US2045776A - Method of and means for making knitted fabrics - Google Patents

Method of and means for making knitted fabrics Download PDF

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US2045776A
US2045776A US652313A US65231333A US2045776A US 2045776 A US2045776 A US 2045776A US 652313 A US652313 A US 652313A US 65231333 A US65231333 A US 65231333A US 2045776 A US2045776 A US 2045776A
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cam
needles
yarn
yarns
needle
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Laurence B Holt
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Scott and Williams Inc
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Scott and Williams Inc
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04BKNITTING
    • D04B9/00Circular knitting machines with independently-movable needles
    • D04B9/22Circular knitting machines with independently-movable needles with provision for changing the fabric construction, e.g. from plain to rib-loop fabric
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04BKNITTING
    • D04B1/00Weft knitting processes for the production of fabrics or articles not dependent on the use of particular machines; Fabrics or articles defined by such processes
    • D04B1/10Patterned fabrics or articles
    • D04B1/102Patterned fabrics or articles with stitch pattern
    • D04B1/104Openwork fabric, e.g. pelerine fabrics
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04BKNITTING
    • D04B9/00Circular knitting machines with independently-movable needles
    • D04B9/26Circular knitting machines with independently-movable needles for producing patterned fabrics
    • D04B9/38Circular knitting machines with independently-movable needles for producing patterned fabrics with stitch patterns
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2403/00Details of fabric structure established in the fabric forming process
    • D10B2403/02Cross-sectional features

Description

June 30, u. L. Bl HQLT y METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR MAKING KNITTED FABRICS l Filed Jan. 18, 1955 8 Sheets-Sheet l zaffyf/{zj 06V fc4/57.1%. A@ dv ...unnlllimmulmw X need/e5 c/eared `uneO, 1936. B HOLT 2,045,776
METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR MAKING KNITTED FABRICS Filed Jan. 18, 1933 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 June 30, 1936.` L, B HQLT 2,()45,776
METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR MAKING KNITTED FABRICS Filed Jan. 18, 1935 8 SheetS-Sheet 4 Z@ j/- JIL-VIV P/ JVM/V O need/e5 ed Zggrwz ZZ @y Jun 30, 1936. B. HOL-r 2,045,776
METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR MAKING KNITTED FABRICS Filed Jan. 18, 1935 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 l R l/ 252g' .f5 Kilt/1 www ,35g I j;
y; f O need/es ed ed lrzdfzor 2 L. B. HOLT KING KNITTED FABRICS 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 June 3o, 193s. 2,045,776 A METHOD` OF AND MEANS FOR MA l Filed Jan. 18, 1935` l.. B. HO LT June 30, 1936.
METHOD oF AND MEANS MOR MAKING MNITTED FABRICS 8 sheets-sheet 8 Filed Jan. 18, 1933 Kayla Patented June! 30, i936 amant n attains ME'AHGD @F ND MEANS FOR KNITEED FRICS Laurence B. Holt, Laconia., N. H., assignor to Scott & Williams, incorporated, New York N. il., a'corporation of Massachusetts application sanitary is, i933, ser-iai No. 652,313
9 Claims. (Cl. dii-42) "This invention pertains to the art of knitting and relates more particularly to a novel method of and apparatus for knitting single face or plain fabrics, and to certain novel fabrics pro- 5 duced by such apparatus and method. The class of fabrics 'to which the present invention relates are in general distinguished bya small all-over pattern on the front or right side and by the presence of a multitude of oats of yarn at the l back or rear side. In most instances the front of the fabric shows a diaper pattern characterized by the presence of an opening or openings within the boundaries of each figure (resulting from the inclusion of tuck stitches and/or float stitches) and by more or less elevated lines or areas,'for example, `diagonally extending rows of sinker loops forming the borders of the pattern gures, or tuck stitches containing a multiplicity 4of yarn bights such as to cause a stitch or stitches to project from the plane of the fabric to form an accent point in the figure. In fabrics of this class the usual needle wales are so distorted as to become substantially,unrecognizable, and such ribs as may appear' extend diagonally or transversely, rather than lengthwise of the fabrics.
Fabrics of -this general class are sufficiently elastic for use in garments; they show a marked tendency to resist runs when a yarn is ruptured; and by reason of their ornamental and often sheer and gauzy eiect, they are particularly useful in the manufacture of vunderwear or other articles in which daintiness or delicacy of appearance is requisite, but are to be distinguished from knitted fabrics in which eyelets or patterns are produced by transferring loops from one needle to another, the fabrics herein disclosed being produced rapidly upon machines of simple type and without recourse to transfer.
Characteristic of fabricsv of the class herein described is the fact that in any givenmwale, groups, each consisting of a plurality of predetermined stitch formations, alternate With groups differently constituted, While in adjoining Wales these respective groups are staggered. As herein specifically disclosed the desire'd effectsl are obtained by the employment of a plurality of yarns, for example, a body yarn and a facing yarn (although a greater number of component yarns may be employed) at each knitting'point, and in the knitting operation both yarns knit in plating relation Iwhile forming the stitches constituting one kind of group, but in some at least of the stitches of another kind of group, the facing yarn-is floated to the rear of the backing yarn.
n most vinstances some of the stitches of said second group are tucked and contain bights of two or more yarns andl in some instances have a float of another yarn at the rear side. The character and successive .arrangement of the a stitches of the second group determines the distinctive pattern upon the face of the fabric.
