposed and rnounted in said bore, said exhaust valve surrounding said inlet .valve, a tubular internal guide for said exhaust valve providing a seat at its lower end for said inlet valve, and a passageway therethrough for gas ow to the top of the cylinder, said exhaust valve extending across said exhaust passageway, said bore including a downwardly inwardly inclined seat,
- said exhaust valve head having an inclined contracting surface fitting said seat. the inner surface of said tubular exhaust valve disposed flush with the surface of the bore adjacent to and below the exhaust valve seat, means for independently actuating said valves, and a tubular guide vexternally surrounding said' tubular exhaust valve and extended across a portion of the exhaust passageway for completely covering and shielding said exhaust valve from the hot exhaust gases, -with the exception of the seating surface thereof, when the exhaust valve is open.
2. In an internal combustion engine, an engine body including a head and cylinder block, said head including a bore coaxially disposed relative to the cylinder of said block, said head including a lateral exhaust passageway from said bore, a tubular exhaust valve and an inlet valve concentrically disposed and mounted in said bore, said exhaust valve surrounding said inletvalve. a tubular internal guide `for .said exhaust valve, providing a seat at its lower end for said inlet valve and a passageway therethrough for gaa ow to the top ofI the cylinder, said exhaust., 5 valve extending across said exhaust passageway. said bore including a downwardly inwardly inclined seat, 'said exhaust valve head having an inclined contacting surface tting said seat, and
the inner surface of said tubular exhaust valve i0 disposed iush with the surfaeeof the bore adjacent to and below the exhaust valve seat.
3. In an internal combustion engine, an engine body including a head and cylinder block, said head including a bore coaxially disposed relative to the cylinder ot said block, said head including an exhaust passageway extending laterally from said bore, a tubular valve support coaxially disposed relative to said bore, an inlet valve concentrically mounted in said support and includingl 20 a head seated on the lower end thereof, ysaid support constituting a gas inlet passageway, a tubular exhaust valve siidably mounted on said support, an external guide in said head mounting said exhaust valve, said bore including a seat for said exhaust valve below said lateral exhaust passageway, said external guide having an out- AWardly dared inner surface at its lower end, and
said exhaust valve having an outwardly ared outer surface at the head end thereof corresponding to said flared surface of the guide, whereby the head end of the exhaust valve may be completely covered when the valve is open with the exception of the contacting surface of the exhaust valve.
VICTOR F. ZA'HOIDI.
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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2988071A (en) * 1955-09-26 1961-06-13 Gen Motors Corp Concentric valve internal combustion engine
US3071123A (en) * 1960-09-15 1963-01-01 Carl F Gromme Internal combustion engine
US4649872A (en) * 1981-07-20 1987-03-17 Solheim Russell G Stratified combustion engine
US5590629A (en) * 1995-09-14 1997-01-07 Caterpillar Inc. Spark ignition system of an internal combustion engine

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2988071A (en) * 1955-09-26 1961-06-13 Gen Motors Corp Concentric valve internal combustion engine
US3071123A (en) * 1960-09-15 1963-01-01 Carl F Gromme Internal combustion engine
US4649872A (en) * 1981-07-20 1987-03-17 Solheim Russell G Stratified combustion engine
US5590629A (en) * 1995-09-14 1997-01-07 Caterpillar Inc. Spark ignition system of an internal combustion engine

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