US2034881A - Electromagnetic relay circuits - Google Patents

Electromagnetic relay circuits Download PDF

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Publication number
US2034881A
US2034881A US672983A US67298333A US2034881A US 2034881 A US2034881 A US 2034881A US 672983 A US672983 A US 672983A US 67298333 A US67298333 A US 67298333A US 2034881 A US2034881 A US 2034881A
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Prior art keywords
relay
resistance
circuit
winding
flux
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Expired - Lifetime
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US672983A
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William H Scheer
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AT&T Corp
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Bell Telephone Laboratories Inc
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Priority to US672983A priority Critical patent/US2034881A/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H47/00Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application of the relay and designed to obtain desired operating characteristics or to provide energising current
    • H01H47/02Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application of the relay and designed to obtain desired operating characteristics or to provide energising current for modifying the operation of the relay
    • H01H47/14Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application of the relay and designed to obtain desired operating characteristics or to provide energising current for modifying the operation of the relay for differential operation of the relay

Description

w. H. SCHEER 2,034,881
Min-ch24, 1936.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAY CIRCUITS Filed May 26, 1 933 F/G.2 3 f lg f1 2 l l E j I T 1 5 2 7 F/G.4 i .LM w I T INVENTOR WHSCHEER" A TTORNE Y Patented Mar. 24, 19 36 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE William H. Scheer, Montclair, N. Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Application May 26,
2 Claims.
This invention relates to relay circuits and more particularly to means for operating relays where a variety of circuit conditions are encountered. 4
An object of the invention is to operate a relay in a uniform manner under various conditions of applied potential and circuit resistance.
Another object is to keep the magnetic flux in a relay substantially constant over a predetermined range of applied potentials.
An additional object is to operate a relay on a predetermined range of applied potentials and to render it inoperative on potentials outside'said range.
Still another object is to make the operating time of a relay uniform over a range of energizing potentials.
A feature of the present invention whereby the above stated objects are attained, resides in connecting a secondary winding on the relay in opposition to the energizing winding and in connecting a resistance element in series with said secondary winding, said resistance element having the characteristic of decreasing in resistance substantially instantaneously with an increase in applied potential.
The invention will be understood from the following description, together with the accompanying figures of the drawing in which the invention is illustrated:
Fig. 1 shows my invention applied to an electromagnetic relay circuit;
Fig. 2 is a curve illustrating certain relay characteristics obtainable in a circuit arranged according to my invention; 1
Fig. 3 is a curve illustrating other characteristics obtainable in a circuit arranged according to my invention;
Fig. 4 shows my invention applied to a slow acting relay circuit; and
Fig. 5 is a curve illustrating certain time characteristics of this relay.
In Fig. 1, 3 is an electromagnetic relay having two windings l and 2 so wound thereon that when they are connected in parallel circuits as shown, the currents through winding 2 tend to set up a magnetic field in the relay core of opposite polarity to that set up by the currents in winding I. This is indicated in the drawing by the two oppositely directed arrows. Hence, the total magnetic flux in the relay core will be the difference between that which would be caused by winding 1 and that which would be caused by winding 2 it energized independently.
windings I and 2 are in parallel circuits both J., assignor to Incorporated.
New York 1933, Serial No. 672,983
of which are connected in series with a source of electric current 5 and, for purposes of illustration, a resistance 6. In the parallel branch of the circuit which includes winding 2 is also connected a resistance element 4 which has the characteristic of substantially instantaneously decreasing its resistance to current flow with an increase in the potential difference applied across its terminals. Such an element may be the synthetic resistance material described and claimed in U. S. Patent 1,822,742 or it may be any other element known to the art which is of like characteristics.
By making windings i and 2 of relay 3 of certain desired resistance values and designing nonohmlc resistance element 4 to have the desired resistance-voltage characteristics a circuit may be obtained wherein relay 3 will have substantially the same flux (and hence will attract its armature with the same force) for a wide variety of applied voltages and circuit resistances. This is illustrated in the curve of Fig. 2 which shows the relation between the flux and the voltage (E) applied to the relay circuit. This voltage will depend, for example, on the potential of source 5 and the value of resistance 6. The current in winding i will be directly proportional to the voltage while that in winding 2 will increase with voltage in greater than direct proportion. Thus,
v with increase of applied voltage, the effects of the I current in winding 2 will cancel progressively greater proportions of the effects of the current in winding I.