In accordance with the preferred method, y knitting simultaneously proceeds at a plurality of knitting points and at each point a plurality lo of yarns is fed. The needles are so actuated' and the yarns are delivered rin such relation that in. a plurality of successive courses a given needle will knit stitches all of like character, for example, each having two yarns in plating relation, l5 while an adjoining needle, in knitting loops of corresponding courses, knit stitches some at least of which are different from those knit by the first-named needle; for example, these stitches made on the second needle may comprise one yarn floated behind the other. When both needles have thus knitted in the production of a predetermined number of courseatheir respec- 3 tive modes of operation are reversed, so that now the second needle knits a succession of stitches 25 identical with those previously made by the first needle, while the latter now knits stitches, some of whichoat least are different from those which it first knits. Each pair of adjacent needles thus knits first according to one mode and then according to a different mode, the resultant fabric having the characteristics above noted.
Conveniently, and as here illustrated, I employ a multifeed circular knitting machine having an even number of feeds, for example, amal chine having eight feeds. At each feed or knitting point, appropriate yarn feed devices vand knitting cams are arranged.
Diiiiculty has heretofore been Aexperienced in knitting oat stitches on machines of large diam- 40,
eter (such as a multifeed machine of the kind just referred to) due tothe fact that if the facing yarn is given a lead sufficient to wrap about the non-float needles, it does not lie` high enough onl the needle cheeks to allow it to rollback over the top of the oat needle. In accordance with the present invention this diiiculty is overcome by causing the non-float needle to clear and rise high enough to take the facing yarn before the float needles are cleared, and by making the lead for the facing yarn just long enough to cause the yarn to wrap about the non-oat needles. at a point just above the tops of the oat needles as the latter now move upwardly to clear. Preferably the heads of the needles are forwardly offset or bent, and the rising of the up-going float needle is so timed as to cause the facing yarn to roll over the back of its head vWhile the float needle completes its upward movement. Then, in descending, all of the needles take the backing yarn.
In 'the accompanying drawings I have illustrated various fabrics of the class above referred to together with mechanism useful in the production of each of these illustrated fabrics as exemplifying the general class to which these fabrics belong and the proper arrangement of apparatus whereby such fabrics may be produced, but with the understanding that the invention is not narrowly restricted to fabrics or to the production of fabrics speically like those herein illustrated but relates broadly to a method of and apparatus for producing fabrics of this general class and to certain types of fabric falling within said class.l
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic elevation of a development of one-half of the cam cylinder of a circular knitting machine embodying the present invention; n
Fig. la is an elevation similar to Fig. 1, showing the diametrically opposite half of the cam cylinder of the same machine;
Fig. lb is a reproduction of a photomicrograph of the front face of fabric knitted by a machine employing cams arranged asshown in Figs. l and 1a; f
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the kind and sequence of fundamental stitch formations making up a repeat of the fabric of Fig. 1b, but without attempt to show the variations in loop length due to inclusion in or omission of yarns from certain of the constituent stitch formations;
Fig. 1d is a chart illustrating the kind and sequence of stitch formations employed in the fabric of Fig. 1b;
Figs. 2 and 21 are views corresponding to Figs. l and la, but showing a dierent arrangement of cams from that of Fig. l;
Fig. 2b is a reproduction of a photomicrograph of fabric knitted by the use of cams arranged as shown in Figs. 2 and`2;
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic illustration similar to Fig. 1, but illustrating the `stitch formation resulting from the employment of the cams oi' Figs. 2 and 2a;
Fig. 2d is a chart illustrating the sequence of stitch formations in the fabric of Fig. 2b;
Figs. 3 and 3EL are views similar'to Figs. 1 and l, but showing a further arrangement of cams:
Fig. 3b is a reproduction of a photomicrograph of the fabric knitted by means of the cam arrangements of Figs. 3 and 3*;
Fig. 3c is a diagrammatic illustration similar.
to Fig. 1, but showing the stitch arrangement produced by the cams of Figs. 3 and 3*;
Fig. 3d is a chart illustrating the sequence of stitch formations in the production of the fabric shown in Fig. 3b;
Figs. 4 and. iEL are views similar to Figs. 1 and 1*, but showing a modified arrangement of cams; Fig. 4 is a reproduction of a photomicrograph illustrating the rear face of fabric knitted by .means of the cams of Figs. 4 and 4;
1 and le', but showing a further arrangement of cams;
Fig. 5b is a reproduction of a photomicrograph of the rear face of fabric produced by the mechanism of Figs. 4 and 4;
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic illustration similar to Fig. 1, but showing the fabric structure produced by the mechanism of Figs. 5 and ISE;
Fig. 5d is a chart showing the sequence of stitch formations of Fig. 5b;
Figs. 6 and 6 are views similar to Figs. 1 and l, showing a still further arrangement of cams;
Fig. 6b is a reproduction of a photomicrograph of fabric produced by the cam arrangements of Figs. 6 and 6a;
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic illustration of the fabric of Fig. 6b;
Fig. 6d is a chart showing the stitch distribution in the fabric of Fig. 6b;
Figs. 7 and '7a are views similar to Figs. l and 1B, illustrating another cam arrangement;
Fig. 7b is a reproduction of a photomicrograph of fabric produced by the cams of Figs. 7 and 7a; Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic illustration of the fabric of Fig. 7b;
Fig. 7d is a chart indicating the stitch formation of Fig. 7b;
Fig. 8 is a diagram, in perspective, illustrating the successiveelevations of the needles of two sets at a given feed point and the manner of delivering a facing and a body yarn respectively to the needles;
Fig. 9 is a vertical section illustrating a pair of needles so positioned as to permit a yarn fed to one needle to pass behind the latter as said needle rises; y
Fig. 10 is a radial section illustrating the general arrangement of needle carrier and cam carrier in a machine of the class herein disclosed; and Figs. 1X, 2", 3X, 4X, 5X, 6? and 7X are reproductions, to enlarged scale, of photographs of the several fabrics herein described.
By the present invention I provide for .the knitting of a variety of fabrics all belonging to the same genus and distinguished from other fabrics, but having unlike groups of stitch formations alternating in each wale, the like groups in adjacentwales being staggered.
In the patent to Smith No. 1,772,230, dated August 5, 1930, there is disclosed one fabric belonging to the general class to which the present invention relates. In said patent the fabric disclosed is described as knitted upon a single feed hosiery machine by the employment of needle controlling pattern means of complex type, and as therein disclosed the same pair of yarns is concerned course after course in the knitting of the fabric. In accordance with the present invention I provide means whereby fabric having the same general stitch formations as that disclosed in the patent to Smith, for example, may be knit expeditiously and at high speed by the use of simple knitting instrumentalities without resort to complicated pattern mechanism and with possibility for further ornamentation by means of color changeur the like which can only be attained with difficulty, if at all, by the use of the method and apparatus disclosed in said patent to Smith.
In the patent to Smith a single species of fabric is disclosed, such fabric being referred to as diagonal network and being commonly known in the trade as diamond mesh fabric. This fabric, as is common to fabrics of the generai `'amarre class to which it belongs, is a one-face or plain fabric and is distinguished by capacity to stretch in either dimension of the fabric with concomitant contraction in the other direction.
In accordance with the present invention, fabric having the general appearance of that disclosed in the Smith patent,.but structurally differing therefrom in that in the new fabric sucvbedI of the machine (Fig. 10) is stationary and supports the stationary needle carrier or cylinder 2 having the usual vertical slots 3 for the reception of vertically sliding needles. The series of needles is divided into two sets, distinguished by long and short butts 8 and l (Fig. 9), respectively. As here illustrated, the needles of one set alternate with those of the other set,
but other groupings of the long and short buttv -needles may obviously be employed, if desired, for
example, groupseach containing two or more l long butts, alternating withl groups each containing two or more short butts. The bed plate of the machine is provided with bearings for the rotating gear ring 8 upon which are removably -mounted segmental blocks 9 to which the several sets of knitting cams, respectively, are secured. These segmental blocks 9 are removably secured to the ring 8 as by means of bolts I8, and preferably these blocks are of uniform and like dimensions so that any one block may be substituted for another. Ashere shown the machine is 4provided with the usual sinker bed il and sinkers which cooperate with the needles at the verge I2 of the cylinder to form the stitches.
The machine herein disclosed by way of illustration is a machine of large diameter such as is commonly employed for knitting underwear, and is provided with eight feed points and corresponding sets of needle actuating cams, and at each feedpoint provision is made for delivering at least two yarns :r and y respectively. Two
yarn guides M and N at one of the feeds are shown in Fig. 8 of the drawings. For convenience in description, I shall hereinafter employ the term stitch formation as inclusive of all such yarn arrangements as plain knitted loops, tuck loops, floats, dropstitches, etc., whether comprising a single yarn or a plurality of yarns, pro-v duced by the action of a given needle in performing its intended sequence of operations.
Referring to Figs. 1 and l, the cam arrangement formaking a diamond mesh fabric, similar in stitch formation to that shown in the abovenamed patent to Smith, comprises eight sets of cams A, B, C, D,E, F, G and H respectively, each set of cams being mounted as above described on one of the segmental blocks 9. The
cam set A, for,` example, comprises a stitch cam I4 and preferably a bottom cam I5 designed to limit down-throw of the needles. The cam set also` preferably includes the upper and lower cams I6 and Il, providing between them a needle groove into which the butts of all of the needles pass after leaving the stitch cam I4.
Preceding the stitch cam are two needle lifting cams I8 and I9 respectively, the cam I8 being in advance of the cam I9. The cam I8 is furnishedwith a needle depressing ledge 20 of a thickness such as to engage the long butt nee.- dles but not to engage the short butt needles. This cam ledge 20 thus causes long butt needles which come in the field of action of this cam set to move downwardly into the groove 2|, while short butt needles are elevated by cam I8 to the clearing level and delivered into the groove 22. The cam I9 has a clearing portion 23, located at a point'between the cam l'and the cam i4, which is adapted to raise the long butt needles to substantially the same high level as the elevated short butt needles.
Referring again to Fig. 8, the yarn feed guide M delivers the facing yarn :r at a point with just sufficient lead to wrap it about the non-float needles (which, at the cam set A, are the short butt needles 6) above the needle cheeks and below the needle hooks but above the tops of the oat l needles (the long butt needles E at cam set A) which are just beginning to rise along the slope of the cam 23. The facing yarn :x: as delivered by the guide 'M wraps around the non-iloat needles behind these needles.
The body yarn y is ied from the guide N, but at such a point that it wraps around both sets of needles after the iloat needles have been elevated by the cam 23. Thus the yarn y is taken in the hooks of both sets of needles. As the non-float needles already have been fed with yarn .'c, the
depression of these needles by the cam i 4 causes the yarns :c or y to be drawn into stitches in which the two yarns are disposed in plating relation',
while, on the other hand, the float needles, which have received the yarn y only, knit single loop stitches from this yarn whilev floating yarn a; at
the back.