On the curve )1 is a horizontal line representing the minimum flux necessary to operate the relay. The solid line curve shows the flux in the relay for various voltages. It will be noticed that the flux increases with voltage to a certain point after which it remains substantially constant at a value indicated as in.
A relay circuit having the above characteristics is of value, for example, where awide variety of circuit conditions are encountered and uniform relay operation is required. Such is the case, for example, in telephone systems having pulsing relay circuits where a relay at a central oiilce is required to operate and release in responseto dial pulses from a subscribers station. Such subscribers are located at various distances from the central ofllce a wide variety of line resistances are encountered and hence different potentials are applied to the pulsing relays.
Fig. 3 shows a curve for a relay circuit in which, by the selection of a resistance element which has the proper voltage-resistance characteristic and byproperly proporticnlng the turns tacts, current starts to build up in windings i and the relay'shall have insufilcient flux to operate,
or-to hold operated, it is only necessary to so proportion the windings l and 2 of Fig. 1 and to choose an element i having such a voltageresistance characteristic that applied potentials higher than the predetermined maximum will cause such a lowering of the resistance of element and a consequent increase in the flux caused by winding 2 that the flux difierence between windings l and 2 will be carried below the value necessary to hold the relay operated, hence it will release.
Fig. 4 shows a circuit slow-to-operate characteristics. might be produced, for example, by attaching a copper sleeve or collar around one end of the relay core.
When key I is in which relay 3 has depressed, thus closing its con- 2 of relay 3 thus building up the flux in the core until it reaches the operating point of the relay. This is illustrated in Fig. 5 by the solid curve which shows the relation between flux and time measured from the closure of the contacts of key 1. The operating time of the relay will then be h. With a circuit including a non-ohmic resistance element such as i, the operating time can be made to be a constant for a wide range of energizing potentials. The value of the op erating time of a relay may be expressed in a formula as follows: i
' t=K log m Such a relay.
and h is the flux required to operate the relay. Since ii is a constant for the the same value for a variety of energizing voltages it follows that t will be a constant (equal to t1) regardless of voltage, within a certain range.
In a relay circuit not arranged according to my invention, aihigher energizing potential will cause quicker operation of the relay as indicated by the dash line curve (Fig. 5). In this case, the op-' erating-time of the relay with a certain high energizing potential will be 152 and with a cer= tain lower energizing potential it will be M.
An actual relay connected in a circuit arranged according to my invention operated in from .054 to .064 seconds when various potentials ranging from 20 to 45 volts were applied. The same relay with winding 2 disconnected showed an operating time of .070 seconds with the flux adjusted to is at 20 volts and only .020 seconds at 45 volts.
While. the invention has been shown and described as embodied in certain specific arrange-- constant at any applied voltage above a predetermined value comprising a relay, two opposing windings therefor connected in parallel and a resistance element in series with one of said windings, said element having the characteristic of decreasing in resistance substantially instantaneously with an increase of applied potential.
H. SCI-IEER.
relay and is has
US672983A 1933-05-26 1933-05-26 Electromagnetic relay circuits Expired - Lifetime US2034881A (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2451344A (en) * 1945-02-08 1948-10-12 Automatic Elect Lab Grid-controlled rectifier circuit
US2471457A (en) * 1943-07-30 1949-05-31 Int Standard Electric Corp Time and thermostatically controlled switching arrangement
US2567827A (en) * 1948-03-12 1951-09-11 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Time delay relay
US2646464A (en) * 1950-06-23 1953-07-21 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Polar relay biasing circuit
US2685680A (en) * 1947-11-19 1954-08-03 Automatic Telephone & Elect Magnetic vehicle detector
US2885604A (en) * 1956-05-24 1959-05-05 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Temperature compensated relay control circuit
US3041423A (en) * 1959-12-01 1962-06-26 Saia Ag Contactor
US3117254A (en) * 1958-03-13 1964-01-07 Int Standard Electric Corp Timing circuit consisting of a relay and of a parallel-connected capacitor

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2471457A (en) * 1943-07-30 1949-05-31 Int Standard Electric Corp Time and thermostatically controlled switching arrangement
US2451344A (en) * 1945-02-08 1948-10-12 Automatic Elect Lab Grid-controlled rectifier circuit
US2685680A (en) * 1947-11-19 1954-08-03 Automatic Telephone & Elect Magnetic vehicle detector
US2567827A (en) * 1948-03-12 1951-09-11 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Time delay relay
US2646464A (en) * 1950-06-23 1953-07-21 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Polar relay biasing circuit
US2885604A (en) * 1956-05-24 1959-05-05 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Temperature compensated relay control circuit
US3117254A (en) * 1958-03-13 1964-01-07 Int Standard Electric Corp Timing circuit consisting of a relay and of a parallel-connected capacitor
US3041423A (en) * 1959-12-01 1962-06-26 Saia Ag Contactor

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