At this point it may be noted that while but tw guides M and N are illustrated, other guides and other yarns may be employed, as is obvious to those skilled in the art, either in substitution for the yarns a: and y or, in some cases,"in addition thereto.
After passing the cams I4 and i5, the needles of both sets rise into the groove defined by the cams i6 and I1 and are eventually delivered to the next cam' set B for actuation by the latter. As shown in Fig. 1, the'cam sets A, B, C and D are substantially identical, except that the cam Il of the set D is cut-away at 24 to permit delivery of theneedle butts at a level for proper engagement with the cam 25 of the next set E, it
being understood that the set E follows directly in sequence after the cam set D. As shown in Fig. le, the cam set E comprises a stitch cam I4 similar to the stitch cams of the preceding sets, but instead of the cams I8 and I9 of the preceding sets, the set E is furnished with a cam v25 having a cam slope 25 adapted to raise the long butt needles into the groove 26, at which point they are cleared. 'This cam 25 also has a cut-away portion 2l provided with a cam slope 2la adapted to raisel the short butt needles to the clearing position at a point subsequent to that at which the long butt needles are cleared. At this cam set E the yarns are fed in substantially the same Way as at the cam sets previously referred to, but since the long and short butt needles are raised in f The cam sets F, G and Hare identicalwith the `cam set E, except that whereas the cam Il of the set E is cut away at 24, the cam il of the set H has-a riser 28 adapted to deliver the needles at the proper elevation for engagement by the cam slope 20 of the cam I8 of set A.
While but two series of cam sets A, B, C, D and E, F, G, H are here illustrated as collectively taking up the entire circumference of the cam cylinder, it is to be understood that in machines of greater diameter, these two series might be repeated as many times as space would permit.
Referring to Fig. 1, the fabric resulting from the employment of the cams of Figs. 1 and 1 is indicated diagrammatically but without reference to the actual effects produced due to the shift in adjacent needle Wales from one stitch formation to another and the consequent distortion of normal needle and sinker loops. In this gure the needle wales knitted upon low and high butt needles respectively are designated at the upper part of the view by the letters L and H and the intervening sinker wales by the letter Z. The facing and body yarns are designated o: and y respectively, and the courses knitted at the cam sets A, B, etc., are indicated bythe letters a, b, etc. Thus, referring to the left-hand needle Wale produced on the low-butt needles L, the stitch formation in course a includes both yarns a: and y in plating relation. 'Ihis is also true in courses b, c and d. On the other hand, in the corresponding courses in the next needle Wale knitted on the high butt needles, each of the stitch formations comprises a single knitted loop of the yarn y with the yarn :r floating at the rear of the fabric. At the course e the low butt needle knits a single loop of the yarn y while floating the yarn rr, and the same stitch formation is pro-V duced in the succeeding courses f. g land h, while in the corresponding coursesof the next adjacent Wale knitted on the high butt needles each needle knits both yarns in plating relation.
- The resulting fabric1 as actually formed by the machine, has the general appearance indicated in Fig. 1X, which is a reproduction of an enlarged photograph of the fabric, while its actual structure is shown in Fig. 1b. Since both yarns employed in forming the fabric illustrated were of like material (rayon) and of the same color and twist, the plated arrangement can not well be distinguished in the fabric as produced, but the diagonal arrangement of the raised sinker wales z is readily noticeable in Fig. 1x. In the patent to Smith, above referred to, the reason for the production of these diagonally extending sinker wales is fully d iscussed and need not be repeated here, it being sufficient to refer to the statement made therein that the results attained occur when, in knitting loops from yarns knit in plated relation systematically alternated with a single yarn knit in a flanking wale of the same course.' any mode of knitting is resorted to which will be competent to produce a relatively unyielding structure at the initiation of a wale of loops in one only of the component yarns; for example, when the alternated relationship between a wale knit by a needle taking both yarns and the Wale knit by a needle taking only one is regularly reversed after a certain plurality of courses so that the needle which took both yarns then takes one only, and the needle which took the single yarn thereafter takes both.
While in the patent one mode and mechanism useful in providing one specific example of this genus of fabrics is disclosed, said patent indicates onlythat method and that fabric which results from the employment of a single yarn feed with appropriately arranged needle selecting pattern devices. In the present arrangement the resulting fabric, as above pointed out, differs from that of the Smith patent in that the same pair of yarns recurs only once in eight successive courses. Thus, if it be desired, highly'ornamental results may be attained by the use of differently colored yarns at successive yarn feeds or by the use of yarns of different materials or different twist. Y
Fig. 1d is a chart such as may be used by the knitter in setting up the cam arrangements of Figs. l and l in order that he may attain the results above described.
While the simple diamond mesh fabric above referred to is representative of the class of fabrics to which the present invention relates and has been found highly useful, for example, for hosiery knitting, I have now discovered that other fabrics belonging to the same general class but differing markedly from the fabric of Fig. 1b may be produced in a manner similar to the fabric of Fig. 1b but by slightly different arrangements of the cam sets of the machine.
Thus, as shown in Figs. 2 and 2, the cani sets A to H correspond in general to those of Figs. l and la. In fact, the cam sets A, B and C may be identical with the cam sets A, B and C of Fig. l,
Y While the cam sets E, F and G of Fig. 2a are identical with the corresponding sets of Fig. la. However, the cam sets D and H of Figs. 2 and 2a differ from the cam sets D and H of Figs. 1 and 11e in that their cams I9 and 25, respectively, are cut away at 23a and 28, respectively, so that needles elevated by these cams only reach the tuck point. Thus in passing the cam I9 of set D the long butt needles do not rise high enough to clear their stitches, and thus they form tucks of the backing yarn and also float the facing yarn. Likewise the short butt needles in passing the cam 25 fail to clear their stitches and so form tucks of the' backing yarn and also float the facing yarn.
Referring to Fig. 2, the resulting fabric is diagrammatically illustrated. In course a (knitted on cam set A) the low butt needle' needles take both yarns and knit. In the courses 60 a, b and c the high butt needles knit stitches from the yarn y only while floating the yarn a:
` at the back. However, at the cam set D, the
high butt needles tuck the backingyarn y whilel floating the facing yarn The general appearance of the resulting fabric is shown in Fig. 2X, while its actual structure as produced by the machine is illustrated in Fig. 2b. In Fig. 2x it will be noted that the tuck stitch at o produces an opening of substantial size in the fabric, while l the sinker wales z are thrown into prominence and set oil the fabric into geometric patterns, each including one of the tuck stitch openings within its borderss Fig. 2d is a chart to assist the knitter in setting up the cam sequence shown in Figs. 2 and 2B. Figs. 3 and 3a illustrate another arrangement for knitting a further form of this class of fabrics. In Figs. 3 and 3il the cam sets are identical with the cam sets of Figs. 2 and 2a but whereas the yarns x and y are fed at spaced points, as
'shown in Fig. 8, at all of the feeds of Figs. 2 and 2a, they are thus fed only at cam sets A, B, C, E, F and G of Figs. 3 and 3, but at the cam sets Dy and H, both yarns are delivered at the same point and so that both yarns are taken by all of the needles. The resultant fabric is diagram matically illustrated in Fig. 3c. The left-hand wale is produced by a short butt needle and in course a this needle, which carries both yarns of the previous course h in the form of a tuck loop, now takes both yarns :r and y and casts o a tuck stitch comprising four yarns. In the subsequent courses b, c and d this needle takes the yarns a: and y and knits stitches with the two yarns in plating relation. In the next adjacent needle Wale, in courses a, b and c the long butt needle knits the yarn y while the yarn :c is floated at the rear. In course d both yarns a: and y are taken by the long butt needle but are retained as a duplex tuck loop, which is afterward cast olf as a quadruple tuck stitch p in course e upon the yarns :c and y delivered at thev corresponding feed.
-The general appearance of .resulting fabric is 'indicated in Fig. 3X and its actual structure in Fig. 3b. This fabric is characterized, not only by the diagonal outstanding sinker wales e forming more or less lozenge shape figures, but by very pronounced, knot-like projections u (Fig. 3b) at the intersections of these lozenge-shaped gures, such projections being produced by the four-ply loops of the tuck stitches. A chart for assisting the knitter in'setting up this cam arrangement is shown in Fig. 3d.
' both sets of needles;
Figs. 4 and 4a illustrate a further cam arrangement for producing another fabric of the genus. In this cam set-up the cams of the sets A and C are substantially alike and arranged to cause the high butt needles to float and the low butt needles to knit both yarns at each feed. On the other hand, the cams i9 of the sets B and D are cut. away at 23j so as to cause the long butt needles to tuck at these points and thusto form tuck loops of both yarns. In the same way the cams of sets E and G are arranged to form floats on the short butt needles and to knit both yarns'on the long butt needles, while the cams of sets F and H are arranged to knit both yarns on the long butt needles and to tuck the body yarn and float the facing yarn on the short butt needles. At cam sets A, C, E, F, G and H, the two yarns a: and y are delivered in spaced relation as in Fig. 8, while at cam sets B and4 D both yarns are delivered together so as-to be taken and knit by The fabric construction is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 4 wherein, in the left-hand Wale produced by the short butt needles` the needle which has tucked the body yarn y and floated the yarn a: in passing the cam s'et H, takes and knits the body yarn and the facing yarn (at cam set A in course a) with the previously tucked single loop of the body yarn. In courses b, c and d the same needle takes and knitlii'oth yarns in plating relation. In the adjacent wale (knitted by the high butt needle) the body yarn y is knit in course a while the facing yarn .r floats. In course b both yarns are taken by the needle and held as tuck loops. In course cthe long butt needle takes the body yarn y, which is combined with the withheld loops of course b to form a triple tuck stitch n, and oats the backing yarn In course d both yarns :c and y are tucked and at the next course cast off to form quadruplex tuck stitches m.
The general appearance of the fabricis shown in Fig. 4X while the structure at the back side of the fabric is illustrated in Fig. 4b, which clearly indicates the multiplicity of floats l which substantially cover the entire back. In this fabric, as in the preceding fabrics, the sinker wales at the front of the material are prominent, While the occurrence of pairs of multiple tuck loops in succession gives the appearance of transverse ribs. Fig. 4d is a chart to assist in setting up the cam arrangement of Fig. 4.
Referring to Figs. 5 and 5B, an arrangement of cams is disclosed'substantially identical with that of Figs. 4 and 4B, but in this arrangement the yarns are delivered at the cam sets B, D, F and H at a single feed point such that both yarns are always taken by the needles of both sets, whereas at the feeds A, C, E and G theyarns are fed y at spaced points, as illustrated in Fig. 8, so that while the facing yarn is floated behind one set of needles, both yarns` are taken and knitted by the other set.
In Fig. 56 this fabric is diagrammatically illus trated, it being noted that in the left-hand wale (formed on the short butt needles) the needle in approaching the cam set A, carries both yarns in a tuck loop received from the preceding cam set H, which is knit on with a pair of loops received at cam set A to form a quadruplex tuck stitch. In this wale, in courses b, c and d, both.
yarns are taken and knitted. In the corresponding course a of the adjacent Wale (knitted on the .long butt needle) the yarn y is taken and knitted While the yarn c: is floated. In course b both yarns are taken and held as a tuck loop which is knitted o in course c with the single yarn y, while the yarn is floated. In course d both yarns are taken but retained as a tuck loop, which is knitted oir as a quadruplex tuck stitch m in the next course e. I'he general appearance of this fabric is shown in Fig. 5X, while the structure substantially the center of each figurethere is an opening t (Fig. 5x) resulting from the stretching of the single yarn loop lc (Fig.` 5c) lying immediately below the triple tuck stitch. Fig. 5d is a diagram to assist in setting up the cam arrangement of Figs. 5 and 5B.
Figs. 6 and 6a not only show the cam arrangement for a further species of fabric, but also show the yarn feeds and the paths of lthe needles in taking the yarns. In these figures the cam sets A, C, E and G are substantially identical with those of Fig. l, while in cam vsets B, D, and F, I-I arrangement is made for tucking the long and short' butt needles, respectively. In accordance with the arrangement shown in these figures, the body and facing yarns are fed in spaced relation at cam sets A, C. D, E, G and II, but both the backing facing yarns are fed at the same feed point at cam sets B and F. Thus, while at the c am sets A and C the short butt needles takeand knit both yarns and the long butt needles float the facing yarn, at cam set B the short butt needles take and knit both yarns while the long butt needles tuck both yarns, and at cam set D the short butt needles take and knit both yarns while the long butt needles float the facing yarn 10 and tuck the backing yarn. Likewise at cam sets E and G the long butt needles take and knit both yarns and the short butt needles float the facing yarn, while at cam set F the long butt needles take and knitboth yarns and the vshort butt needles tuck both yarns, and at cam set H the long butt needles take and knite both yarns while the short butt needles float the facing yarn and tuck the backing yarn.
This fabric is diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 6. In this figure the short butt needle, in making the left-hand Wale, carriesA a single tucked loop of Athe backing yarn, from the preceding' course, which is cast off with loops of the backing and facing yarn to form a stitch in course a. In courses b, c and d both yarns are taken and knitted. In course a of the adjacent wale (knitted by the long butt needle) a single loop y of the backing yarn is knitted while the yarn a: oats. In course b both yarns :c and y' are taken and held as a tuck loop which is cast off with a single loop y of the backing yarn in course c to form a triple tuck stitch n while the corresponding yarn a: floats. In course d.this
needle takes and holds a loop of the backing yarn y to form a tuck stitch, while the yarn :i: floats,
and this tucked loop y is' cast off in the subsequent course e with loops of the yarns y and :z: delivered at the cam set E to form a triple tuck stitch m.
40 The general appearance of the fabric is shown in Fig. 6x, while the structure at the rear side 'is shown in Fig. 6b, the large number of float stitches being clearly indicated. The front of this fabric exhibits the appearance of transverse ribs with diagonal series of depressions, the ribs being produced by projections formed by the pairs of successive tuck stitches, n, m, indicated in Fig. 6. In this case both tuck stitches contain triple loops, the tuck stitch m being thrown out into prominence while the single loop lc below the tuck stitch n is stretched to form an opening q (Fig. 6*). Fig. 6d is a diagrammatic chart to assist in setting up the machine for this fabric.
Figs. 'l and 7 illustrate a further arrangement of cams. In Fig. 7 the cam arrangement is substantiauy identical with that shown in Fig. 4, for
example, while the cam arrangement shown in Fig. '7 is substantially like that shown in Fig. 6.
60 However, the yarn feed at cam sections A and C is substantially such asv shown in Fig. 8, the two yarns a: and y being delivered at spaced points, while at cam sections B and D b'oth yarns are also fed at spaced points. At cam sections E and-G the yarns are fed at spaced points as in the corresponding sections in Fig. 1-, and at cam sections F and H the yarns are likewise fed at spaced points.
The resulting fabric is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 7. The left-hand wale is produced by the short butt needle. In course a this needle carries a single tucked loop of the body yarn y of the preceding course and casts this off with loops of the facing yarn and backing yarn to form a triple tuck stitch. In thesucceedlng courses b, c and d'this needle likewise takes and casts off both yarns in plating relation. In the corresponding course a of the next needle Wale, the high butt needle takes the yarn y but floats the yarn x, while in the next course it takes the 5 yarn y as a tuck 1 oop and foats the yarn 1:. This tuck loop is -cast off in the next course c with another bight of the yarn y to form the duplex tuck stitch n, while another oat of the yarn :c is formed. In course d this needle takes 10 and holds a tuck loop of the body yarn y and floats the yarn In course e this needle takes both yarns and casts them off with loop y of the preceding course to form a triple tuck m. In course f this needle takes both yarns and casts 15 them off, and in the subsequent courses g and h this needle takes both yarns and casts them off as knitted stitches.
The general appearance of this fabric is shown in Fig. 7x, while its structure is illustrated in 20 Fig. '7b. Here again the sinker wales form diagonals, while the successive duplex and triple tuck stitches form prominent projections at the face of the fabric, the single loop stitches'lc (Fig.
7) occurring immediately before the first tuck 25 stitch n of a pair, being stretched widely so as to form an opening q (Fig. 7 1) in the fabric. Fig. 7d is a chart to assist in setting upthe cam structure of Figs. '7 andv'l.
Since the fabric is knitted by the simultaneous 30 action of a plurality of cam sets and corresponding feeds, it can be produced very rapidly, but without recourse to pattern mechanism, needle selecting jacks, or other complicated devices of the prior art. Moreover, as above noted, only 35 two types of cam sets are employed in each series, and these sets maybe interchangeably disposed in any desired sequence to produce the effects described. However, as noted, all of the resultant fabrics have a common characteristic distinctive of the genus to which they belong, it being understood, however, that the number of stitch formations in the alternating groups of any given wale may be varied at will.
I claim: 45
1. That method of making fabric of the class described which comprises as steps dividing a series of knitting needles into two sets, the needles of one set alternating with those of the other, causing the entire series to move relatively 50 to a plurality of successive yarn feeds, delivering two yarns at each feed, causing the needles of one set always to take and knit both yarns at a plurality of such successive feeds while causing some at least of the needles of the second set 55 always to take and knit but one of the yarns at certain of said feeds and others of said second set to form tuck loops at certain of said feeds, and thereafter causing the second set of needles to knit both yarns at each of a plurality of such 60 successive feeds while causing certain needles 'of the first set to take and knit but one of the yarns delivered at certain of said latter feeds and causing others of said first set of needles to form tuck loops at certain of said latter feeds. 65 2. That method of makingfabric of the class described which comprises as steps dividing a series of knitting needles into two sets, the needles of one set alternating with those of the other, causing the entire series to move relatively to a plurality of successive yarn feeds, delivering two yarns at each feed, causing the needles ofl one set always to take and knit both yarns at a plurality of such successive feeds while causing some, at least, of the needles of the second set always T5 to `take but one of thevyarns delivered at certain of said -feeds and to form tuck loops from. said one yarn while oating the other yarn at the rear, and thereafter causing all of the needles of the second set to take and knit both yarns in plating relation at each of a plurality of such successive feeds while causing certain needles, at least, of the first set to take but one of the yarns delivered at certain at least of said latter feeds and to formtuck loops from said one yarn while floating the other yarn at the rear.
3. That method of making fabric of the class described which comprises as steps dividing a series of knitting needles into two sets, the neei dles of one set alternating with those of the other set, causing the series to move relatively to a succession of yarn feeds, delivering a pair of yarns at each of said feeds, causing the needles of one set always to take and knit both yarns at each of a series of said feeds while causing the needles of said second set always to take and tuck one yarn of a pair while floating the other yarn of a pair at each of certain at least of saidfeeds, and subsequent to the initiation of a number of courses, equaling the number of feeds in said series, causing the needles of the second set always to take and knit both yarns at each of anv other series of said feeds while causing the needles of the first set always to take and tuck one yarn of a pair while floating the other yarn of a pair at each of certain at least of said latter feeds.
4. That method of making fabric of the class described which comprises as steps dividing a series of knitting needles into two sets,the needles of one set alternating with those of the other set, causing the series to move relatively to a succession of yarn feeds, delivering a pair of yarns at each of said feeds, causing the needles of one set always to take and knit both yarns at each' of a series of said feeds while causing the needles of the second set always to take and knit one yarn of a pair at certain of said series of feeds while floating the other yarn at the back, and at another of said feeds causing the needles of said second set always to take and tuck one yarn ofa pair and to float the other yarn at the back, and, subsequent to the initiation of a number of courses equallng the number of feeds in said series, causing the needles of the second set always to take and knit both yarns at each of a series of said feeds while causing the needles of the first set to take and tuck one yarn and to float the other yarn of a pair at certain of said latter feeds.
5. A knitting machine of the class described comprising a needle carrier, needles therein, aly ternate needles being of different kinds, two series of yarn feeds each having means for Vdelivering a pair of yarns and two corresponding series of cam sets, means for moving the needle carrier relatively to the yarn feeds, one set of needle actuating cams being adjacent to each yarn feed, each cam set of each series' containing a needle lifting cam, the lifting cams of one series always cooperating with needles of one kind only and the lifting cams of the following series always cooperating with needles of the second kind only, each set of cams of the first series comprising a second cam arranged to actuate needles of the second kind subsequent to the actuation of needles by said first cams, and each set of cams of the next series comprising a second cam arranged to actuate needles of the first kind subsequent to the actuation of needles .by the nrst cam of the set, said second cams being clearing cams in certain sets of each series and being tucking cams in other sets of each series.
6. A circular knitting machine'comprising a needle carrier, needles therein, alternate needles -having long and short butts respectively, eight yarn feeds each having means for delivering a pair of yarns, I'neans for moving the needle carrier relatively to the yarn feeds, and a set of needle actuating cams adjacent to each feed, each 10 cam set comprising a needle clearing cam, the clearing cams of four successive sets always cooperating with the short butt needles only, and the clearing cams of the four following sets always cooperating with the long butt needles only, l5 each of the first four sets of cams also including a second cam cooperable with the long butt needles subsequent to the-action o f the clearing cam, and each of the following four sets of cams including a second cam cooperable with the short butt needles subsequent to the action of the clearing cam, the second cam of certain sets being a tucking cam and the second cam of other sets being a clearing cam, the several sets of cams being interchangeable with one another. 25
7. A knitting machine of the class described comprising a needle carrier, needles therein, alternate needles being of different kinds, two series of yarn feeds each having means for delivering a `pair of yarns and two corresponding series of cam sets, means for-moving the needle carrier relatively to the yarn feeds, one set of needle actuating cams being adjacent to each yarn feed, each cam set of each series containing, a needle clearing cam, the clearing cams of one series always cooperating with needles of one kind only and the clearing cams of the following series always cooperating with needles of the second kind only, each set of cams of the first series com A prising a second cam arranged to actuate needles 4o of the second -kind subsequent to theactuation of needles by said lrst cams, and each set of cams of the next series comprising a second cam 'arranged to actuate needles of the first kind subsequent to the actuation of needles by the first cam of the set, said second cams being clearing cams in cer-tain sets of each series and being tucking cams in other sets of each series, the feeds corresponding to those sets of cams wherein they second cam is a clearing cam being arranged to 5o deliver one yarn with a greater lead than the other. 1
8. A circular knitting machine zomprising a needle carrier, needles therein, alternate needles having long and short butts respectively, eight v yarn feeds each having means for delivering a pair of yarns, means for moving the needle carrier relatively to the yarn feeds, and a set of needle actuating cams adjacent to each feed, each set of cams, comprising a needle clearing cam, the clearing cams of -four successive sets always cooperating withthe short butt needles only, and the clearing cams of the four following sets always cooperating with the long butt needles only, each of the first `four sets of cams also including a second cam cooperable with the long butt needles subsequent to the action of the clearing cam, and each of the following four sets of cams including a second cam cooperable with the short butt needles subsequent to the action of the clearing cam, the second cams of certain sets at least being'tucking cams, the yarn feed means corresponding to certain at least of the cam sets which have .the tucking cams being arranged to deliver the two yarns with diiferenaleads whereby at said feeds the needles of one setv takeland tuck one yarn while floating the other yarn.
9. A knitting machine of the class described comprising a needle carrier, needles therein, alternate needles being of different kinds, two series of yarn feeds each having means for delivering a pair of yarns and two corresponding series of 'cam sets, means .for moving the needle carrier l fixed needle clearing cam, the clearing cam of one series always cooperating with needles of one spasmi/tsl ing series always cooperating with needles of the second kind only, each set of cams oi the rst series comprising a second normally fixed cam arranged to actuate needles of the second kind subsequent to the actuation of needles by said irst cams, and each set of cams of the next series comprising a second normally xed cam arranged to actuate needles of the first kind subsequent to the actuation of needles by the first cam of the set, said second cams being clearing cams in successive sets of each series with a tucking cam in a following set of each series.
LAURENCE B. HOLT.
US652313A 1933-01-18 1933-01-18 Method of and means for making knitted fabrics Expired - Lifetime US2045776A (en)

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Cited By (10)

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US2810279A (en) * 1953-02-24 1957-10-22 Max B Striar Knitting machine
US3135104A (en) * 1961-04-10 1964-06-02 Burlington Industries Inc Stretch fabric and method of making the same
US3167941A (en) * 1961-03-07 1965-02-02 Kayser Roth Corp Knit fabric
US3197978A (en) * 1962-07-09 1965-08-03 Berkshire Internat Corp Run-resistant hosiery and method of making the same
US3212297A (en) * 1962-03-16 1965-10-19 Vac Hosiery Corp Run-proof seamless hosiery and method of making same
US3212298A (en) * 1962-05-07 1965-10-19 Vac Hosiery Corp Non-run hosiery and method of forming same
US3221517A (en) * 1956-06-22 1965-12-07 Scott & Williams Inc Knitting machine
US3457735A (en) * 1963-07-10 1969-07-29 Scott & Williams Inc Knitting methods and machines
US4838045A (en) * 1986-12-02 1989-06-13 Sport Maska Inc. Double Knit fabric with holes therethrough and knitted color bands
US4891958A (en) * 1986-11-27 1990-01-09 Sport Maska Inc. Double knit fabric with holes therethrough and knitted color bands

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1064673B (en) * 1953-07-18 1959-09-03 Max Nebel Knitted fabrics and processes for their manufacture
JP6016360B2 (en) * 2010-12-28 2016-10-26 興和株式会社 Lower leg supporter

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2810279A (en) * 1953-02-24 1957-10-22 Max B Striar Knitting machine
US3221517A (en) * 1956-06-22 1965-12-07 Scott & Williams Inc Knitting machine
US3167941A (en) * 1961-03-07 1965-02-02 Kayser Roth Corp Knit fabric
US3135104A (en) * 1961-04-10 1964-06-02 Burlington Industries Inc Stretch fabric and method of making the same
US3212297A (en) * 1962-03-16 1965-10-19 Vac Hosiery Corp Run-proof seamless hosiery and method of making same
US3212298A (en) * 1962-05-07 1965-10-19 Vac Hosiery Corp Non-run hosiery and method of forming same
US3197978A (en) * 1962-07-09 1965-08-03 Berkshire Internat Corp Run-resistant hosiery and method of making the same
US3457735A (en) * 1963-07-10 1969-07-29 Scott & Williams Inc Knitting methods and machines
US4891958A (en) * 1986-11-27 1990-01-09 Sport Maska Inc. Double knit fabric with holes therethrough and knitted color bands
US4941331A (en) * 1986-11-27 1990-07-17 Sport Maska Inc. Method of producing double knit fabric with holes therethrough and knitted color bands
US4838045A (en) * 1986-12-02 1989-06-13 Sport Maska Inc. Double Knit fabric with holes therethrough and knitted color bands

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